Browsing by Subject "MINNESOTA"

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  • Wang, Zhiyang; Whipp, Alyce; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Kaprio, Jaakko (2022)
    Living in the same household exposes family members to shared environments and may be reflected in estimates of shared environment in twin analyses. The age at the separation of cotwins in a twin pair marks the end of such shared exposure, and the age of separation is commonly self-reported in studies. The objective of the study was to summarize the age at separation from residential records and use it to validate with self-reported separation status and age at the third and fourth wave of data collection in the FinnTwin12 cohort. Age at separation was generated from the address information, linking it to the Finnish Population information system since birth. Descriptive statistics by sex and zygosity are presented. The mean age at separation from residential records was 20.36 years old. Women separated earlier than men and dizygotic pairs earlier than monozygotic pairs. We also calculated the sensitivity and specificity with the self-reported separation status at waves 3 and 4, and interrater reliability with the self-reported separation age at wave 4. Age at separation from residential records had a relatively poor agreement with the self-report. This work enables us to use a more precise and objective measure for the shared environment in future twin studies.
  • Bump, Joseph K.; Murawski, Chelsea M.; Kartano, Linda M.; Beyer, Dean E.; Roell, Brian J. (2013)
  • Haukijärvi, Veera; Lundén, Janne Mikael (2017)
    Finnish food control authorities waived pre-inspections of food premises in 2011, leaving food business operators to begin operating with no pre-operation food control. This study aims to investigate the effects of this food policy change on the preconditions for Good Hygienic Practices (GHPs) on food premises. Of the 916 food premises that were included in this study, 379 were pre-approved whereas 537 merely notified their operations. The results show that notified food service premises (restaurants) preparing food displayed significantly more non-compliance pertaining to infrastructure than did restaurants pre-approved for food preparation (11.5% and 1.8% of the premises, respectively) (p < 0.05). Significant differences also emerged in the number of premises with non-compliance pertaining to cleaning facilities and equipment, and marked differences in the adequacy of hand and other washing sites. Such instances of non-compliance weaken the preconditions for GHPs. The results suggest that reintroducing pre-inspections of restaurants would strengthen the preconditions for GHPs and possibly provide a model for other countries with similar food control systems.
  • Kotisaari, Kaisa; Virtanen, Pekka; Forss, Nina; Strbian, Daniel; Scheperjans, Filip (2017)
    Purpose: To determine the frequency of emergent imaging findings on head computed tomography (CT) in an adult population of first seizure (FS) patients presenting to an emergency department (ED); and to search for associations between clinical features and emergent imaging findings among these patients. Methods: For this retrospective registry-based study, adult FS patients presenting to Helsinki University Hospital ED in 2006 were identified based on ICD-10 diagnosis. Clinical parameters were extracted from patient records. A neuroradiologist blinded to clinical information reviewed the CT scans for emergent imaging findings prompting changes in acute treatment, predefined as intracranial haemorrhage, acute ischemia, central nervous system infection, mass effect, midline shift, obstructive hydrocephalus and/or brain oedema. Results: 449 FS patients were identified, of which 416 (93%) had undergone emergency CT imaging. Of these, 49 (12%) had emergent imaging findings on non -contrast CT. Logistic regression suggested that headache (odds ratio (OR) 3.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-10.12), focal motor sign in the ED (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.58-6.62), history of malignancy (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.17-7.92), and altered mental state in the ED (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.15-4.49) were associated with emergent imaging findings on NCCT. Presence of at least one of these factors had 84% sensitivity for emergent imaging findings. Conclusion: In FS patients, clinical information can be used to guide imaging decisions in the ED. However, if emergency imaging is not performed, urgent outpatient imaging and pre-imaging follow up should be secured. (C) 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.