Browsing by Subject "MIRES"

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  • Koskinen, Markku; Maanavilja, Liisa Maria; Nieminen, Mika; Minkkinen, Kari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2016)
    Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained) state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4) dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1)), contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1)) and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-(2) d(-1)). More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.
  • Alekseychik, Pavel; Mammarella, Ivan; Karpov, Dmitry; Dengel, Sigrid; Terentieva, Irina; Sabrekov, Alexander; Glagolev, Mikhail; Lapshina, Elena (2017)
    Very few studies of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May-August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pinecovered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to CO2 gCm(-2) for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.
  • Piilo, Sanna; Korhola, Atte; Heiskanen, Lauri; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Aurela, Mika; Juutinen, Sari; Marttila, Hannu; Saari, Markus; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Turunen, Jukka; Väliranta, Minna (2020)
    High latitude peatlands act as globally important carbon (C) sinks and are in constant interaction with the atmosphere. Their C storage formed during the Holocene. In the course of time, the aggregate effect of the C fluxes on radiative forcing (RF) typically changes from warming to cooling, but the timing of this shift varies among different peatlands. Here we investigated Holocene peatland development, including vegetation history, vertical peat growth and the lateral expansion of a patterned subarctic fen in northern Finland by means of multiple sampling points. We modelled the Holocene RF by combining knowledge on past vegetation communities based on plant macrofossil stratigraphies and present in situ C flux measurements. The peatland initiated at ca. 9500 calibrated years Before Present (cal yr BP), and its lateral expansion was greatest between ca. 9000 and 7000 cal yr BP. After the early expansion, vertical peat growth proceeded very differently in different parts of the peatland, regulated by internal and external factors. The pronounced surface microtopography, with high strings and wet (larks, started to form only after ca. 1000 cal yr BP. C accumulation within the peatland recorded a high degree of spatial variability throughout its history, including the recent past. We applied two flux scenarios with different interpretation of the initial peatland development phases to estimate the RF induced by C fluxes of the fen. After ca. 4000 cal yr BP, at the latest, the peatland RF has been negative (cooling), mainly driven by C uptake and biomass production, while methane emissions had a lesser role in the total RF. Interestingly, these scenarios suggest that the greatest cooling effect took place around ca. 1000 cal yr BP, after which the surface microtopography established. The study demonstrated that despite the high spatial heterogeneity and idiosyncratic behaviour of the peatland, the RF of the studied fen followed the general development pattern of more southern peatlands. Holocene climate variations and warm phases did not seem to induce any distinctive and consistent peatland-scale patterns in C accumulation, whereas our data suggests that the changes in vegetation related to autogenic succession were reflected in the C accumulation patterns and RF more clearly. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.