Browsing by Subject "MISSION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-19 of 19
  • Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2013)
  • Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Ostensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.; Kern, J. W.; Bloemen, S.; Blay, P.; Pursimo, T.; Kuutma, T.; Slumstrup, D.; Saajasto, M.; Nielsen, L. D.; Harmanen, J.; Winans, A. J.; Foster, H. M.; Rowe, L. (2016)
    We report a new subdwarf B pulsator, PG 1142-037, discovered during the first full-length campaign of K2, the two-gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. 14 periodicities have been detected between 0.9 and 2.5 hr with amplitudes below 0.35 parts-per-thousand. We have been able to associate all of the pulsations with low-degree, 1
  • Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Barnes, D.; Byrne, J. P.; Perry, C. H.; Bothmer, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gallagher, P. T.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Möstl, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Odstril, D. (2018)
    We present a statistical analysis of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) imaged by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments on board NASA's twin-spacecraft STEREO mission between April 2007 and August 2017 for STEREO-A and between April 2007 and September 2014 for STEREO-B. The analysis exploits a catalogue that was generated within the FP7 HELCATS project. Here, we focus on the observational characteristics of CMEs imaged in the heliosphere by the inner (HI-1) cameras, while following papers will present analyses of CME propagation through the entire HI fields of view. More specifically, in this paper we present distributions of the basic observational parameters - namely occurrence frequency, central position angle (PA) and PA span - derived from nearly 2000 detections of CMEs in the heliosphere by HI-1 on STEREO-A or STEREO-B from the minimum between Solar Cycles 23 and 24 to the maximum of Cycle 24; STEREO-A analysis includes a further 158 CME detections from the descending phase of Cycle 24, by which time communication with STEREO-B had been lost. We compare heliospheric CME characteristics with properties of CMEs observed at coronal altitudes, and with sunspot number. As expected, heliospheric CME rates correlate with sunspot number, and are not inconsistent with coronal rates once instrumental factors/differences in cataloguing philosophy are considered. As well as being more abundant, heliospheric CMEs, like their coronal counterparts, tend to be wider during solar maximum. Our results confirm previous coronagraph analyses suggesting that CME launch sites do not simply migrate to higher latitudes with increasing solar activity. At solar minimum, CMEs tend to be launched from equatorial latitudes, while at maximum, CMEs appear to be launched over a much wider latitude range; this has implications for understanding the CME/solar source association. Our analysis provides some supporting evidence for the systematic dragging of CMEs to lower latitude as they propagate outwards.
  • Linker, Jon A.; Heinemann, Stephan G.; Temmer, Manuela; Owens, Mathew J.; Caplan, Ronald M.; Arge, Charles N.; Asvestari, Eleanna; Delouille, Veronique; Downs, Cooper; Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Jebaraj, Immanuel C.; Madjarska, Maria S.; Pinto, Rui F.; Pomoell, Jens; Samara, Evangelia; Scolini, Camilla; Vrsnak, Bojan (2021)
    Many scientists use coronal hole (CH) detections to infer open magnetic flux. Detection techniques differ in the areas that they assign as open, and may obtain different values for the open magnetic flux. We characterize the uncertainties of these methods, by applying six different detection methods to deduce the area and open flux of a near-disk center CH observed on 2010 September 19, and applying a single method to five different EUV filtergrams for this CH. Open flux was calculated using five different magnetic maps. The standard deviation (interpreted as the uncertainty) in the open flux estimate for this CH approximate to 26%. However, including the variability of different magnetic data sources, this uncertainty almost doubles to 45%. We use two of the methods to characterize the area and open flux for all CHs in this time period. We find that the open flux is greatly underestimated compared to values inferred from in situ measurements (by 2.2-4 times). We also test our detection techniques on simulated emission images from a thermodynamic MHD model of the solar corona. We find that the methods overestimate the area and open flux in the simulated CH, but the average error in the flux is only about 7%. The full-Sun detections on the simulated corona underestimate the model open flux, but by factors well below what is needed to account for the missing flux in the observations. Under-detection of open flux in coronal holes likely contributes to the recognized deficit in solar open flux, but is unlikely to resolve it.
  • Sarris, Theodoros E.; Talaat, Elsayed R.; Palmroth, Minna; Dandouras, Iannis; Armandillo, Errico; Kervalishvili, Guram; Buchert, Stephan; Tourgaidis, Stylianos; Malaspina, David M.; Jaynes, Allison N.; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Sample, John; Halekas, Jasper; Doornbos, Eelco; Lappas, Vaios; Jorgensen, Therese Moretto; Stolle, Claudia; Clilverd, Mark; Wu, Qian; Sandberg, Ingmar; Pirnaris, Panagiotis; Aikio, Anita (2020)
    The Daedalus mission has been proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to the call for ideas for the Earth Observation program's 10th Earth Explorer. It was selected in 2018 as one of three candidates for a phase-0 feasibility study. The goal of the mission is to quantify the key electrodynamic processes that determine the structure and composition of the upper atmosphere, the gateway between the Earth's atmosphere and space. An innovative preliminary mission design allows Daedalus to access electrodynamics processes down to altitudes of 150 km and below. Daedalus will perform in situ measurements of plasma density and temperature, ion drift, neutral density and wind, ion and neutral composition, electric and magnetic fields, and precipitating particles. These measurements will unambiguously quantify the amount of energy deposited in the upper atmosphere during active and quiet geomagnetic times via Joule heating and energetic particle precipitation, estimates of which currently vary by orders of magnitude between models and observation methods. An innovation of the Daedalus preliminary mission concept is that it includes the release of subsatellites at low altitudes: combined with the main spacecraft, these subsatellites will provide multipoint measurements throughout the lower thermosphereionosphere (LTI) region, down to altitudes below 120 km, in the heart of the most under-explored region in the Earth's atmosphere. This paper describes Daedalus as originally proposed to the ESA.
  • Tomppo, Erkki; Ronoud, Ghasem; Antropov, Oleg; Hytonen, Harri; Praks, Jaan (2021)
    The purpose of this study was to develop methods to localize forest windstorm damages, assess their severity and estimate the total damaged area using space-borne SAR data. The development of the methods is the first step towards an operational system for near-real-time windstorm damage monitoring, with a latency of only a few days after the storm event in the best case. Windstorm detection using SAR data is not trivial, particularly at C-band. It can be expected that a large-area and severe windstorm damage may affect backscatter similar to clear cutting operation, that is, decrease the backscatter intensity, while a small area damage may increase the backscatter of the neighboring area, due to various scattering mechanisms. The remaining debris and temporal variation in the weather conditions and possible freeze-thaw transitions also affect observed backscatter changes. Three candidate windstorm detection methods were suggested, based on the improved k-nn method, multinomial logistic regression and support vector machine classification. The approaches use multitemporal ESA Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data and were evaluated in Southern Finland using wind damage data from the summer 2017, together with 27 Sentinel-1 scenes acquired in 2017 and other geo-referenced data. The stands correctly predicted severity category corresponded to 79% of the number of the stands in the validation data, and already 75% when only one Sentinel-1 scene after the damage was used. Thus, the damaged forests can potentially be localized with proposed tools within less than one week after the storm damage. In this study, the achieved latency was only two days. Our preliminary results also indicate that the damages can be localized even without separate training data.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Räsänen, J. E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Magdalenic, J.; Lynch, B. J.; Kumari, A.; Pomoell, J.; Palmroth, M. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun that are often accompanied by solar radio bursts produced by accelerated electrons.Aims. A powerful source for accelerating electron beams are CME-driven shocks, however, there are other mechanisms capable of accelerating electrons during a CME eruption. So far, studies have relied on the traditional classification of solar radio bursts into five groups (Type I-V) based mainly on their shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Here, we aim to determine the origin of moving radio bursts associated with a CME that do not fit into the present classification of the solar radio emission.Methods. By using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we investigate the moving radio bursts accompanying two subsequent CMEs on 22 May 2013. We use three-dimensional reconstructions of the two associated CME eruptions to show the possible origin of the observed radio emission.Results. We identified three moving radio bursts at unusually high altitudes in the corona that are located at the northern CME flank and move outwards synchronously with the CME. The radio bursts correspond to fine-structured emission in dynamic spectra with durations of similar to 1 s, and they may show forward or reverse frequency drifts. Since the CME expands closely following an earlier CME, a low coronal CME-CME interaction is likely responsible for the observed radio emission.Conclusions. For the first time, we report the existence of new types of short duration bursts, which are signatures of electron beams accelerated at the CME flank. Two subsequent CMEs originating from the same region and propagating in similar directions provide a complex configuration of the ambient magnetic field and favourable conditions for the creation of collapsing magnetic traps. These traps are formed if a CME-driven wave, such as a shock wave, is likely to intersect surrounding magnetic field lines twice. Electrons will thus be further accelerated at the mirror points created at these intersections and eventually escape to produce bursts of plasma emission with forward and reverse drifts.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Lynch, B. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nancay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists of a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.
  • Brito, Thiago V.; Morley, Steven K. (2017)
    A method for comparing and optimizing the accuracy of empirical magnetic field models using in situ magnetic field measurements is presented. The optimization method minimizes a cost function-tau-that explicitly includes both a magnitude and an angular term. A time span of 21 days, including periods of mild and intense geomagnetic activity, was used for this analysis. A comparison between five magnetic field models (T96, T01S, T02, TS04, and TS07) widely used by the community demonstrated that the T02 model was, on average, the most accurate when driven by the standard model input parameters. The optimization procedure, performed in all models except TS07, generally improved the results when compared to unoptimized versions of the models. Additionally, using more satellites in the optimization procedure produces more accurate results. This procedure reduces the number of large errors in the model, that is, it reduces the number of outliers in the error distribution. The TS04 model shows the most accurate results after the optimization in terms of both the magnitude and direction, when using at least six satellites in the fitting. It gave a smaller error than its unoptimized counterpart 57.3% of the time and outperformed the best unoptimized model (T02) 56.2% of the time. Its median percentage error in vertical bar B vertical bar was reduced from 4.54% to 3.84%. The difference among the models analyzed, when compared in terms of the median of the error distributions, is not very large. However, the unoptimized models can have very large errors, which are much reduced after the optimization. Plain Language Summary We present a method for comparing and optimizing the accuracy of commonly used empirical models that reproduce the Earth's magnetic field for altitudes ranging from a thousand to hundreds of thousands of kilometers. This method uses magnetic field data from satellites orbiting the planet to create a "penalty function" and uses an optimization algorithm to minimize this function and find the model input parameters that produce the best results for a given date and time. Our results show that these models can be improved by the use of satellite data. The model known as TS04 produced the best results after the optimization procedure generating a smaller error in 57.3% of the points in our data set when compared to the standard (unoptimized) inputs. The optimized TS04 also outperformed the best unoptimized model by 56.2%. The differences among all the models analyzed are usually not very large; however, the unoptimized models can have very large errors, which are much reduced by the optimization.
  • Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Kilpua, E.; Davies, J. A. (2019)
    The release of density structures at the tip of the coronal helmet streamers, likely as a consequence of magnetic reconnection, contributes to the mass flux of the slow solar wind (SSW). In situ measurements in the vicinity of the heliospheric plasma sheet of the magnetic field, protons, and suprathermal electrons reveal details of the processes at play during the formation of density structures near the Sun. In a previous article, we exploited remote-sensing observations to derive a 3D picture of the dynamic evolution of a streamer. We found evidence of the recurrent and continual release of dense blobs from the tip of the streamers. In the present paper, we interpret in situ measurements of the SSW during solar maximum. Through both case and statistical analysis, we show that in situ signatures (magnetic field magnitude, smoothness and rotation, proton density, and suprathermal electrons, in the first place) are consistent with the helmet streamers producing, in alternation, high-density regions (mostly disconnected) separated by magnetic flux ropes (mostly connected to the Sun). This sequence of emission of dense blobs and flux ropes also seems repeated at smaller scales inside each of the high-density regions. These properties are further confirmed with in situ measurements much closer to the Sun using Helios observations. We conclude on a model for the formation of dense blobs and flux ropes that explains both the in situ measurements and the remote-sensing observations presented in our previous studies.
  • Siltala, L.; Granvik, M. (2022)
    Context. Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) includes milliarcsecond-accuracy astrometry for 14 099 asteroids. One of the main expected scientific applications of these data is asteroid mass estimation via the modeling of perturbations during asteroid-asteroid encounters. Aims. We explore the practical impact of the Gaia astrometry of asteroids for the purpose of asteroid mass and orbit estimation by estimating the masses individually for four large asteroids. We use various combinations of Gaia astrometry and/or Earth-based astrometry so as to determine the impact of Gaia on the estimated masses. By utilizing published information about estimated volumes and meteorite analogs, we also derive estimates for bulk densities and macroporosities. Methods. We apply a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for asteroid mass and orbit estimation by modeling asteroidasteroid close encounters to four separate large asteroids in an attempt to estimate their masses based on multiple simultaneously studied close encounters with multiple test asteroids. In order to validate our algorithm and data treatment, we apply the MCMC algorithm to pure orbit determination for the main-belt asteroid (367) Amicitia and compare the residuals to previously published ones. In addition, we attempt to estimate a mass for (445) Edna with Gaia astrometry alone based on its close encounter with (1764) Cogshall. Results. In the case of the orbit of (367) Amicitia, we find a solution that improves on the previously published solution. The study of (445) Edna reveals that mass estimation with DR2 astrometry alone is unfeasible and that it must be combined with astrometry from other sources to achieve meaningful results. We find that a combination of DR2 and Earth-based astrometry results in dramatically reduced uncertainties and, by extension, significantly improved results in comparison to those computed based on less accurate Earth-based astrometry alone. Conclusions. Our mass estimation algorithm works well with a combination of Gaia DR2 and Earth-based astrometry and provides very impressive results with significantly reduced uncertainties. We note that the DR2 has a caveat in that many asteroids suitable for mass-estimation purposes are not included in the relatively small sample. This limits the number of asteroids to which mass estimation can be applied. However, this issue will largely be corrected with the forthcoming third Gaia data release, which is expected to allow for a wave of numerous accurate mass estimates for a wide range of asteroids.
  • Sindhuja, G.; Singh, Jagdev; Asvestari, E.; Prasad, B. Raghavendra (2022)
    We studied an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) that erupted on 2015 March 15. Our aim was to model the CME flux rope as a magnetized structure using the European Heliospheric Forecasting Information Asset (EUHFORIA). The flux rope from eruption data (FRED) output was applied to the EUHFORIA spheromak CME model. In addition to the geometrical properties of the CME flux rope, we needed to input the parameters that determine the CME internal magnetic field like the helicity, tilt angle, and toroidal flux of the CME flux rope. According to the FRED technique geometrical properties of the CME flux rope are obtained by applying a graduated cylindrical shell fitting of the CME flux rope on the coronagraph images. The poloidal field magnetic properties can be estimated from the reconnection flux in the source region utilizing the post-eruption arcade method, which uses the Heliospheric Magnetic Imager magnetogram together with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 193 angstrom images. We set up two EUHFORIA runs with RUN-1 using the toroidal flux obtained from the FRED technique and RUN-2 using the toroidal flux that was measured from the core dimming regions identified from the AIA 211 angstrom images. We found that the EUHFORIA simulation outputs from RUN-1 and RUN-2 are comparable to each other. Overall using the EUHFORIA spheromak model, we successfully obtained the magnetic field rotation of the flux rope, while the arrival time near Earth and the strength of the interplanetary CME magnetic field at Earth are not as accurately modeled.
  • Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Good, Simon W.; Palmerio, Erika; Asvestari, Eleanna; Lumme, Erkka; Ala-Lahti, Matti; Kalliokoski, Milla M. H.; Morosan, Diana E.; Pomoell, Jens; Price, Daniel J.; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Poedts, Stefaan; Futaana, Yoshifumi (2019)
    We report a detailed analysis of interplanetary flux ropes observed at Venus and subsequently at Earth's Lagrange L1 point between June 15 and 17, 2012. The observation points were separated by about 0.28 AU in radial distance and 5 degrees in heliographic longitude at this time. The flux ropes were associated with three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that erupted from the Sun on June 12-14, 2012 (SOL2012-06-12, SOL2012-06-13, and SOL2012-06-14). We examine the CME-CME interactions using in-situ observations from the almost radially aligned spacecraft at Venus and Earth, as well as using heliospheric modeling and imagery. The June 14 CME reached the June 13 CME near the orbit of Venus and significant interaction occurred before they both reached Earth. The shock driven by the June 14 CME propagated through the June 13 CME and the two CMEs coalesced, creating the signatures of one large, coherent flux rope at L1. We discuss the origin of the strong interplanetary magnetic fields related to this sequence of events, the complexity of interpreting solar wind observations in the case of multiple interacting CMEs, and the coherence of the flux ropes at different observation points.
  • Palmerio, Erika; Scolini, Camilla; Barnes, David; Magdalenic, Jasmina; West, Matthew J.; Zhukov, Andrei N.; Rodriguez, Luciano; Mierla, Marilena; Good, Simon W.; Morosan, Diana E.; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Pomoell, Jens; Poedts, Stefaan (2019)
    We analyze in this work the propagation and geoeffectiveness of four successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that erupted from the Sun during 2013 May 21-23 and were detected in interplanetary space by the Wind and/or STEREO-A spacecraft. All these CMEs featured critical aspects for understanding so-called "problem space weather storms" at Earth. In the first three events a limb CMEs resulted in moderately geoeffective in situ structures at their target location in terms of the disturbance storm time (Dst) index (either measured or estimated). The fourth CME, which also caused a moderate geomagnetic response, erupted from close to the disk center as seen from Earth, but it was not visible in coronagraph images from the spacecraft along the Sun-Earth line and appeared narrow and faint from off-angle viewpoints. Making the correct connection between CMEs at the Sun and their in situ counterparts is often difficult for problem storms. We investigate these four CMEs using multiwavelength and multipoint remote-sensing observations (extreme ultraviolet, white light, and radio), aided by 3D heliospheric modeling, in order to follow their propagation in the corona and in interplanetary space and to assess their impact at 1 au. Finally, we emphasize the difficulties in forecasting moderate space weather effects that are provoked by problematic and ambiguous events and the importance of multispacecraft data for observing and modeling problem storms.
  • Palmerio, Erika; Kay, Christina; Al-Haddad, Nada; Lynch, Benjamin J.; Yu, Wenyuan; Stevens, Michael L.; Pal, Sanchita; Lee, Christina O. (2021)
    Stealth coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptions from the Sun that are not associated with appreciable low-coronal signatures. Because they often cannot be linked to a well-defined source region on the Sun, analysis of their initial magnetic configuration and eruption dynamics is particularly problematic. In this article, we address this issue by undertaking the first attempt at predicting the magnetic fields of a stealth CME that erupted in 2020 June from the Earth-facing Sun. We estimate its source region with the aid of off-limb observations from a secondary viewpoint and photospheric magnetic field extrapolations. We then employ the Open Solar Physics Rapid Ensemble Information modeling suite to evaluate its early evolution and forward model its magnetic fields up to Parker Solar Probe, which detected the CME in situ at a heliocentric distance of 0.5 au. We compare our hindcast prediction with in situ measurements and a set of flux-rope reconstructions, obtaining encouraging agreement on arrival time, spacecraft-crossing location, and magnetic field profiles. This work represents a first step toward reliable understanding and forecasting of the magnetic configuration of stealth CMEs and slow streamer-blowout events.
  • Dimmock, A. P.; Alho, M.; Kallio, E.; Pope, S. A.; Zhang, T. L.; Kilpua, E.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Futaana, Y.; Coates, A. J. (2018)
    Owing to the heritage of previous missions such as the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Venus Express, the typical global plasma environment of Venus is relatively well understood. On the other hand, this is not true for more extreme driving conditions such as during passages of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). One of the outstanding questions is how do ICMEs, either the ejecta or sheath portions, impact (1) the Venusian magnetic topology and (2) escape rates of planetary ions? One of the main issues encountered when addressing these problems is the difficulty of inferring global dynamics from single spacecraft obits; this is where the benefits of simulations become apparent. In the present study, we present a detailed case study of an ICME interaction with Venus on 5 November 2011 in which the magnetic barrier reached over 250 nT. We use both Venus Express observations and hybrid simulation runs to study the impact on the field draping pattern and the escape rates of planetary O+ ions. The simulation showed that the magnetic field line draping pattern around Venus during the ICME is similar to that during typical solar wind conditions and that O+ ion escape rates are increased by approximately 30% due to the ICME. Moreover, the atypically large magnetic barrier appears to manifest from a number of factors such as the flux pileup, dayside compression, and the driving time from the ICME ejecta.
  • Valikangas, Anita (2022)
    The notion of grand challenges has become popular in research governance to support the allocation of research funding to societally beneficial topics. This article illustrates the flexibility and usefulness of grand challenges for university rectorates and project leaders when communicating with policy makers, research hinders, and local industries and companies. The Flexibility is beneficial to researchers and rectorate during the design stage of research projects. However, their utility diminishes in the later stages as other targets take precedence, particularly the need to demonstrate academic excellence. First, I explore the definitions of grand challenges in United States and European Union. Second, I provide a case study demonstrating the use of grand challenges in one technical research university. Last, I propose that if the aim in research policy is to orient research more towards societal benefit, more specific processual or outcome-oriented targets should be introduced to supplement grand challenges.
  • Nitta, Nariaki; Mulligan, Tamitha; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Lynch, Benjamin J.; Mierla, Marilena; O'Kane, Jennifer; Pagano, Paolo; Palmerio, Erika; Pomoell, Jens; Richardson, Ian R.; Rodriguez, Luciano; Rouillard, Alexis P.; Sinha, Suvadip; Srivastava, Nandita; Talpeanu, Dana-Camelia; Yardley, Stephanie L.; Zhukov, Andrei N. (2021)
    Geomagnetic storms are an important aspect of space weather and can result in significant impacts on space- and ground-based assets. The majority of strong storms are associated with the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth environment. In many cases, these ICMEs can be traced back unambiguously to a specific coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar activity on the frontside of the Sun. Hence, predicting the arrival of ICMEs at Earth from routine observations of CMEs and solar activity currently makes a major contribution to the forecasting of geomagnetic storms. However, it is clear that some ICMEs, which may also cause enhanced geomagnetic activity, cannot be traced back to an observed CME, or, if the CME is identified, its origin may be elusive or ambiguous in coronal images. Such CMEs have been termed "stealth CMEs". In this review, we focus on these "problem" geomagnetic storms in the sense that the solar/CME precursors are enigmatic and stealthy. We start by reviewing evidence for stealth CMEs discussed in past studies. We then identify several moderate to strong geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst < -50 nT) in solar cycle 24 for which the related solar sources and/or CMEs are unclear and apparently stealthy. We discuss the solar and in situ circumstances of these events and identify several scenarios that may account for their elusive solar signatures. These range from observational limitations (e.g., a coronagraph near Earth may not detect an incoming CME if it is diffuse and not wide enough) to the possibility that there is a class of mass ejections from the Sun that have only weak or hard-to-observe coronal signatures. In particular, some of these sources are only clearly revealed by considering the evolution of coronal structures over longer time intervals than is usually considered. We also review a variety of numerical modelling approaches that attempt to advance our understanding of the origins and consequences of stealthy solar eruptions with geoeffective potential. Specifically, we discuss magnetofrictional modelling of the energisation of stealth CME source regions and magnetohydrodynamic modelling of the physical processes that generate stealth CME or CME-like eruptions, typically from higher altitudes in the solar corona than CMEs from active regions or extended filament channels.