Browsing by Subject "MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA"

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  • Cornetti, Luca; Fields, Peter D.; Van Damme, Kay; Ebert, Dieter (2019)
    In the post-genomic era, much of phylogenetic analyses still relies on mitochondrial DNA, either alone or in combination with few nuclear genes. Although this approach often makes it possible to construct well-supported trees, it is limited because mtDNA describes the history of a single locus, and nuclear phylogenies based on a few loci may be biased, leading to inaccurate tree topologies and biased estimations of species divergence time. In this study, we perform a phylogenomic analysis of the Daphniidae family (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anomopoda) including some of the most frequently studied model organisms (Daphnia magna and D. pulex) whose phylogenetic relationships have been based primarily on an assessment of a few mtDNA genes. Using high-throughput sequencing, we were able to assemble 38 whole mitochondrial genomes and draft nuclear genomes for 18 species, including at least one species for each known genus of the family Daphniidae. Here we present phylogenies based on 636 nuclear single-copy genes shared among all sampled taxa and based on whole mtDNA genomes. The phylogenies we obtained were highly supported and showed some discrepancies between nuclear and mtDNA based trees at deeper nodes. We also identified a new candidate sister lineage of Daphnia magna. Our time-calibrated genomic trees, which we constructed using both fossil records and substitution rates, yielded very different estimates of branching event times compared to those based on mtDNA. By providing multi-locus, fossil-calibrated trees of the Daphniidae, our study contributes to an improved phylogenetic framework for ecological and evolutionary studies that use water fleas as a model system.
  • Guo, Baocheng; Fang, Bohao; Shikano, Takahito; Momigliano, Paolo; Wang, Cui; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Merilä, Juha (2019)
    Hybridization and convergent evolution are phenomena of broad interest in evolutionary biology, but their occurrence poses challenges for reconstructing evolutionary affinities among affected taxa. Sticklebacks in the genus Pungitius are a case in point: evolutionary relationships and taxonomic validity of different species and populations in this circumpolarly distributed species complex remain contentious due to convergent evolution of traits regarded as diagnostic in their taxonomy, and possibly also due to frequent hybridization among taxa. To clarify the evolutionary relationships among different Pungitius species and populations globally, as well as to study the prevalence and extent of introgression among recognized species, genomic data sets of both reference genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms and de novo assembled RAD-tag loci were constructed with RAD-seq data. Both data sets yielded topologically identical and well-supported species trees. Incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-based trees was found and suggested possibly frequent hybridization and mitogenome capture during the evolution of Pungitius sticklebacks. Further analyses revealed evidence for frequent nuclear genetic introgression among Pungitius species, although the estimated proportions of autosomal introgression were low. Apart from providing evidence for frequent hybridization, the results challenge earlier mitochondrial and morphology-based hypotheses regarding the number of species and their affinities in this genus: at least seven extant species can be recognized on the basis of genetic data. The results also shed new light on the biogeographical history of the Pungitius-complex, including suggestion of several trans-Arctic invasions of Europe from the Northern Pacific. The well-resolved phylogeny should facilitate the utility of this genus as a model system for future comparative evolutionary studies.
  • Hamalainen, S.; Kantele, A.; Arvonen, M.; Hakala, T.; Karhukorpi, J.; Heikkinen, J.; Berg, E.; Vanamo, K.; Tyrvainen, E.; Heiskanen-Kosma, T.; Oksanen, A.; Lavikainen, A. (2015)
  • Haukisalmi, Voitto (2015)
    A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki) and the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku, and additional specimens identified by the present author. The checklist includes 170 tapeworm species from 151 host species, comprising 447 parasite species/host species combinations. Thirty of the tapeworm species and 96 of the parasite/host species combinations have not been previously reported from Finland. The total number of tapeworm species in Finland (170 spp.) is significantly lower than the corresponding figure for the Iberian Peninsula (257 spp.), Slovakia (225 spp.) and Poland (279 spp.). The difference between Finland and the other three regions is particularly pronounced for anseriform, podicipediform, charadriiform and passeriform birds, reflecting inadequate and/or biased sampling of these birds in Finland. It is predicted that there are actually ca. 270 species of tapeworms in Finland, assuming that true number of bird tapeworms in Finland corresponds to that in other European countries with more comprehensive knowledge of the local tapeworm fauna. The other main pattern emerging from the present data is the seemingly unexplained absence in (northern) Fennoscandia of several mammalian tapeworms that otherwise have extensive distributions in the Holarctic region or in Eurasia, including the northern regions. Previously unknown type specimens, that is, the holotype of Bothrimonus nylandicus Schneider, 1902 (a junior synonym of Diplocotyle olrikii Krabbe, 1874) (MZH 127096) and the syntypes of Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902) (MZH 127097) were located in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History.
  • Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru (2016)
    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and C. pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of T. lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, T. lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, T. lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that T. lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of L. lynx and L. pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks.
  • Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla (2013)
    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central-Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbor-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics
  • Rossi, Chiara; Zadra, Nicola; Fevola, Cristina; Ecke, Frauke; Hornfeldt, Birger; Kallies, Rene; Kazimirova, Maria; Magnusson, Magnus; Olsson, Gert E.; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Jaaskelainen, Anne J.; Henttonen, Heikki; Hauffe, Heidi C. (2021)
    The picornavirus named 'Ljungan virus' (LV, species Parechovirus B) has been detected in a dozen small mammal species from across Europe, but detailed information on its genetic diversity and host specificity is lacking. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relationships of LV variants circulating in free-living mammal populations by comparing the phylogenetics of the VP1 region (encoding the capsid protein and associated with LV serotype) and the 3D(pol) region (encoding the RNA polymerase) from 24 LV RNA-positive animals and a fragment of the 5 ' untranslated region (UTR) sequence (used for defining strains) in sympatric small mammals. We define three new VP1 genotypes: two in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) (genotype 8 from Finland, Sweden, France, and Italy, and genotype 9 from France and Italy) and one in field voles (Microtus arvalis) (genotype 7 from Finland). There are several other indications that LV variants are host-specific, at least in parts of their range. Our results suggest that LV evolution is rapid, ongoing and affected by genetic drift, purifying selection, spillover and host evolutionary history. Although recent studies suggest that LV does not have zoonotic potential, its widespread geographical and host distribution in natural populations of well-characterized small mammals could make it useful as a model for studying RNA virus evolution and transmission.
  • Petersen, Jessica L.; Mickelson, James R.; Cothran, E. Gus; Andersson, Lisa S.; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Brama, Pieter; Machado, Artur da Camara; Distl, Ottmar; Felicetti, Michela; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T.; Guerin, Gerard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A.; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Piercy, Richard J.; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Roed, Knut H.; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M.; McCue, Molly E. (2013)
  • Qvist, Laura; Niskanen, Markku; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Wutke, Saskia; Aspi, Jouni (2019)
    Background: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. Results: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski’s horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST=0.007–0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST= 0.054–0.068). Conclusions: The existence of a Przewalski’s horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective popula- tion sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.
  • Toivonen, Jaakko; Fromhage, Lutz (2020)
    We investigate competition between separate periodical cicada populations each possessing different life-cycle lengths. We build an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and allow random migrations to occur between patches inhabited by the different populations. We show that if hybridization between different cycle lengths produces offspring that have an intermediate life-cycle length, then predation acts disproportionately to select against the hybrid offspring. This happens because they emerge in low densities without the safety-in-numbers provided by either parent population. Thus, prime-numbered life cycles that can better avoid hybridization are favored. However, we find that this advantage of prime-numbered cycles occurs only if there is some mechanism that can occasionally synchronize emergence between local populations in sufficiently many patches.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Van Tran Van,; Tran, Florence Helene; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven; Koch, Lisa Katharina; Khanh Ly Huynh Kim,; Trang Huynh Thi Thuy,; Huu Tran Ngoc,; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick; Moro, Claire Valiente (2017)
    Background: The Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus subgroup includes 11 cryptic species of which Ae. albopictus is the most widely distributed. Its global expansion associated with a documented vector competence for several emerging arboviruses raise obvious concerns in the recently colonized regions. While several studies have provided important insights regarding medical importance of Ae. albopicus, the investigations of the other sibling species are scarce. In Asia, indigenous populations within the Ae. albopictus subgroup can be found in sympatry. In the present study, we aimed to describe and compare molecular, morphological and bacterial symbionts composition among sympatric individuals from the Ae. albopictus subgroup inhabiting a Vietnamese protected area. Results: Based on morphological structure of the cibarial armarture, we identified a cryptic species in the forest park at Bu Gia Map in the south-eastern region of Vietnam. Analysis of nuclear (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and mitochondrial (cox1, nad5) markers confirmed the divergence between the cryptic species and Ae. albopictus. Analysis of midgut bacterial microbiota revealed a strong similarity among the two species with a notable difference; contrary to Ae. albopictus, the cryptic species did not harbour any Wolbachia infection. Conclusions: These results could reflect either a recent invasion of Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus or alternatively a loss of this symbiont in the cryptic species. We argue that neglected species of the Ae. albopictus subgroup are of main importance in order to estimate variation of host-symbionts interactions across evolution.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Nair, Abhilash; Nyman, Toshka; van Nouhuys, Saskya (2021)
    Population bottlenecks associated with founder events strongly impact the establishment and genetic makeup of populations. In addition to their genotype, founding individuals also bring along parasites, as well as symbionts that can manipulate the phenotype of their host, affecting the host population establishment, dynamics and evolution. Thus, to understand introduction, invasion, and spread, we should identify the roles played by accompanying symbionts. In 1991, the parasitoid wasp, Hyposoter horticola, and its associated hyperparasitoid were accidentally introduced from the main angstrom land islands, Finland, to an isolated island in the archipelago, along with their host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Though the receiving island was unoccupied, the butterfly was present on some of the small islands in the vicinity. The three introduced species have persisted locally ever since. A strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has an intermediate prevalence in the parasitoid H. horticola across the main angstrom land population. The infection increases its susceptibility of to hyperparasitism. We investigated the establishment and spread of the parasitoid, along with patterns of prevalence of its symbiont using 323 specimens collected between 1992 and 2013, from five localities across angstrom land, including the source and introduced populations. Using 14 microsatellites and one mitochondrial marker, we suggest that the relatively diverse founding population and occasional migration between islands might have facilitated the persistence of all isolated populations, despite multiple local population crashes. We also show that where the hyperparasitoid is absent, and thus selection against infected wasp genotypes is relaxed, there is near-fixation of Wolbachia.
  • Mohandesan, Elmira; Fitak, Robert R.; Corander, Jukka; Yadamsuren, Adiya; Chuluunbat, Battsetseg; Abdelhadi, Omer; Raziq, Abdul; Nagy, Peter; Stalder, Gabrielle; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Burger, Pamela A. (2017)
    The genus Camelus is an interesting model to study adaptive evolution in the mitochondrial genome, as the three extant Old World camel species inhabit hot and low-altitude as well as cold and high-altitude deserts. We sequenced 24 camel mitogenomes and combined them with three previously published sequences to study the role of natural selection under different environmental pressure, and to advance our understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus Camelus. We confirmed the heterogeneity of divergence across different components of the electron transport system. Lineage-specific analysis of mitochondrial protein evolution revealed a significant effect of purifying selection in the concatenated protein-coding genes in domestic Bactrian camels. The estimated dN/dS
  • Reis, Camila Alves; Dias, Cleyssian; Araripe, Juliana; Aleixo, Alexandre; Anciaes, Marina; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; do Rego, Pericles Sena (2020)
    We used molecular tools and a multilocus approach to investigate the phylogeography of Lepidothrix coronata across most of its ample range. We sequenced six DNA fragments to produce phylogenies, molecular dating estimates, analyses of the dynamics of the demographic history of the species and a biogeographic analysis to estimate the events and changes in the ancestral distribution of the species. The results indicated the presence of four well-established lineages, with high levels of divergence. These lineages are delineated by well-defined geographic barriers, with one lineage, restricted to the west of the Andes, being the first to diverge from the complex. The other three lineages are exclusive to the Amazonian distribution of the species, with two being found north of the Amazon River, and the third, south of the Amazon. Some of the relationships found between these lineages were distinct from those described in previous studies. Important disagreements were found between the mtDNA phylogeny and that of the multilocus analysis, in relation to the lineages located to the west of the Andes. We propose that past introgression events may have influenced shifts in the relationships between lineages, despite the fact that the groups were well defined in both the phylogenies. The biogeographic analysis indicates that the lineages arose through successive vicariance events, which had a primary role in the diversification of the group. Two or three genetically structured subclades were also found within each Amazonian lineage, although these subclades are not isolated by an obvious geographic barrier.
  • Amini, Poorya; Stojkov, Darko; Felser, Andrea; Jackson, Christopher B.; Courage, Carolina; Schaller, Andre; Gelman, Laurent; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Scorrano, Luca; Benarafa, Charaf; Yousefi, Shida; Simon, Hans-Uwe (2018)
    Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that has an important role in mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. Here, we show that OPA1 has an important role in the innate immune system. Using conditional knockout mice lacking Opa1 in neutrophils (Opa1(N Delta)), we report that lack of OPA1 reduces the activity of mitochondrial electron transport complex I in neutrophils. This then causes a decline in adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) production through glycolysis due to lowered NAD(+) availability. Additionally, we show that OPA1-dependent ATP production in these cells is required for microtubule network assembly and for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Finally, we show that Opa1(N Delta) mice exhibit a reduced antibacterial defense capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Mutanen, Marko; Kekkonen, Mari; Prosser, Sean W. J.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Kaila, Lauri (2015)
    Each holotype specimen provides the only objective link to a particular Linnean binomen. Sequence information from them is increasingly valuable due to the growing usage of DNA barcodes in taxonomy. As type specimens are often old, it may only be possible to recover fragmentary sequence information from them. We tested the efficacy of short sequences from type specimens in the resolution of a challenging taxonomic puzzle: the Elachista dispunctella complex which includes 64 described species with minuscule morphological differences. We applied a multistep procedure to resolve the taxonomy of this species complex. First, we sequenced a large number of newly collected specimens and as many holotypes as possible. Second, we used all >400 bp examine species boundaries. We employed three unsupervised methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC) with specified criteria on how to handle discordant results and examined diagnostic bases from each delineated putative species (operational taxonomic units, OTUs). Third, we evaluated the morphological characters of each OTU. Finally, we associated short barcodes from types with the delineated OTUs. In this step, we employed various supervised methods, including distance-based, tree-based and character-based. We recovered 658 bp barcode sequences from 194 of 215 fresh specimens and recovered an average of 141bp from 33 of 42 holotypes. We observed strong congruence among all methods and good correspondence with morphology. We demonstrate potential pitfalls with tree-, distance- and character-based approaches when associating sequences of varied length. Our results suggest that sequences as short as 56bp can often provide valuable taxonomic information. The results support significant taxonomic oversplitting of species in the Elachista dispunctella complex.
  • Teacher, Amber G. F.; Shikano, Takahito; Karjalainen, Marika E.; Merila, Juha (2011)
  • Castel, Guillaume; Chevenet, Francois; Razzauti, Maria; Murri, Severine; Marianneau, Philippe; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Tordo, Noel; Plyusnin, Alexander (2019)
    Puumala virus is an RNA virus hosted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and is today present in most European countries. Whilst it is generally accepted that hantaviruses have been tightly co-evolving with their hosts, Puumala virus (PUUV) evolutionary history is still controversial and so far has not been studied at the whole European level. This study attempts to reconstruct the phylogeographical spread of modern PUUV throughout Europe during the last postglacial period in the light of an upgraded dataset of complete PUUV small (S) segment sequences and by using most recent computational approaches. Taking advantage of the knowledge on the past migrations of its host, we identified at least three potential independent dispersal routes of PUUV during postglacial recolonization of Europe by the bank vole. From the Alpe-Adrian region (Balkan, Austria, and Hungary) to Western European countries (Germany, France, Belgium, and Netherland), and South Scandinavia. From the vicinity of Carpathian Mountains to the Baltic countries and to Poland, Russia, and Finland. The dissemination towards Denmark and North Scandinavia is more hypothetical and probably involved several independent streams from south and north Fennoscandia.
  • Woronik, Alyssa; Stefanescu, Constanti; Käkelä, Reijo; Wheat, Christopher W.; Lehmann, Philipp (2018)
    Across a wide range of taxa, individuals within populations exhibit alternative life history strategies (ALHS) where their phenotypes dramatically differ due to divergent investments in growth, reproduction and survivorship, with the resulting trade-offs directly impacting Darwinian fitness. Though the maintenance of ALHS within populations is fairly well understood, little is known regarding the physiological mechanisms that underlie ALHS and how environmental conditions can affect the evolution and expression of these phenotypes. One such ALHS, known as Alba, exists within females of many species in the butterfly genus Colias. Previous works in New World species not only found that female morphs differ in their wing color due to a reallocation of resources away from the synthesis of wing pigments to other areas of development, but also that temperature played an important role in these trade-offs. Here we build on previous work conducted in New World species by measuring life history traits and conducting lipidomics on individuals reared at hot and cold temperatures in the Old World species Colias croceus. Results suggest that the fitness of Alba and orange morphs likely varies with rearing temperature, where Alba females have higher fitness in cold conditions and orange in warm. Additionally shared traits between Old and New World species suggest the Alba mechanism is likely conserved across the genus. Finally, in the cold treatment we observe an intermediate yellow morph that may have decreased fitness due to slower larval development. This cost may manifest as disruptive selection in the field, thereby favoring the maintenance of the two discrete morphs. Taken together these results add insights into the evolution of, and the selection on, the Alba ALHS.
  • Lilley, Thomas M.; Sävilammi, Tiina; Ossa, Gonzalo; Blomberg, Anna S.; Vasemägi, Anti; Yung, Veronica; Vendrami, David L. J.; Johnson, Joseph S. (2020)
    Despite its peculiar distribution, the biology of the southernmost bat species in the world, the Chilean myotis (Myotis chiloensis), has garnered little attention so far. The species has a north-south distribution of c. 2800 km, mostly on the eastern side of the Andes mountain range. Use of extended torpor occurs in the southernmost portion of the range, putting the species at risk of bat white-nose syndrome, a fungal disease responsible for massive population declines in North American bats. Here, we examined how geographic distance and topology would be reflected in the population structure of M. chiloensis along the majority of its range using a double digestion RAD-seq method. We sampled 66 individuals across the species range and discovered pronounced isolation-by-distance. Furthermore, and surprisingly, we found higher degrees of heterozygosity in the southernmost populations compared to the north. A coalescence analysis revealed that our populations may still not have reached secondary contact after the Last Glacial Maximum. As for the potential spread of pathogens, such as the fungus causing WNS, connectivity among populations was noticeably low, especially between the southern hibernatory populations in the Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego, and more northerly populations. This suggests the probability of geographic spread of the disease from the north through bat-to-bat contact to susceptible populations is low. The study presents a rare case of defined population structure in a bat species and warrants further research on the underlying factors contributing to this. See the graphical abstract here.