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  • Kaewsatuan, Pramin; Poompramun, Chotima; Kubota, Satoshi; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Molee, Wittawat; Uimari, Pekka; Molee, Amonrat (2022)
    The Korat chicken (KR), developed in Thailand, is a slow-growing breed developed as an alternative breed for Thai chicken producers. The growing interest in slow-growing chicken meat, due to its unique taste, distinct texture, health benefits, and higher broiler welfare have led to higher market demand for KR. However, its low feed efficiency (FE) has a significant negative impact on farm profitability. Understanding the molecular mechanism regulating FE allows for designing a suitable selection program and contributing to breeding more efficient chicken for poultry production. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the proteome differences and possible pathways associated with FE in male KR using a label-free quantitative proteomic approach. Seventy-five KR males were individually evaluated for FE, and duodenum samples from 6 animals (3 high-FE and 3 low-FE chickens) were collected at 10 wk of age for differential abundant proteins (DAPs), protein networks, functional enrichment, and pathway analyses. In this study, we found 40 DAPs significantly associated with FE pathways, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, peroxisome, oxidative phosphorylation, tight junction, and cysteine and methionine metabolism. Thus, variations in observed DAPs or genes related to DAPs could be interesting biomarker candidates for selection for higher feed utilization efficiency in chicken.
  • Kahlert, Stefan; Junnikkala, Sami; Renner, Lydia; Hynönen, Ulla; Hartig, Roland; Nossol, Constanze; Barta-Böszörmenyi, Aniko; Dänicke, Sven; Souffrant, Wolfgang-Bernhard; Palva, Airi; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kluess, Jeannette (2016)
    Weaning triggers an adaptation of the gut function including luminal lactate generation by lactobacilli, depending on gastrointestinal site. We hypothesized that both lactobacilli and lactate influence porcine intestinal epithelial cells. In vivo experiments showed that concentration of lactate was significantly higher in gastric, duodenal and jejunal chyme of suckling piglets compared to their weaned counterparts. In an in vitro study we investigated the impact of physiological lactate concentration as derived from the in vivo study on the porcine intestinal epithelial cells IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2. We detected direct adherence of lactobacilli on the apical epithelial surface and a modulated F-actin structure. Application of lactobacilli culture supernatant alone or lactate (25 mM) at low pH (pH 4) changed the F-actin structure in a similar manner. Treatment of IPEC cultures with lactate at near neutral pH resulted in a significantly reduced superoxide-generation in Antimycin A-challenged cells. This protective effect was nearly completely reversed by inhibition of cellular lactate uptake via monocarboxylate transporter. Lactate treatment enhanced NADH autofluorescence ratio (F-cytosol/F-nucleus) in non-challenged cells, indicating an increased availability of reduced nucleotides, but did not change the overall ATP content of the cells. Lactobacilli-derived physiological lactate concentration in intestine is relevant for alleviation of redox stress in intestinal epithelial cells.
  • Sober, Siim; Rull, Kristiina; Reiman, Mario; Ilisson, Piret; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris (2016)
    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) concerns similar to 3% of couples aiming at childbirth. In the current study, transcriptomes and miRNomes of 1st trimester placental chorionic villi were analysed for 2 RPL cases (>= 6 miscarriages) and normal, but electively terminated pregnancies (ETP; n = 8). Sequencing was performed on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differential expression analyses detected 51 (27%) transcripts with increased and 138 (73%) with decreased expression in RPL compared to ETP (DESeq: FDR P <0.1 and DESeq2: <0.05). RPL samples had substantially decreased transcript levels of histones, regulatory RNAs and genes involved in telomere, spliceosome, ribosomal, mitochondrial and intra-cellular signalling functions. Downregulated expression of HIST1H1B and HIST1H4A (Wilcoxon test, fc
  • Wang, Hong; Kuusela, Sara; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Dumont, Vincent; Bouslama, Rim; Ramadan, Usama Abo; Waaler, Jo; Linden, Anni-Maija; Chi, Nai-Wen; Krauss, Stefan; Pirinen, Eija; Lehtonen, Sanna (2020)
    Objective Human TNKS, encoding tankyrase 1 (TNKS1), localizes to a susceptibility locus for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we addressed the therapeutic potential of G007-LK, a TNKS-specific inhibitor, for obesity and T2DM. Methods We administered G007-LK to diabetic db/db mice and measured the impact on body weight, abdominal adiposity, and serum metabolites. Muscle, liver, and white adipose tissues were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting to determine TNKS inhibition, lipolysis, beiging, adiponectin level, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mass, and gluconeogenesis. Protein interaction and PARylation analyses were carried out by immunoprecipitation, pull-down and in situ proximity ligation assays. Results TNKS inhibition reduced body weight gain, abdominal fat content, serum cholesterol levels, steatosis, and proteins associated with lipolysis in diabetic db/db mice. We discovered that TNKS associates with PGC-1 alpha and that TNKS inhibition attenuates PARylation of PGC-1 alpha, contributing to increased PGC-1 alpha level in WAT and muscle in db/db mice. PGC-1 alpha upregulation apparently modulated transcriptional reprogramming to increase mitochondrial mass and fatty acid oxidative metabolism in muscle, beiging of WAT, and raised circulating adiponectin level in db/db mice. This was in sharp contrast to the liver, where TNKS inhibition in db/db mice had no effect on PGC-1 alpha expression, lipid metabolism, or gluconeogenesis. Conclusion Our study unravels a novel molecular mechanism whereby pharmacological inhibition of TNKS in obesity and diabetes enhances oxidative metabolism and ameliorates lipid disorder. This happens via tissue-specific PGC-1 alpha-driven transcriptional reprogramming in muscle and WAT, without affecting liver. This highlights inhibition of TNKS as a potential pharmacotherapy for obesity and T2DM.
  • Tanaka, Atsushi; Ide, Tomomi; Fujino, Takeo; Onitsuka, Ken; Ikeda, Masataka; Takehara, Takako; Hata, Yuko; Ylikallio, Emil; Tyynismaa, Henna; Suomalainen, Anu; Sunagawa, Kenji (2013)
  • Rappou, Elisabeth; Jukarainen, Sakari; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Kaye, Sanna M.; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Saunavaara, Virva; Rissanen, Aila; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Pirinen, Eija; Pietilainen, Kirsi H. (2016)
    Context: Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are 2 important nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+)-dependent enzyme families with opposing metabolic effects. Energy shortage increases NAD(+) biosynthesis and SIRT activity but reduces PARP activity in animals. Effects of energy balance on these pathways in humans are unknown. Objective: We compared NAD(+)/SIRT pathway expressions and PARP activities in sc adipose tissue (SAT) between lean and obese subjects and investigated their change in the obese subjects during a 12-month weight loss. Design, Setting and Participants: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (mean +/- SE body mass index, 34.6 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 mo) and from 19 lean reference subjects (body mass index, 22.7 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) at baseline. Main Outcome Measures: SAT mRNA expressions of SIRTs 1-7 and the rate-limiting gene in NAD(+) biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were measured by Affymetrix, and total PARP activity by ELISA kit. Results: SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT7, and NAMPT expressions were significantly lower, whereas total PARP activity was increased in obese compared with lean subjects. SIRT1 and NAMPT expressions increased in obese subjects between 0 and 5 months, after a mean weight loss of 11.7%. In subjects who continued to lose weight between 5 and 12 months, SIRT1 expression increased progressively, whereas in subjects with weight regain, SIRT1 reverted to baseline levels. PARP activity significantly decreased in all subjects upon weight loss. Conclusions: Calorie restriction is an attractive strategy to improve the NAD(+)/SIRT pathway and decrease PARPs in SAT in human obesity.