Browsing by Subject "MOBILITY"

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  • Popov, Georgi; Bačić, Goran; Mattinen, Miika; Manner, Toni; Lindström, Hannu; Seppänen, Heli; Suihkonen, Sami; Vehkamäki, Marko; Kemell, Marianna; Jalkanen, Pasi; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Leskelä, Markku; Koivula, Hanna Maarit; Barry, Seán T.; Ritala, Mikko (2020)
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a viable method for depositing functional, passivating, and encapsulating layers on top of halide perovskites. Studies in that area have only focused on metal oxides, despite a great number of materials that can be made with ALD. This work demonstrates that, in addition to oxides, other ALD processes can be compatible with the perovskites. We describe two new ALD processes for lead sulfide. These processes operate at low deposition temperatures (45-155 degrees C) that have been inaccessible to previous ALD PbS processes. Our processes rely on volatile and reactive lead precursors Pb(dbda) (dbda = rac-N-2,N-3-di-tertbutylbutane-2,3-diamide) and Pb(btsa)(2) (btsa = bis(trimethylsilyl)amide) as well as H2S. These precursors produce high quality PbS thin films that are uniform, crystalline, and pure. The films exhibit p- type conductivity and good mobilities of 10-70 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Low deposition temperatures enable direct ALD of PbS onto a halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) without its decomposition. The stability of MAPI in ambient air is greatly improved by capping with ALD PbS. More generally, these new processes offer valuable alternatives for PbS-based devices, and we hope that this study will inspire more studies on ALD of non-oxides on halide perovskites.
  • Maury, Olivia (2020)
    This article examines the experiences of non-EU/EEA student-migrants orienting in precarious labour markets in Finland. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with working student-migrants holding a temporary legal status, the article examines the incidence of unpaid work within a variety of contractual settings and sectors. The findings suggest that exploitation with regard to the subjective capacity to produce is facilitated through the imposition of unpaid work hours on legally constrained migrants in precarious employment. The findings contribute to the sociological analysis of the increasingly fragmented figures of labour as well as to the study of unpaid work as a driver of precarisation.
  • Fang, Jiaxi; Wang, Yang; Kangasluoma, Juha; Attoui, Michel; Junninen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Biswas, Pratim (2017)
    Few studies reported the formation of Ti-containing clusters in the initial stages of TiO2 flame synthesis. The conversion from synthesis precursor to TiO2 monomers was commonly assumed to take place through global reaction such as thermal decomposition and/or hydrolysis at high temperatures. More recent studies have been able to identify stable intermediates of Ti-containing monomers, most commonly Ti(OH)(4), as the final step before the formation of TiO2. However, no larger Ti-containing cluster formation mechanisms or interactions between these monomers have been tracked. To investigate cluster formation pathways of TiO2 during flame synthesis, Charged clusters were measured in an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by adding titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor to a premixed CH4/O-2/N-2 flat flame aerosol reactor. Pure TiO2 clusters were not detected by the APi-TOF. Results from measured mass spectra and mass defect plots show that for positively charged clusters, the abstraction of CH2 groups occurs simultaneously with the clustering of larger intermediate organometallic species. For negatively charged clusters, NOx formation pathways in the flame may play a role during the initial stages of TiO2 formation, since a lot of Ti-containing clusters were attached with nitrate-related species. These research findings provide insights on quantum dot synthesis and molecular doping where rapid dilution of the flame synthesized nanoparticles is needed to better control the particle size and chemical composition. The possible influences of and potential artifacts brought by the dilution system on observing the incipient particle formation in flames were also discussed.
  • Fung, Pak Lun; Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; Surakhi, Ola; Tarkoma, Sasu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Hussein, Tareq (2021)
    In air quality research, often only size-integrated particle mass concentrations as indicators of aerosol particles are considered. However, the mass concentrations do not provide sufficient information to convey the full story of fractionated size distribution, in which the particles of different diameters (Dp) are able to deposit differently on respiratory system and cause various harm. Aerosol size distribution measurements rely on a variety of techniques to classify the aerosol size and measure the size distribution. From the raw data the ambient size distribution is determined utilising a suite of inversion algorithms. However, the inversion problem is quite often ill-posed and challenging to solve. Due to the instrumental insufficiency and inversion limitations, imputation methods for fractionated particle size distribution are of great significance to fill the missing gaps or negative values. The study at hand involves a merged particle size distribution, from a scanning mobility particle sizer (NanoSMPS) and an optical particle sizer (OPS) covering the aerosol size distributions from 0.01 to 0.42 µm (electrical mobility equivalent size) and 0.3 to 10 µm (optical equivalent size) and meteorological parameters collected at an urban background region in Amman, Jordan, in the period of 1 August 2016–31 July 2017. We develop and evaluate feed-forward neural network (FFNN) approaches to estimate number concentrations at particular size bin with (1) meteorological parameters, (2) number concentration at other size bins and (3) both of the above as input variables. Two layers with 10–15 neurons are found to be the optimal option. Worse performance is observed at the lower edge (0.01<Dp<0.02 µm), the mid-range region (0.15<Dp<0.5 µm) and the upper edge (6<Dp<10 µm). For the edges at both ends, the number of neighbouring size bins is limited, and the detection efficiency by the corresponding instruments is lower compared to the other size bins. A distinct performance drop over the overlapping mid-range region is due to the deficiency of a merging algorithm. Another plausible reason for the poorer performance for finer particles is that they are more effectively removed from the atmosphere compared to the coarser particles so that the relationships between the input variables and the small particles are more dynamic. An observable overestimation is also found in the early morning for ultrafine particles followed by a distinct underestimation before midday. In the winter, due to a possible sensor drift and interference artefacts, the estimation performance is not as good as the other seasons. The FFNN approach by meteorological parameters using 5 min data (R2= 0.22–0.58) shows poorer results than data with longer time resolution (R2= 0.66–0.77). The FFNN approach using the number concentration at the other size bins can serve as an alternative way to replace negative numbers in the size distribution raw dataset thanks to its high accuracy and reliability (R2= 0.97–1). This negative-number filling approach can maintain a symmetric distribution of errors and complement the existing ill-posed built-in algorithm in particle sizer instruments.
  • Granberg, F.; Byggmästar, J.; Nordlund, K. (2020)
    The understanding of materials' behaviour during continuous irradiation is of great interest for utilizing materials in environments where harsh radiation is present, like nuclear power plants. Most power plants, both current and future ones, are based, at least partially, on Fe or FeCr alloys. In this study, we investigate the response of BCC Fe and several FeCr alloys to massively overlapping cascades. The effect of the added chromium on the defect accumulation and defect evolution was studied. Both a bulk setup, for observing the evolution deep inside the material far from grain boundaries and surfaces, and a setup with a nearby open surface, to investigate the effect of a permanent defect sink, were studied. We found that the primary defect production is similar in all materials, and also the build-up before serious overlap is comparable. When cascade overlap starts, we found that different sized clusters are formed in the different materials, depending on the setup. The defect cluster evolution was followed and could be related to the dislocation reactions in the materials. We found that the irradiation mixing was specific to the different chromium concentrations, the low chromium-containing alloy showed ordering, whereas the highest chromium-containing sample showed segregation. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Laakso, Senja; Berg, Annukka; Annala, Mikko (2017)
    Societies around the world are faced with wicked problems such as climate change. In this context, experimental governance approaches have emerged as tools with potential utility in both top-down and bottom-up governance efforts. At the same time, experimental governance has gained momentum as a desirable policy goal in its own right. As the various experimental approaches differ in their origins and serve different purposes, there is a need to organize the field. If more experimental development processes are desired, what can be expected from certain kinds of experiments? How can the field be organised in a way that benefits those designing, conducting, and evaluating experimental governance processes? In attempting to answer these questions, we carried out a meta-study of 25 articles on experimental climate governance. On the basis of the results and the previous work on experiments, we have built a 'triangle model of experimental governance' that proposes both vertical and horizontal dynamics within and between different functions and uses of experiments. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lowry, Estelle; Rautio, Nina; Wasenius, Niko; Bond, Tom A.; Lahti, Jari; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Dehghan, Abbas; Heiskala, Anni; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Miettunen, Jouko; Eriksson, Johan; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain (2020)
    BackgroundThe study aimed to explore the association between early life and life-course exposure to social disadvantage and later life body mass index (BMI) accounting for genetic predisposition and maternal BMI.MethodsWe studied participants of Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in 1934-1944 (HBCS1934-1944, n=1277) and Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 and 1986 (NFBC1966, n=5807, NFBC1986, n=6717). Factor analysis produced scores of social disadvantage based on social and economic elements in early life and adulthood/over the life course, and was categorized as high, intermediate and low. BMI was measured at 62years in HBCS1934-1944, at 46years in NFBC1966 and at 16years in NFBC1986. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to explore associations between social disadvantages and BMI after adjustments for polygenic risk score for BMI (PRS BMI), maternal BMI and sex.ResultsThe association between exposure to high early social disadvantage and increased later life BMI persisted after adjustments (beta =0.79, 95% CI, 0.33, 1.25, p 0.22, 95% CI -0.91,1.35, p=0.700). In HBCS1934-1944 and NFBC1966, participants who had reduced their exposure to social disadvantage during the life-course had lower later life BMI than those who had increased their exposure (beta -1.34, [-2.37,-0.31], p=0.011; beta -0.46, [-0.89,-0.03], p=0.038, respectively).ConclusionsHigh social disadvantage in early life appears to be associated with higher BMI in later life. Reducing exposure to social disadvantage during the life-course may be a potential pathway for obesity reduction.
  • Palomäki, Emmi A. K.; Yliruusi, Jouko K.; Ehlers, Henrik (2019)
    In this paper, the effect of the gaseous environment on recrystallization of amorphous paracetamol was investigated. The experiments were conducted with a headspace gas consisting of dry air, dry carbon dioxide, dry nitrogen and humid air in four temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C below onset of T-g to 5 degrees C above onset of T-g. The recrystallization was monitored using Raman spectroscopy and subsequent multivariate analysis. In temperatures below onset of T-g, the presence of oxygen delayed the onset of recrystallization, with an increasing delay with lower temperature. When comparing samples exposed to dry headspace gases, the crystallization was fastest below onset of Tg when exposed to nitrogen. Being an inert gas, nitrogen did not seem to interfere with the molecules allowing them to freely find their inherent arrangement, whereas the presence of oxygen delayed the formation of stabile nuclei. Above onset of T-g, no differences in onset of crystallization was detected between dry gas atmospheres. Amorphous paracetamol crystallized to form II in all measurements and the samples did not reach full crystallinity within the duration of the experiments. The results show that the headspace gas has an effect on nucleation in the amorphous sample.
  • Karjalainen, Linda E.; Juhola, Sirkku (2019)
    Transportation plays a key role in urban sustainability planning and urban greenhouse gas emission reductions. Globally, cities have established sustainability agendas and policies to guide the shift from traditional private automobile dependent transportation systems towards an increased use of public transportation, cycling, and walking. While the surrounding physical urban form and governance structures condition public transportation services, there are also many other factors to consider when discussing sustainability. As such, comprehensive planning and policy-oriented assessment frameworks that are independent of local conditions are still largely missing in literature. This paper presents a Public Transportation Sustainability Indicator List (PTSIL) that provides a platform for an integrated assessment of environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability through an indicator-based approach. To demonstrate its use, the PTSIL is applied to analyze the policy documents of public transportation agencies in Helsinki, Finland, and Toronto, Canada. The results show that while both cities achieve relatively high scores in all dimensions, there is still high variability among individual indicators. The PTSIL presents a missed stepping stone between descriptive definitions of transportation sustainability and case specific sustainability performance assessments, offering an opportunity within the planning and policy-making sectors to review, assess, and develop public transportation services comprehensively.
  • Roikonen, Petri; Häkkinen, Antti (2019)
    This study analyses social heterogamy in western and southern Finland during the early stages of industrialisation, from 1700 to 1910. Marriage patterns are examined by comparing the social classes of spouses' parents, which can be understood as the social origin of the spouse. The rate of heterogamy within the freeholder class was only 19.8%, whereas it was 71.1% in the upper classes, 59.7% in the tenant class and 76.5% in the labour class. In addition, only roughly 20-30% of grooms whose fathers were landowners married brides from lower social classes. Certain individual- and family-level characteristics increased the odds of a heterogamous marriage: remarrying, age difference, being an illegitimate child or a single mother, and the first marriages of those in the labour class. Regarding macro-level variables, we found that higher rates of emigration and poor-relief recipients, along with having a larger Finnish-speaking population, led to higher levels of heterogamy. Other issues increasing the odds of heterogamy included living in the more urbanised or industrialised regions and moving to different regions. This study identified strict marriage patterns, which did not significantly change with respect to heterogamy. Nevertheless, indications exist that industrialisation and urbanisation began eroding the prevailing traditions.
  • Eskelä, Elina (2018)
    Although relatively understudied, the role of affordable and acceptable housing in the accelerating global competition for talent is of utmost importance, especially if highly skilled migrants are to be absorbed into the permanent labour force. This paper concerns the housing of skilled Indian migrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland, and contributes to the literature on international migration and the housing of ethnic minorities. It presents a case study on how to analyse migrants' housing pathways, examining the meaning of housing in the transnational lives of this relatively affluent migrant group. The results show that homeownership is a not a simple indicator of commitment to the host society, and that those responsible for national housing policy need to ensure the supply, quality and reasonable price of accommodation in order to fulfil the housing needs of skilled migrants.
  • Frege, Carla; Ortega, Ismael K.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Steiner, Gerhard; Heinritzi, Martin; Ahonen, Lauri; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Brilke, Sophia; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dada, Lubna; Dias, Antonio; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; El-Haddad, Imad; Fischer, Lukas; Fuchs, Claudia; Garmash, Olga; Gonin, Marc; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kirkby, Jasper; Kuerten, Andreas; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Mauldin, Roy Lee; Molteni, Ugo; Nichman, Leonid; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Tome, Antonio; Vogel, Alexander L.; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Robert; Xiao, Mao; Yan, Chao; Ye, Penglin; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Winkler, Paul M.; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs (2018)
    It was recently shown by the CERN CLOUD experiment that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles under atmospheric conditions in the absence of sulfuric acid, where ions enhance the nucleation rate by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The biogenic HOMs were produced from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene at 5 degrees C. Here we extend this study to compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters measured with atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers (APi-TOFs), at three different temperatures (25, 5 and -25 degrees C). Most negative HOM clusters include a nitrate (NO3-) ion, and the spectra are similar to those seen in the nighttime boreal forest. On the other hand, most positive HOM clusters include an ammonium (NH4+) 4) ion, and the spectra are characterized by mass bands that differ in their molecular weight by similar to 20 C atoms, corresponding to HOM dimers. At lower temperatures the average oxygen to carbon (O : C) ratio of the HOM clusters decreases for both polarities, reflecting an overall reduction of HOM formation with decreasing temperature. This indicates a decrease in the rate of autoxidation with temperature due to a rather high activation energy as has previously been determined by quantum chemical calculations. Furthermore, at the lowest temperature (-25 degrees C), the presence of C-30 clusters shows that HOM monomers start to contribute to the nucleation of positive clusters. These experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the binding energies of representative neutral and charged clusters.
  • Leino, Katri; Nieminen, Tuomo; Manninen, Hanna E.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Secondary aerosol formation from gas-phase precursors is a frequent phenomenon occurring in a boreal environment. Traditionally, this process is identified visually from observational data on total and ion number size distributions. Here, we introduce a new, objective classification method for the new particle formation events based on measured intermediate-ion concentrations. The intermediate-ion concentration is a suitable indicator of new particle formation, because it is linked to the atmospheric new particle formation. The concentration of intermediate ions is typically very low (below 5 cm(-3)) when there is no new particle formation or precipitation events occurring. In this study, we analysed concentrations of negative intermediate ions at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiala, Finland, during the years 2003-2013. We found that the half-hour median concentration of negative intermediate ions in sizes 2-4 nm was > 20 cm(-3) during 77.5% of event days classified by traditional method. The corresponding value was 92.3% in the case of 2-7 nm negative ions. In addition, the intermediate-ion concentration varied seasonally in a similar manner as the number of event days, peaking in the spring. A typical diurnal variation of the intermediate-ion concentration resembled that of the particle concentration during the event days. We developed here a new method for classifying new particle formation events based on intermediate-ion concentrations. The new method is complementary to the traditional event analysis and it can also be used as an automatic way of determining new particle formation events from large data sets.
  • Waller, Katja; Vaha-Ypya, Henri; Tormakangas, Timo; Hautasaari, Pekka; Lindgren, Noora; Iso-Markku, Paula; Heikkila, Kauko; Rinne, Juha; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sievanen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M. (2018)
    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in old age is an important indicator of good health and functional capacity enabling independent living. In our prospective twin cohort study with 616 individuals we investigated whether long-term physical activity assessed three times, in 1975, 1982 and 1990 (mean age 48 years in 1990), and other self-reported health habits predict objectively measured MVPA measured with a hip-worn triaxial accelerometer (at least 10 hours per day for at least 4 days) 25 years later (mean age of 73 years). Low leisure-time physical activity at younger age, higher relative weight, smoking, low socioeconomic status, and health problems predicted low MVPA in old age in individual-based analyses (altogether explaining 20.3% of the variation in MVPA). However, quantitative trait modeling indicated that shared genetic factors explained 82% of the correlation between baseline and follow-up physical activity. Pairwise analyses within monozygotic twin pairs showed that only baseline smoking was a statistically significant predictor of later-life MVPA. The results imply that younger-age physical activity is associated with later-life MVPA, but shared genetic factors underlies this association. Of the other predictors mid-life smoking predicted less physical activity at older age independent of genetic factors.
  • Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leppä, Johannes; Kontkanen, Jenni; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Wimnner, Daniela; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Mikkilä, Jyri; Vanhanen, Joonas; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku (2014)
  • Pyyry, Noora; Tani, Sirpa (2019)
    This paper is a conceptual argument for more-than-human playful politics in young people’s practices of spending their free time in the city. Reworking of urban space happens in a mode of playful experimentation and emerges from human-material encounters in the city: it arises from ‘dwelling with’. This understanding grants agency to the material world and has consequences to how we conceptualize everyday politics. Spatial reworking in ‘dwelling with’ is a more-than-human endeavor in which the city plays an active part: it is joint-participation. When young people are playfully engaged with the city, they are open to being differently with ordinary things and spaces. Openness to difference cultivates meaningful being-in- the-world and makes it possible to rework the city through new associations. Events of reworking become political in certain landscapes. Everyday spatial politics, then, is not always ‘serious business’ of political coordination – it can also arise from spontaneous intra-active play with the city.
  • Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Bopp, Matthias; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kalediene, Ramune; Lee, Jung Su; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2019)
    Background We compared mortality inequalities by occupational class in Japan and South Korea with those in European countries, in order to determine whether patterns are similar. Methods National register-based data from Japan, South Korea and eight European countries (Finland, Denmark, England/Wales, France, Switzerland, Italy (Turin), Estonia, Lithuania) covering the period between 1990 and 2015 were collected and harmonised. We calculated age-standardised all-cause and cause-specific mortality among men aged 35-64 by occupational class and measured the magnitude of inequality with rate differences, rate ratios and the average inter-group difference. Results Clear gradients in mortality were found in all European countries throughout the study period: manual workers had 1.6-2.5 times higher mortality than upper non-manual workers. However, in the most recent time-period, upper non-manual workers had higher mortality than manual workers in Japan and South Korea. This pattern emerged as a result of a rise in mortality among the upper non-manual group in Japan during the late 1990s, and in South Korea during the late 2000s, due to rising mortality from cancer and external causes (including suicide), in addition to strong mortality declines among lower non-manual and manual workers. Conclusion Patterns of mortality by occupational class are remarkably different between European countries and Japan and South Korea. The recently observed patterns in the latter two countries may be related to a larger impact on the higher occupational classes of the economic crisis of the late 1990s and the late 2000s, respectively, and show that a high socioeconomic position does not guarantee better health.
  • Wagner, Robert; Manninen, Hanna E.; Franchin, Alessandro; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Mirme, Sander; Steiner, Gerhard; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Here, we present a calibration of the Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS, Airel Ltd.) for the size and concentration of ions in the mobility-diameter size-range 0.98-29.1 nm. Previous studies raised accuracy issues in size and concentration determination and highlighted the importance of used data inversion algorithm. Therefore, we investigated the performance of the NAIS by using five inversion methods. The presented results illustrate that the size information given by the NAIS is very accurate, regardless of the version of the data inversion. The number concentrations determined by the NAIS were 15%-30% too low especially at the lower end of the measurement size range (<5 nm), whereas concentrations at diameters 19.6 nm and larger were overestimated by up to 8%. With the correction presented in this study, the uncertainty of the ion concentration measurement of the NAIS can be reduced to less than 10%, allowing the NAIS to be used in quantitative ion cluster studies and more accurate determination of formation and growth rates.
  • Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ahonen, Lauri; Korhonen, Frans; Attoui, Michel; Mikkilä, Jyri; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Vanhanen, Joonas; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka (2016)
    Measuring sub-3 nm particles outside of controlled laboratory conditions is a challenging task, as many of the instruments are operated at their limits and are subject to changing ambient conditions. In this study, we advance the current understanding of the operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter (nCNC), which consists of an A10 Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) and an A20 Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The effect of the inlet line pressure on the measured particle concentration was measured, and two separate regions inside the A10, where supersaturation of working fluid can take place, were identified. The possibility of varying the lower cut-off diameter of the nCNC was investigated; by scanning the growth tube temperature, the range of the lower cut-off was extended from 1-2.5 to 1-6 nm. Here we present a new inlet system, which allows automated measurement of the background concentration of homogeneously nucleated droplets, minimizes the diffusion losses in the sampling line and is equipped with an electrostatic filter to remove ions smaller than approximately 4.5 nm. Finally, our view of the guidelines for the optimal use of the Airmodus nCNC is provided.
  • Wang, Ziyu; Satka, Mirja; Julkunen, Ilse (2021)
    Building on the relational approaches, particularly social relational theory, this study investigates how Chinese adolescents plan their transition to post-compulsory education through relational influences between themselves and their parents. By examining the family and school lives of 25 Chinese adolescents from a small Chinese town, it has been found that they exercise their agency when negotiating their educational future with their parents. Their mixed agentic strategies are embedded in multiple parenting styles and they result in differing levels of agreement. Despite such variation, the adolescent-parent relationship is interpreted as the reliable interdependence across the participants. The findings provide new insights into parental influence on young Chinese people's educational future and stress the value of the relational approach in studying the family-education nexus.