Browsing by Subject "MODE"

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  • Ma, Fanyi; Wang, Dengke; Zhang, Yun; Li, Mingjing; Qing, Weixia; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina; Liu, Xiuhua; Bell, Alan E. (2018)
    The mucilage polysaccharides from Dioscorea opposita (DOMP) were extracted and treated with a single/dual enzymatic hydrolysis. The characterisation and viscosity were subsequently investigated in this study. DOMP obtained 62.52% mannose and 23.45% glucose. After single protease and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) treatments, the mannose content was significantly reduced to 3.96%, and glucose increased from 23.45% to 45.10%. Dual enzymatic hydrolysis also decreased the mannose and glucose contents to approximately 18%-35% and 7%-19%, respectively. The results suggest that enzymatic degradation could effectively remove the protein from DOMP accompanied by certain polysaccharides, especially mannose. The molecular weight, surface morphology, viscosity and particle sizes were measured. Enzymatic hydrolysis reduced molecular weight, decreased the viscosity, and increased the particle sizes, which indicates that the characterisations of DOMP samples were altered as structures changed. This study was a basic investigation into characterisation of DOMP to contribute to the processing of food by-products.
  • Breneman, A. W.; Halford, A. J.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L. A.; Zhang, X. -J.; Sandhu, J. K.; Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Cully, C. M.; Murphy, K. R.; Brito, T.; Elliott, S. S. (2020)
    We present observations of similar to 10-60 min solar wind dynamic pressure structures that drive large-scale coherent similar to 20-100 keV electron loss from the outer radiation belt. A combination of simultaneous satellite and Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) observations on 11-12 January 2014 shows a close association between the pressure structures and precipitation as inferred from BARREL X-rays. Specifically, the structures drive radial ExB transport of electrons up to 1 Earth radii, modulating the free electron energy available for low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss growth, and subsequent hiss-induced loss cone scattering. The dynamic pressure structures, originating near the Sun and commonly observed advecting with the solar wind, are thus able to switch on scattering loss of electrons by hiss over a large spatial scale. Our results provide a direct link between solar wind pressure fluctuations and modulation of electron loss from the outer radiation belt and may explain long-period modulations and large-scale coherence of X-rays commonly observed in the BARREL data set. Plain Language Summary The Earth's low-density magnetosphere is a region of enclosed magnetic field lines that contains energetic electrons ranging from eV to MeV energies. These populations can be greatly enhanced in response to solar driving. Following enhancements, energetic electron populations are depleted on timescales of hours to days by various processes. One important depletion process occurs when an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss, which exists within a high plasma density region called the plasmasphere and its (occasional) radial extension called the plume, scatters energetic electrons into the atmosphere. In this paper, we show that these hiss waves can be switched on by compressions of the magnetosphere which occur in response to similar to 1 hr long pressure structures in the solar wind. These structures originate at or near the Sun and are very common in the solar wind at 1 AU. The newly excited hiss waves scatter electrons into the atmosphere where they are observed on balloon-borne X-ray detectors. Our results suggest that magnetospheric models that predict the loss of electrons from hiss waves may be improved by consideration of solar wind pressure-driven dynamics.
  • He, Siwen; Soininen, Janne; Chen, Kai; Wang, Beixin (2020)
    Metacommunity theory provides a useful framework to describe the underlying factors (e.g., environmental and dispersal-related factors) influencing community structure. The strength of these factors may vary depending on the properties of the region studied (e.g., environmental heterogeneity and spatial location) and considered biological groups. Here, we examined environmental and dispersal-related controls of stream macroinvertebrates and diatoms in three regions in China using the distance-decay relationship analysis. We performed analyses for the whole stream network and separately for two stream network locations (headwater and downstream sites) to test the network position hypothesis (NPH), which states that the strength of environmental and dispersal-related controls varies between headwater and downstream communities. Community dissimilarities were significantly related to environmental distances, but not geographical distances. These results suggest that communities are structured strongly by environmental filtering, but weakly by dispersal-related factors such as dispersal limitation. More importantly, we found that, at the whole network scale, environmental control was the highest in the regions with highest environmental heterogeneity. Results further showed that the influence of environmental control was strong in both headwaters and downstream sites, whereas spatial control was generally weak in all sites. This suggests a lack of consistent support for the NPH in our studied stream networks. Moreover, we found that local-scale variables relative to basin-scale variables better explained community dissimilarities for diatoms than for macroinvertebrates. This indicates that diatoms and macroinvertebrates responded to environment at different scales. Collectively, these results suggest that the importance of drivers behind the metacommunity assembly varied among regions with different level of environmental heterogeneity and between organism groups, potentially indicating context dependency among stream systems and taxa.
  • Mantziari, Anastasia; Rautava, Samuli (2021)
    Aside from nutritional components, human milk is rich in microorganisms. Through breastfeeding these microorganisms are introduced to the infant gut where they may transiently or persistently colonize it. Therefore, the human milk microbiota may be an important factor which shapes the infant gut microbiota further influencing infant health and disease. In the current review we aim to give a brief updated insight into the putative origin of the human milk microbiota, its constituents and the possible factors that shape it. Understanding the factors that determine the human milk microbiota composition and function will aid developing optimal postnatal feeding and intervention strategies to reduce the risk of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Seppänen, P.M.; Sund, R.T.; Uotila, J.T.; Helminen, M.T.; Suominen, T.M. (2020)
    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the course of pregnancy and delivery of obstetric patients admitted for intensive care, and determine the health status of their infants. Methods: This was a retrospective register-based study. Four university hospitals in Finland participated. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit in any trimester of pregnancy, during delivery or up to 42 days post partum were identified from clinical information systems over a five-year study period. Parturient and infant data were collected from the Medical Birth Register. Results: During the study period (2007-2011), 283 obstetric patients were identified from the clinical information system. The most common reason for admission was hypertensive complications (58%), followed by obstetric haemorrhage (25.1 %). Advanced maternal age, nulliparity and multiple pregnancies were associated with obstetric intensive care unit admissions. Of patients admitted to intensive care, 68.9% delivered by unscheduled caesarean section. Nearly 60% of neonates were born preterm, 56.1% needed treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit or an observation unit and 4.6 % died within one week. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age, nulliparity and multiple pregnancy were more common among intensive care unit-admitted women than in the general obstetric population. The main causes for admission were hypertensive complications and obstetric haemorrhage. Compared with the general obstetric population, neonates of intensive care unit-admitted mothers were eight times more likely to require treatment on a neonatal ward and their risk of neonatal death was also eight times greater. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lundgren, Sara N.; Madan, Juliette C.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Hoen, Anne G.; Christensen, Brock C. (2019)
    The process of breastfeeding exposes infants to bioactive substances including a diversity of bacteria from breast milk as well as maternal skin. Knowledge of the character of and variation in these microbial communities, as well as the factors that influence them, is limited. We aimed to identify profiles of breastfeeding-associated microbial communities and their association with maternal and infant factors. Bilateral milk samples were collected from women in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study at approximately 6 weeks postpartum without sterilization of the skin in order to capture the infant-relevant exposure. We sequenced the V4-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in 155 human milk samples. We used unsupervised clustering (partitioning around medoids) to identify microbial profiles in milk samples, and multinomial logistic regression to test their relation with maternal and infant variables. Associations between alpha diversity and maternal and infant factors were tested with linear models. Four breastfeeding microbiome types (BMTs) were identified, which differed in alpha diversity and in Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas abundances. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of belonging to BMT1 [OR (95% CI) = 1.13 (1.02, 1.24)] or BMT3 [OR (95% CI) = 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)] compared to BMT2. Independently, increased gestational weight gain was related to reduced odds of membership in BMT1 [OR (95% CI) = 0.66 (0.44, 1.00) per 10 pounds]. Alpha diversity was positively associated with gestational weight gain and negatively associated with postpartum sample collection week. There were no statistically significant associations of breastfeeding microbiota with delivery mode. Our results indicate that the breastfeeding microbiome partitions into four profiles and that its composition and diversity is associated with measures of maternal weight.
  • JET Contributors; Joffrin, E.; Ahlgren, Tommy (2019)
    For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
  • Brink, Christiaan W.; Santangeli, Andrea; Amar, Arjun; Wolter, Kerri; Tate, Gareth; Kruger, Sonja; Tucker, Andrew S.; Thomson, Robert L. (2020)
    Under the current African vulture crisis, supplementary feeding sites (SFS), which provide carrion resources, have become a popular conservation tool to address vulture declines. In South Africa, this practice is unregulated and the context in which SFS operate and their adherence to best management practices is currently unknown. In this study, we conducted a survey with SFS managers regarding the management of their SFS to evaluate potential conservation implications of different practices. Half of the SFS surveyed were associated with livestock farming. Overall, most managers (84%) perceived some benefit from running an SFS, largely attributed to cleaning services provided by vultures. Over half of the managers perceived no disadvantages from running SFS. We found a positive correlation between numbers of vultures seen at SFS and the amount of food provided there. Despite unintentional and intentional poisoning being identified by experts as the most critical threats to vultures in Southern Africa, only 47 and 24% of managers, respectively, listed these as potential threats to vultures, highlighting limited understanding of current vulture conservation issues. Most managers (85%) vetted carcasses for provisioning suitability based on whether they had been treated with veterinary drugs, but relatively few managers (10%) did the same for lead (Pb) contamination. Only 30% of managers considered threats to vultures when they decided on a location for their SFS. Overall, this study unveils that at many SFS, safety conditions are not met and vultures may be exposed to risks, such as the ingestion of toxic substances (e.g., Pb) or electrocution by energy infrastructure. To minimize unintended negative consequences from SFS, it will be essential to increase the interaction between SFS managers and conservation practitioners, to increase the flow of information on best management practices and enforce stringent and clear guidelines that minimize any risks to vultures.
  • Yakupova, Vera A.; Suarez, Anna (2021)
    Background. In European countries, postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 13-19% of women. The statistics indicate that postpartum depressive disorders affect up to 300,000 women in Russia annually. There is still an extremely acute lack of psychological comfort provided to women during labor in Russia. Objective. To our knowledge, ours is the first study that examines the association between childbirth experience and the risk of PPD in Russia. Design. We collected data from 190 Russian-speaking mothers, ages 19 to 46, (M = 32 +/- 4.3) two months after their delivery. Results. Birth satisfaction and physical well-being two months after delivery were significantly inversely associated with PPD. Birth satisfaction negatively correlated with the perceived severity and unpredictability of labor, and positively correlated with physical well-being two months after delivery. The presence of a partner and a personal midwife or doula at birth was associated with higher birth satisfaction. Conclusion. Our results emphasize the significance of childbirth satisfaction in the context of PPD and suggest the importance of individual professional support during labor.