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  • Mehmood, Shiraz; Din, Israr Ud; Ullah, Izhar; Mohamed, Heba; Basit, Abdul; Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Shah, Syed Saad Hussain; Rehman, Attiq ur (2021)
    Background Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections is an important foundation for crop improvement. Rice production across a broad range of rice-growing environments results in a diverse array of local rice varieties. Many rice varieties have been lost as a result of biodiversity loss and are now grown in Pakistan. Methods and results To protect the biodiversity of rice varieties, an experiment was carried out to check the genetic and morphological variations between 8 exotic and 7 local rice genotypes, using 5 different SSR markers, i.e., RM3, RM259, RM341, RM520, and RM11943. The analysis of morphological and quality traits of rice observed significant variation across genotypes. The results revealed that genotype Irri-Pak attained the highest plant height and primary branch plant-1, while genotype Mushkan produced a higher number of productive tillers and obtained a higher fertility factor (%). Similarly, the highest value for panicle length was observed for genotype Faker-e-Malakand, 1000-grains weight in genotype Calmochi, and maximum days to maturity was noticed in genotype Swati-2014. Moreover, the genotype Brio attained the highest value of stem diameter, while maximum seed length was noted in the genotype Sug Dasi. The highest number of primary branches plant(-1) in genotype Ibge-I and secondary branches plant(-1) in genotype Calmochi were noticed. A higher concentration of sodium and potassium was observed for the genotype Marte, while the genotype Muskan attained the maximum content of copper. Moreover, the highest concentration of iron in genotype Originario, zinc in genotype JP-5, and cadmium content were noticed in genotype Ibge. Similarly, the dendrogram analysis for quantitative parameters showed three clusters at 74.13% similarities. Whereas all the genotypes of European origin formed a separate cluster. A set of 5 simple sequence repeat primers, covering four chromosomes, amplified a total of 14 alleles and showed 100% polymorphism with an average PIC value ranging from 0.39 to 0.91. The UPGMA cluster analysis separated the 15 rice genotypes into 3 main groups based on 32.5% similarities and the highest genetic distance (45.1%) was observed between two genotypes (Fakher-e-malakand and Musa), having different geographical origins. There was no genetic distance between the genotypes Marte and Brio, irrespective of having the same origin. Conclusions The maximum genetic distances were noted for genotype, Fakhre-e-Malakand and Musa having a different origin, while the minimum genetic distance was shown by genotypes, Marte and Onice, from the same origin.
  • Muterko, Alexandr; Kalendar, Ruslan; Salina, Elena (2016)
    The durum wheat varieties from Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan are characterized by the specific allelic composition of the VRN genes that sharply distinguish them from the Triticum durum varieties from other countries. For numerous varieties, the VRN alleles which previously were not found in tetraploid wheat were identified. The ability of wheat to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is mostly determined by the allelic diversity within genes regulating the vernalization requirement (VRN) and photoperiod response (PPD). In the present study, allelic variation in the VRN1, VRN3, and PPD-A1 genes was investigated for 134 varieties of Triticum durum from different eco-geographic areas. It was shown that varieties from Russia and Ukraine have a specific allelic composition at the VRN genes, which in quantity and quality differed from European and American cultivars. A large number of varieties of T. durum from Russia carry the dominant Vrn-A1a.1 allele, previously identified mainly in hexaploid wheat. For some varieties from Eastern Europe and Asia, Vrn-A1i and vrn-A1b.3 recently revealed in wheat were also identified. Polymorphism of the VRN-B1 promoter region, distinguishing all three variants of this sequence (VRN-B1.f, VRN-B1.s, and VRN-B1.m), was detected. It was found that the dominant Vrn-B1c allele is commonly found in varieties of T. durum from Russia and Ukraine, but not Europe or USA. Furthermore, many Ukrainian and Russian varieties carry the dominant alleles of the both VRN-A1 and VRN-B1 genes simultaneously, while varieties from Europe and America carry the dominant allele of VRN-A1 alone. Finally, a high frequency of the Vrn-B3a allele, which previously was found only in some accessions of hexaploid wheat, was observed for varieties from Ukraine and Russia. It was revealed that the Ukrainian pool of T. durum varieties is currently the largest genetic source of the dominant Vrn-B3a allele in wheat in the worldwide.
  • Lienemann, Taru; Kyyhkynen, Aino; Halkilahti, Jani; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja (2015)
    Background: Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Typhimurium (STM) is the most common agent of domestically acquired salmonellosis in Finland. Subtyping methods which allow the characterization of STM are essential for effective laboratory-based STM surveillance and for recognition of outbreaks. This study describes the diversity of Finnish STM isolates using phage typing, antimicrobial susceptible testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and compares the discriminatory power and the concordance of these methods. Results: A total of 375 sporadic STM isolates were analysed. The isolates were divided into 31 definite phage (DT) types, dominated by DT1 (47 % of the isolates), U277 (9 % of the isolates) and DT104 (8 % of the isolates). Of all the isolates, 62 % were susceptible to all the 12 antimicrobials tested and 11 % were multidrug resistant. Subtyping resulted in 83 different XbaI-PFGE profiles and 111 MLVA types. The three most common XbaI-PFGE profiles (STYM1, STYM7 and STYM8) and one MLVA profile with three single locus variants accounted for 56 % and 49 % of the STM isolates, respectively. The studied isolates showed a genetic similarity of more than 70 % by XbaI-PFGE. In MLVA, 71 % of the isolates lacked STTR6 and 77 % missed STTR10p loci. Nevertheless, the calculated Simpson's diversity index for XbaI-PFGE was 0.829 (95 % CI 0.792-0.865) and for MLVA 0.867 (95 % CI 0.835-0.898). However, the discriminatory power of the 5-loci MLVA varied among the phage types. The highest concordance of the results was found between XbaI-PFGE and phage typing (adjusted Wallace coefficient was 0.833 and adjusted Rand coefficient was 0.627). Conclusions: In general, the calculated discriminatory power was higher for genotyping methods (MLVA and XbaI-PFGE) than for phenotyping methods (phage typing). Overall, comparable diversity indices were calculated for PFGE and MLVA (both DI > 0.8). However, MLVA was phage type dependent providing better discrimination of the most common phage types. Furthermore, 5-loci MLVA was a less laborious method and easier to interpret than XbaI-PFGE. Thus, the laboratory-based surveillance of the Finnish human STM infections has been conducted with a combination of phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and 5-loci MLVA since January 2014.
  • Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu (2015)
    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bearmany differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate froms wine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.
  • Wu, Jiayao; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Lee, Yong-Hwan (2020)
    Abstract Laccases (EC, a group of multi-copper oxidases (MCOs), play multiple biological functions and widely exist in many species. Fungal laccases have been extensively studied for their industrial applications, however, there was no database specially focused on fungal laccases. To provide a comparative genomics platform for fungal laccases, we have developed a comparative genomics platform for laccases and MCOs ( Based on protein domain profiles of characterized sequences, 3,571 laccases were predicted from 690 genomes including 253 fungi. The number of putative laccases and their properties exhibited dynamic distribution across the taxonomy. A total of 505 laccases from 68 genomes were selected and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. As a result, four clades comprised of nine subclades were phylogenetically grouped by their putative functions and analyzed at the sequence level. Our work would provide a workbench for putative laccases mainly focused on the fungal kingdom as well as a new perspective in the identification and classification of putative laccases and MCOs.
  • EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; EpiCNV Consortium; Coppola, Antonietta; Cellini, Elena; Saarentaus, Elmo; Palotie, Aarno; Lehesjioki, Anna-Elina; von Spiczak, Sarah (2019)
    Objective Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. Methods We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. Results Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 x 10(-9)). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. Significance The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.
  • Rossi, Chiara; Zadra, Nicola; Fevola, Cristina; Ecke, Frauke; Hornfeldt, Birger; Kallies, Rene; Kazimirova, Maria; Magnusson, Magnus; Olsson, Gert E.; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Jaaskelainen, Anne J.; Henttonen, Heikki; Hauffe, Heidi C. (2021)
    The picornavirus named 'Ljungan virus' (LV, species Parechovirus B) has been detected in a dozen small mammal species from across Europe, but detailed information on its genetic diversity and host specificity is lacking. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relationships of LV variants circulating in free-living mammal populations by comparing the phylogenetics of the VP1 region (encoding the capsid protein and associated with LV serotype) and the 3D(pol) region (encoding the RNA polymerase) from 24 LV RNA-positive animals and a fragment of the 5 ' untranslated region (UTR) sequence (used for defining strains) in sympatric small mammals. We define three new VP1 genotypes: two in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) (genotype 8 from Finland, Sweden, France, and Italy, and genotype 9 from France and Italy) and one in field voles (Microtus arvalis) (genotype 7 from Finland). There are several other indications that LV variants are host-specific, at least in parts of their range. Our results suggest that LV evolution is rapid, ongoing and affected by genetic drift, purifying selection, spillover and host evolutionary history. Although recent studies suggest that LV does not have zoonotic potential, its widespread geographical and host distribution in natural populations of well-characterized small mammals could make it useful as a model for studying RNA virus evolution and transmission.
  • Koponen, Mikael; Marjamaa, Annukka; Tuiskula, Annukka M.; Viitasalo, Matti; Nallinmaa-Luoto, Terhi; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Widen, Elisabeth; Toivonen, Lauri; Kontula, Kimmo; Swan, Heikki (2020)
    Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a severe inherited arrhythmic disease associated with a risk of syncope and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Aims We aimed at identifying RYR2 P2328S founder mutation carriers and describing the clinical course associated with the mutation. Methods The study population was drawn from the Finnish Inherited Cardiac Disorder Research Registry, and from the present genealogical study. Kaplan-Meier graphs, log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the clinical course. Results Genealogical study revealed a common ancestor couple living in the late 17(th) century. A total of 1837 living descendants were tested for RYR2 P2328S mutation unveiling 62 mutation carriers aged mean 3923 years old. No arrhythmic deaths were documented among genotyped subjects, but 11 SCDs were detected in non-genotyped family members since 1970. Three genotyped patients (5%) suffered an aborted cardiac arrest (ACA), and 15 (25%) had a syncope triggered by exercise or stress. Rate of cardiac events was higher among patients who in exercise stress test showed a maximum rate of premature ventricular contractions >30/min (68% vs 17%, p-blocker medication. Conclusions Previously undiagnosed CPVT patients may be identified by well-conducted genealogical studies. The RYR2 P2328S mutation causes a potentially severe phenotype, but its expression is variable, thus calling for additional studies on modifying factors.
  • Palma, Federica; Manfreda, Gerardo; Silva, Mickael; Parisi, Antonio; Barker, Dillon O. R.; Taboada, Eduardo N.; Pasquali, Frederique; Rossi, Mirko (2018)
    Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- has been associated with food-borne epidemics worldwide and swine appeared to be the main reservoir in most of the countries of isolation. However, the monomorphic nature of this serovar has, so far, hindered identification of the source due to expansion of clonal lineages in multiple hosts and food producing systems. Since geographically structured genetic signals can shape bacterial populations, identification of biogeographical markers in S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- genomes can contribute to improving source attribution. In this study, the phylogeographical structure of 148 geographically and temporally related Italian S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- has been investigated. The Italian isolates belong to a large population of clonal S. Typhimurium/1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates collected worldwide in two decades showing up to 2.5% of allele differences. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that isolates from the same geographical origin form highly supported monophyletic groups, suggesting discrete geographical segregation. These monophyletic groups are characterized by the gene content of a large sopE-containing prophage. Within this prophage, genome-wide comparison identified several genes overrepresented in strains of Italian origin. This suggests that certain lineages may be characterized by the acquisition of specific accessory genetic markers useful for improving identification of the source in ongoing epidemics.
  • Huhtaniemi, Riikka; Sipila, Petra; Junnila, Arttu; Oksala, Riikka; Knuuttila, Matias; Mehmood, Arfa; Aho, Eija; Laajala, Teemu D.; Aittokallio, Tero; Laiho, Asta; Elo, Laura; Ohlsson, Claes; Thulin, Malin Hagberg; Kallio, Pekka; Makela, Sari; Mustonen, Mika V. J.; Poutanen, Matti (2022)
    Antiandrogen treatment resistance is a major clinical concern in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treatment. Using xenografts of VCaP cells we showed that growth of antiandrogen resistant CRPC tumors were characterized by a higher intratumor dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration than that of treatment responsive tumors. Furthermore, the slow tumor growth after adrenalectomy was associated with a low intratumor DHT concentration. Reactivation of androgen signaling in enzalutamide-resistant tumors was further shown by the expression of several androgen-dependent genes. The data indicate that intratumor DHT concentration and expression of several androgen-dependent genes in CRPC lesions is an indication of enzalutamide treatment resistance and an indication of the need for further androgen blockade. The presence of an androgen synthesis, independent of CYP17A1 activity, has been shown to exist in prostate cancer cells, and thus, novel androgen synthesis inhibitors are needed for the treatment of enzalutamide-resistant CRPC tumors that do not respond to abiraterone.
  • Top, Janetta; Sinnige, Jan C.; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Werner, Guido; Corander, Jukka; Severin, Juliette A.; Jansen, Rogier; Bathoorn, E.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Willems, Rob J. L. (2018)
    Genomic comparison of the first six Dutch vanD-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates with four vanD gene clusters from other enterococcal species and anaerobic gut commensals revealed that the vanD gene cluster was located on a genomic island of variable size. Phylogenetic inferences revealed that the Dutch VRE isolates were genetically not closely related and that genetic variation of the vanD-containing genomic island was not species specific, suggesting that this island is transferred horizontally between enterococci and anaerobic gut commensals.
  • David, Dezso; Anand, Deepti; Araujo, Carlos; Gloss, Brian; Fino, Joana; Dinger, Marcel; Lindahl, Päivi; Pöyhönen, Minna; Laivuori, Hannele; Lavinha, Joao (2018)
    Keratolenticular dysgenesis (KLD) and ectopia lends are congenital eye defects. The aim of this study is the identification of molecular genetic alterations responsible for those ocular anomalies with neurologic impairment in an individual with a de novo balanced chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q23.3;q11.2)dn. Disruption of OAF, the human orthologue of the Drosophila oaf, by the 11q23.3 breakpoint results in reduced expression of this transcriptional regulator. Furthermore, four most likely nonfunctional chimeric transcripts comprising up to OAF exon 3, derived from the der(11) allele, have also been identified. This locus has been implicated by publicly available genome-wide association data in corneal disease and corneal topography. The expression of the poliovirus receptor-related 1(PVRL1) or nectin cell adhesion molecule 1 (NECTIN1), a paralogue of nectin cell adhesion molecule 3 (PVRL3) associated with congenital ocular defects, situated 500 kb upstream from 11q23.3 breakpoint, is increased. The 18q11.2 breakpoint is localized between cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-associated antigen 1(CTAGE1) and retinoblastoma binding protein 8 (RBBP8) genes. Genomic imbalance that could contribute to the observed phenotype was excluded. Analysis of gene expression datasets throughout normal murine ocular lens embryogenesis suggests that OAF expression is significantly enriched in the lens from early stages of development through adulthood, whereas PVRL1 is lens-enriched until E12.5 and then down-regulated. This contrasts with the observation that the proposita's lymphoblastoid cell lines exhibit low OAF and high PVRL1 expression as compared to control, which offers further support that the alterations described above are most likely responsible for the clinical phenotype. Finally, gene interaction topology data for PVRL1 also agree with our proposal that disruption of OAF by the translocation breakpoint and misregulation of PVRL1 due to a position effect contribute to the observed ocular and neurological phenotype.
  • Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Du Preez, Louis H.; Vanhove, Maarten Pieterjan Maria; Brendonck, Luc; Smit, Nico J. (2018)
    Haemogregarines (Apicomplexa: Adeleiorina) are a diverse group of haemoparasites reported from almost all vertebrate classes. The most commonly recorded haemogregarines to parasitize anurans are species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908. To date 16 Hepatozoon species have been described from anurans in Africa, with only a single species, Hepatozoon hyperolli (Hoare, 1932), infecting a member of the Hyperoliidae. Furthermore, only two Hepatozoon species are known from South African anurans, namely Hepatozoon theileri (Laveran, 1905) and Hepatozoon ixoxo Netherlands, Cook and Smit, 2014, from Amietia delalandii (syn. Amietia quecketti) and three Sclerophrys species, respectively. Blood samples were collected from a total of 225 individuals representing nine hyperoliid species from several localities throughout northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Twenty frogs from three species were found positive for haemogregarines, namely Afrixalus fornasinii (6/14), Hyperolius argus (2/39), and Hyperolius marmoratus (12/74). Based on morphological characteristics, morphometrics and molecular findings three new haemogregarine species, Hepatozoon involucrum Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp., Hepatozoon tenuis Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp. and Hepatozoon thori Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp., are described from hyperoliid hosts. Furthermore, molecular analyses show anuran Hepatozoon species to be a separate monophyletic group, with species isolated from African hosts forming a monophyletic clade within this cluster.
  • Muterko, Alexandr; Kalendar, Ruslan; Salina, Elena (2016)
    In wheat, the vernalization requirement is mainly controlled by the VRN genes. Different species of hexaploid and tetraploid wheat are widely used as genetic source for new mutant variants and alleles for fundamental investigations and practical breeding programs. In this study, VRN-A1 and VRN-B1 were analysed for 178 accessions representing six tetraploid wheat species (Triticum dicoccoides, T. dicoccum, T. turgidum, T. polonicum, T. carthlicum, T. durum) and five hexaploid species (T. compactum, T. sphaerococcum, T. spelta, T. macha, T. vavilovii).
  • Wysok, Beata; Wojtacka, Joanna; Kivistö, Rauni (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic markers associated with Campylobacter infection in humans. A total of 104 Campylobacter isolates obtained from poultry and humans were examined for the presence of nine virulence genes and their ability to adhere to, invade and produce cytotoxin were defined using HeLa cells. The diversity of the Campylobacter spp. isolates was studied based on sequencing of the SVR-region of flaA gene. Altogether 45 flaA-SVR alleles were identified among 104 Campylobacter isolates of poultry and human origin. All Campylobacter isolates possessed flaA, cadF and racR genes involved in adherence. Accordingly, all poultry and human isolates exhibited adherence towards HeLa cells at mean levels of 0.95% and 0.82% of starting viable inoculum, respectively. The genes involved in invasion (iam and pldA) and cytotoxin production (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) were also widely distributed among the human and poultry Campylobacter isolates. Significantly higher invasiveness was observed for poultry isolates (mean level of 0.002% of starting bacterial inoculum) compared to human isolates (0.0005%). Interestingly the iam gene, associated with invasion, was more common in human (100%) than poultry (84%) isolates, and the poultry isolates lacking the iam gene showed a marked reduction in their ability to invade HeLa cells. Moreover, virB11 was present in 22% of the poultry and 70.4% of the human isolates. Strains lacking virB11 showed a slight reduction in invasion, however in the absence of iam even the poultry isolates containing virB11 were unable to invade HeLa cells. The mean cytotoxicity of Campylobacter isolates from poultry and human was 26.7% and 38.7%, respectively. Strains missing both the cdtB and cdtC genes were non-cytotoxic compared to strains containing all three cdtABC genes, which were the most cytotoxic among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from both sources. No cytotoxic effect was observed in only 4% of poultry and 5.6% of human isolates.
  • Mackenzie, Kathryn Kuligowska; Coelho, Livia Lopes; Lutken, Henrik; Mueller, Renate (2019)
    The PEBP family comprises proteins that function as key regulators of flowering time throughout the plant kingdom and they also regulate growth and plant architecture. Within the PEBP protein family, three subfamilies can be distinguished in angiosperms: MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1-like (MFT), FLOWERING LOCUS T-like (FT-like), and TERMINAL FLOWER1-like (TFL1-like). Taking advantage of the genome sequences available from K. fedtschenkoi and K. laxiflora, we performed computational analysis to identify the members of the PEBP gene family in these species. The analyses revealed the existence of 11 PEBP genes in K. fedtschenkoi and 18 in K. laxiflora, which are clustered in two clades: FT-like and TFL1-like. The PEBP genes had conserved gene structure and the proteins had highly conserved amino acid sequences in the positions crucial for the protein functions. The analysis of Ka/Ks ratio revealed that most recently duplicated genes are under positive selection. Despite being an economically important genus, the genetics underlying the regulation of flowering in Kalanchoe is poorly understood. The results of this study may provide a new insight into the molecular control of flowering that will allow further studies on flowering control in Kalanchoe.
  • Plutzer, Judit; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Kucsera, Istvan; Dorbek-Kolin, Elisabeth; Soba, Barbara; Sreter, Tamas; Imre, Kalman; Omeragic, Jasmin; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Bobic, Branko; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Lucinger, Snjezana; Stefanovic, Lorena Lazaric; Kucinar, Jasmina; Sroka, Jacek; Deksne, Gunita; Keidane, Dace; Kvac, Martin; Huzova, Zuzana; Karanis, Panagiotis (2018)
    Introduction: This paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. an d Giardia spp. in humans, animals and the environment in 10 countries in the eastern part of Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Methods: Published scientific papers and conference proceedings from the international and local literature, official national health service reports, national databases and doctoral theses in local languages were reviewed to provide an extensive overview on the epidemiology, diagnostics and research on these pathogens, as well as analyse knowledge gaps and areas for further research. Results: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were found to be common in eastern Europe, but the results from different countries are difficult to compare because of variations in reporting practices and detection methodologies used. Conclusion: Upgrading and making the diagnosis/detection procedures more uniform is recommended throughout the region. Public health authorities should actively work towards increasing reporting and standardising reporting practices as these prerequisites for the reported data to be valid and therefore necessary for appropriate control plans.
  • Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Voutilainen, Liina; Lehmusto, R.; Henttonen, H.; Lappalainen, Maija; Kallio-Kokko, H.; Vaheri, A.; Vapalahti, O. (2016)
    Ljungan virus (LV) is a picornavirus related to human parechoviruses (HPeV). The virus has been found in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and several other rodent species, and suggested to have zoonotic potential. Thus far, seroepidemiological data on LV infections in humans are scarce. In this study, we aimed to characterize the demographic and geographical distribution of LV-reactive antibodies in Finland, and to investigate its occurrence in patients suspected of having a rodent-borne disease, nephropathia epidemica (NE) caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Using an immunofluorescence assay (LV strain 145SLG), we screened human sera (n = 1378) and found LV-reactive antibodies in 36% of samples. The probability of possessing LV-reactive antibodies peaked at age of 14 years, suggesting that most infections occur in childhood. The prevalence of LV-reactive antibodies was significantly higher in the urbanized area surrounding Helsinki than in more rural Central Finland. These findings are uncharacteristic of a rodent-borne pathogen, and therefore we consider human-to-human transmission of one or several Ljungan-like viruses as a likely cause for most of the observed antibody responses.
  • Rahmouni, Chahrazed; Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Simkova, Andrea (2018)
    Seven new species of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) isolated from the gills of six cichlid host species belonging to four tribes and sampled from the Congolese coastline of Lake Tanganyika (LT) are described: Cichlidogyrus adkoningsi sp. nov. from Cyphotilapia frontosa (tribe Cyphotilapiini); C. koblmuelleri sp. nov. from Cardiopharynx schoutedeni (Ectodini); C. habluetzeli sp. nov. from C. schoutedeni and C. frontosa; C. antoineparisellei sp. nov. from Interochromis loocki (Tropheini); C. masilyai sp. nov. from Petrochromis orthognathus (Tropheini); C. salzburgeri sp. nov. from P. trewavasae, and C. sergemorandi sp. nov. from Tylochromis polylepis (Tylochromini). This study represents the first parasitological examination of cyphotilapiine cichlid hosts. Representatives of the Tanganyikan ectodine, tropheine, and tylochromine cichlids previously sampled from various localities in the lake yielded nine, twelve, and two described species of Cichlidogyrus, respectively. The study further includes a morphological characterization of the male copulatory organ of six undescribed species of Cichlidogyrus found on the gills of the tropheines I. loocki and P. orthognathus, and on those of Callochromis melanostigma and Xenotilapia flavipinnis (both Ectodini). Geographical variation in the monogenean fauna of I. loocki was observed. The most closely related cichlid species investigated in this study harboured Cichlidogyrus spp. exhibiting some similarities in their sclerotized structures. Thus, our paper provides additional evidence of the high species richness of Cichlidogyrus and the link with their hosts's phylogenetic affinities in LT.
  • Abudurexiti, Abulikemu; Adkins, Scott; Alioto, Daniela; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Ballinger, Matthew J.; Bente, Dennis A.; Beer, Martin; Bergeron, Eric; Blair, Carol D.; Briese, Thomas; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Burt, Felicity J.; Calisher, Charles H.; Chang, Chenchen; Charrel, Remi N.; Choi, Il Ryong; Clegg, J. Christopher S.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Deng, Fei; Di Serio, Francesco; Digiaro, Michele; Drebot, Michael A.; Duan, Xiaomei; Ebihara, Hideki; Elbeaino, Toufic; Ergunay, Koray; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Garrison, Aura R.; Gao, George Fu; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul J.; Groschup, Martin H.; Guenther, Stephan; Haenni, Anne-Lise; Hall, Roy A.; Hepojoki, Jussi; Hewson, Roger; Hu, Zhihong; Hughes, Holly R.; Jonson, Miranda Gilda; Junglen, Sandra; Klempa, Boris; Klingstrom, Jonas; Kou, Chun; Laenen, Lies; Lambert, Amy J.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Liu, Dan; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Luo, Tao; Lu, Chuanwei; Maes, Piet; de Souza, William Marciel; Marklewitz, Marco; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Matsuno, Keita; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Minutolo, Maria; Mirazimi, Ali; Moming, Abulimiti; Muehlbach, Hans-Peter; Naidu, Rayapati; Navarro, Beatriz; Teixeira Nunes, Marcio Roberto; Palacios, Gustavo; Papa, Anna; Pauvolid-Correa, Alex; Paweska, Janusz T.; Qiao, Jie; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Resende, Renato O.; Romanowski, Victor; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Salvato, Maria S.; Sasaya, Takahide; Shen, Shu; Shi, Xiaohong; Shirako, Yukio; Simmonds, Peter; Sironi, Manuela; Song, Jin-Won; Spengler, Jessica R.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Su, Zhengyuan; Sun, Surong; Tang, Shuang; Turina, Massimo; Wang, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hualin; Wang, Jun; Wei, Taiyun; Whitfield, Anna E.; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yujiang; Zhou, Xueping; Zhu, Liying; Kuhn, Jens H. (2019)
    In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Bunyavirales was amended by creation of two new families, four new subfamilies, 11 new genera and 77 new species, merging of two species, and deletion of one species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).