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  • Skarp, C. P. A.; Hanninen, M-L; Rautelin, Hilpi I (2016)
    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coil, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Cainpylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
  • Frentz, Dineke; Van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Abecasis, Ana B.; Albert, Jan; Hamouda, Osamah; Jorgensen, Louise B.; Kucherer, Claudia; Struck, Daniel; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Asjo, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Beshkov, Danail; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kolupajeva, Tatjana; Korn, Klaus; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stockl, Elisabeth; Sonnerborg, Anders; Stanekova, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Boucher, Charles A. B.; SPREAD Programme; Ristola, Matti A (2014)
  • de Haan, Caroline P A; Kivistö, Rauni I; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Corander, Jukka; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa (2010)
  • Bozcal, Elif; Eldem, Vahap; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael (2018)
    Background. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important bacterium and responsible for many bloodstream infections, including urinary tract infections and even fatal bacteremia. The aim of this research was to investigate whether ExPEC strains isolated from Turkish blood cultures have a relationship between 16S rRNA based phylogenetic clusters and antibiotic resistance profiles, virulence factors or clonal lineages. Methods. Phenotypically identified ExPEC blood culture isolates (n = 104) were included in this study. The 16S rRNA partial sequence analysis was performed for genotypic identification of ExPEC isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility and Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase testing of isolates were performed. Phylogenetic classification (A, B1, B2 and D), Multi Locus Sequence Typing analysis and virulence-associated genes were investigated. Results. Based on 16S rRNA partial sequence analysis, 97 out of 104 (93.26%) ExPEC isolates were confirmed as E. coli. Ampicillin (74.22%) and cefuroxime axetil (65.97%) resistances had the highest frequencies among the ExPEC isolates. In terms of phylogenetic classification of ExPEC, D (38.14%, 37/97) was the most prevalent group after A (29.89%, 29/97), B2 (20.61%, 20/97), and B1 (11.34%, 11/97). The sequence types of the 20 ExPEC isolates belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Ten isolates out of 20 (50.0%) were identified as ST131. The other STs were ST95 (n=1), ST14 (n=1), ST10 (n=1), ST69 (n=1), ST1722 (n=2), ST141 (n=1), ST88 (n=1), ST80 (n=1), and ST998 (n=1). Of the ST131 strains, six (60%, 6/10) represented serogroup O25. The most common virulence factor genes were serum resistance factor gene, traT (55.7%) aerobactin siderophore receptor and yersiniabactin encoding genes iutA (45.3%) and fyuA (50.5%), respectively. In addition, PAI (41.2%), iroN (23.7%), hlyA (15.4%), kpsII (13.4%), ompT (13.4%), papG (12.4%), iss (9.3%), cnf1 (7.2%), ibeA (2.06%), and sfaS (2.06%) genes were present in the ExPEC isolates. Conclusion. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic relationship tree analysis showed that a large cluster was present among 97 ExPEC isolates along with related reference strains. There were 21 main clusters with 32 closely related subclusters. Based on our findings, different clonal lineages of ExPEC can display different antibiotic susceptibilities and virulence properties. We also concluded that virulence factors were not distributed depending on phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D). The ExPEC isolates belonging to the same phylogenetic group and sequence type could display different resistance and virulence characteristics.