Browsing by Subject "MOLECULAR-PATTERNS"

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  • Deger, Aysin Guzel; Scherzer, Sönke; Nuhkat, Maris; Kedzierska, Justyna; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael; Unyayar, Serpil; Boudsocq, Marie; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M. Rob G. (2015)
    During infection plants recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), and this leads to stomatal closure. This study analyzes the molecular mechanisms underlying this MAMP response and its interrelation with ABA signaling. Stomata in intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants were stimulated with the bacterial MAMP flg22, or the stress hormone ABA, by using the noninvasive nanoinfusion technique. Intracellular double-barreled microelectrodes were applied to measure the activity of plasma membrane ion channels. Flg22 induced rapid stomatal closure and stimulated the SLAC1 and SLAH3 anion channels in guard cells. Loss of both channels resulted in cells that lacked flg22-induced anion channel activity and stomata that did not close in response to flg22 or ABA. Rapid flg22-dependent stomatal closure was impaired in plants that were flagellin receptor (FLS2)-deficient, as well as in the ost1-2 (Open Stomata 1) mutant, which lacks a key ABA-signaling protein kinase. By contrast, stomata of the ABA protein phosphatase mutant abi1-1 (ABscisic acid Insensitive 1) remained flg22-responsive. These data suggest that the initial steps in flg22 and ABA signaling are different, but that the pathways merge at the level of OST1 and lead to activation of SLAC1 and SLAH3 anion channels.
  • Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R.; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T. (2016)
    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohyl mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) - overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohyl mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohyl line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses.
  • Syed, Mansoor Ali; Shah, Dilip; Das, Pragnya; Andersson, Sture; Pryhuber, Gloria; Bhandari, Vineet (2019)
    Hyperoxia-induced injury to the developing lung, impaired alveolarization, and dysregulated vascularization are critical factors in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); however, mechanisms for hyperoxia-induced development of BPD are not fully known. In this study, we show that TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1) is upregulated in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal murine lungs as well as in tracheal aspirates and lungs of human neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and BPD as an adaptive response to survival in hyperoxia. Inhibition of TREM-1 function using an siRNA approach or deletion of the Trem 1 gene in mice showed enhanced lung inflammation, alveolar damage, and mortality of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice. The treatment of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice with agonistic TREM-1 antibody decreased lung inflammation, improved alveolarization, and was associated with diminished necroptosis-regulating protein RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3). Mechanistically, we show that TREM-1 activation alleviates lung inflammation and improves alveolarization through downregulating RIPK3-mediated necroptosis and NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3) inflammasome activation in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice. These data show that activating TREM-1, enhancing angiopoietin 1 signaling, or blocking the RIPK3-mediated necroptosis pathway may be used in new therapeutic interventions to control adverse effects of hyperoxia in the development of BPD.