Browsing by Subject "MOLECULAR-WEIGHT"

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  • Costa, Clarinda; Liu, Zehua; Martins, João Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Rahikkala, Antti Tuomas Antero; Li, Wei; Seitsonen, Jani; Ruokolainen, Janne; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Aguiar- Ricardo, Ana; Corvo, M. Luísa; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    Here, a continuous two-step glass-capillary microfluidic technique to produce a multistage oral delivery system is reported. Insulin is successfully encapsulated into liposomes, which are coated with chitosan to improve their mucoadhesion. The encapsulation in an enteric polymer offers protection from the harsh gastric conditions. Insulin permeability is enhanced across an intestinal monolayer.
  • Asmala, E.; Autio, R.; Kaartokallio, H.; Pitkanen, L.; Stedmon, C. A.; Thomas, D. N. (2013)
  • Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Lingxi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    This study investigated the mechanisms of the co-migration of phytic acid during beta-glucan isolation and its contribution to the retardation of starch hydrolysis in vitro. During the isolation, phytic acid precipitated together with beta-glucan when ethanol was added as the precipitation solvent. The precipitation of phytic acid was reduced by lowering the pH or the ethanol concentration. When 20% (NH4)(2)SO4 was used as the precipitation solvent, only minor phytic acid was found in isolated beta-glucan, because phytic acid did not precipitate by this solvent. In the in vitro starch hydrolysis test, the isolated oat beta-glucan (OBG) containing 3.9% co-migrated phytic acid showed better retardation effect than OBG containing 0.6% phytic acid. Therefore, we concluded that the co-migration of phytic acid was dependent on the chosen isolation procedure and conditions, and both intrinsic phytic acid and viscosity contributed to the retardation of starch hydrolysis.
  • Elovaara, Samu; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Asmala, Eero; Tamelander, Tobias; Kaartokallio, Hermanni (2021)
    Microbial consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic carbon in the pelagic food web is an important component of the global C cycle. We studied C cycling in two phytoplankton-bacteria systems (non-axenic cultures of a dinoflagellate Apocalathium malmogiense and a cryptophyte Rhodomonas marina) in two complementary experiments. In the first experiment we grew phytoplankton and bacteria in nutrient-replete conditions and followed C processing at early exponential growth phase and twice later when the community had grown denser. Cell-specific primary production and total community respiration were up to 4 and 7 times higher, respectively, in the A. malmogiense treatments. Based on the optical signals, accumulating dissolved organic C (DOC) was degraded more in the R. marina treatments, and the rate of bacterial production to primary production was higher. Thus, the flow of C from phytoplankton to bacteria was relatively higher in R. marina treatments than in A. malmogiense treatments, which was further supported by faster C-14 transfer from phytoplankton to bacterial biomass. In the second experiment we investigated consumption of the phytoplankton-derived DOC by bacteria. DOC consumption and transformation, bacterial production, and bacterial respiration were all higher in R. marina treatments. In both experiments A. malmogiense supported a bacterial community predominated by bacteria specialized in the utilization of less labile DOC (class Bacteroidia), whereas R. marina supported a community predominated by copiotrophic Alphaand Gammaproteobacteria. Our findings suggest that large dinoflagellates cycle relatively more C between phytoplankton biomass and the inorganic C pool, whereas small cryptophytes direct relatively more C to the microbial loop.
  • Brandão, L. P. M.; Brighenti, L. S.; Staehr, P. A.; Asmala, E.; Massicotte, P.; Tonetta, D.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Pujoni, D.; Bezerra-Neto, J. F. (2018)
    Despite the increasing understanding about differences in carbon cycling between temperate and tropical freshwater systems, our knowledge on the importance of organic matter (OM) pools on light absorption properties in tropical lakes is very scarce. We performed a factorial mesocosm experiment in a tropical lake (Minas Gerais, Brazil) to evaluate the effects of increased concentrations of al-lochthonous and autochthonous OM, and differences in light availability on the light absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Autochthonous OM deriving from phytoplankton (similar to Chl a) was stimulated by addition of nutrients, while OM from degradation of terrestrial leaves increased allochthonous OM, and neutral shading was used to manipulate light availability. Effects of the additions and shading on DOC, Chl a, nutrients, total suspended solid concentrations (TSM) and spectral CDOM absorption were monitored every 3 days. CDOM quality was characterized by spectral indices (S250-450, S275-295, S350-450, S-R and SUVA(254)). Effects of carbon sources and shading on the spectral CDOM absorption was investigated through principal component (PCA) and redundancy (RDA) analyses. The two different OM sources affected CDOM quality very differently and shading had minor effects on OM levels, but significant effects on OM quality, especially in combination with nutrient additions. Spectral indices (S250-450 and S-R) were mostly affected by allochthonous OM addition. The PCA showed that enrichment by allochthonous carbon had a strong effect on the CDOM spectra in the range between 300 and 400 nm, while the increase in autochthonous carbon increased absorption at wavelengths below 350 nm. Our study shows that small inputs of allochthonous OM can have large effects on the spectral light absorption compared to large production of autochthonous OM, with important implications for carbon cycling in tropical lakes.
  • Sodupe Ortega, Enrique; Sanz-Garcia, Andres; Pernia-Espinoza, Alpha; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen (2019)
    Hybrid constructs represent substantial progress in tissue engineering (TE) towards producing implants of a clinically relevant size that recapitulate the structure and multicellular complexity of the native tissue. They are created by interlacing printed scaffolds, sacrificial materials, and cell-laden hydrogels. A suitable biomaterial is a polycaprolactone (PCL); however, due to the higher viscosity of this biopolymer, three-dimensional (3D) printing of PCL is slow, so reducing PCL print times remains a challenge. We investigated parameters, such as nozzle shape and size, carriage speed, and print temperature, to find a tradeoff that speeds up the creation of hybrid constructs of controlled porosity. We performed experiments with conical, cylindrical, and cylindrical shortened nozzles and numerical simulations to infer a more comprehensive understanding of PCL flow rate. We found that conical nozzles are advised as they exhibited the highest shear rate, which increased the flow rate. When working at a low carriage speed, conical nozzles of a small diameter tended to form-flatten filaments and became highly inefficient. However, raising the carriage speed revealed shortcomings because passing specific values created filaments with a heterogeneous diameter. Small nozzles produced scaffolds with thin strands but at long building times. Using large nozzles and a high carriage speed is recommended. Overall, we demonstrated that hybrid constructs with a clinically relevant size could be much more feasible to print when reaching a tradeoff between temperature, nozzle diameter, and speed.
  • West, Mark A.; Hickson, Aynsley C.; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa; Lloyd-Jones, Gareth (2014)
    Lignin preparations from kraft and sulfite pulping, steam explosion, and enzyme saccharification processes were assessed as substrates for lignin polymerization catalyzed by Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThL). Oxygen consumption associated with laccase catalyzed oxidation of the selected lignins was measured using a microplate-based oxygen assay. Laccase-induced changes in the molecular masses of the lignin polymers were assessed with aqueous-alkaline size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and changes in monomeric phenolics by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Obtaining consistent results in the lignin-laccase assay system required careful pH monitoring and control. All lignin preparations were oxidized by ThL, the rate being highest for steam-exploded eucalypt and lowest for enzyme-saccharified lignin. Comparing lignins, higher lignin-laccase reactivity was correlated with lower lignin molecular mass and higher amounts of monomeric phenolics. Solubility was not an indicator of reactivity. Steam-exploded and lignosulfonate-treated pine preparations were further fractionated by ultrafiltration to determine what molecular mass fractions were the most reactive in ThL catalyzed oxidation. Both retentate (> 3kDa), and to a lesser degree permeate (<3kDa), fractions were reactive.
  • Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa H.; Vikgren, Päivi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2017)
    Viscosity of cereal beta-glucan during digestion is considered to be a vital factor for its health effects. Thus, studies on solution properties and gelation are essential for understanding the mechanisms of the beta-glucan functionality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dissolution temperature on gelation of cereal beta-glucan at low concentrations that are relevant for food products. The rheological properties of oat and barley beta-glucans (OBG and BBG) using three dissolution temperatures (37 degrees C, 57 degrees C and 85 degrees C) at low concentration (1.5% and 1%, respectively) were studied for 7 days. Additionally, the beta-glucans were oxidised with 70 mM H2O2 and 1 mM FeSO4 x 7H(2)O as a catalyst, to evaluate the consequence of oxidative degradation on the gelation properties. The study showed that dissolution at 85 degrees C did not result in gelation. The optimal dissolution temperature for gelation of OBG was 37 degrees C and for gelation of BBG 57 degrees C. At these temperatures, also the oxidised OBG and BBG gelled, although the gel strength was somewhat lower than in the non-oxidised ones. Gelation was suggested to require partial dissolution of beta-glucan, which depended on the molar mass and aggregation state of the beta-glucan molecule. Therefore, the state of beta-glucan in solution and its thermal treatment history may affect its technological and physiological functionality. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Zinovyev, Grigory; Sulaeva, Irina; Podzimek, Stepan; Roessner, Dierk; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Sumerskii, Ivan; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje (2018)
    Determination of molecular weight parameters of native and, in particular, technical lignins are based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) approaches. However, no matter which approach is used, either conventional SEC with a refractive index detector and calibration with standards or multi-angle light scattering (MALS) detection at 488nm, 633nm, 658nm, or 690nm, all variants can be severely erroneous. The lack of calibration standards with high structural similarity to lignin impairs the quality of the molar masses determined by conventional SEC, and the typical fluorescence of (technical) lignins renders the corresponding MALS data rather questionable. Application of MALS detection at 785nm by using an infrared laser largely overcomes those problems and allows for a reliable and reproducible determination of the molar mass distributions of all types of lignins, which has been demonstrated in this study for various and structurally different analytes, such as kraft lignins, milled-wood lignin, lignosulfonates, and biorefinery lignins. The topics of calibration, lignin fluorescence, and lignin UV absorption in connection with MALS detection are critically discussed in detail, and a reliable protocol is presented. Correction factors based on MALS measurements have been determined for commercially available calibration standards, such as pullulan and polystyrene sulfonate, so that now more reliable mass data can be obtained also if no MALS system is available and these conventional calibration standards have to be resorted to.
  • Agustin, Melissa; Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Lahtinen, Maarit; Hilden, Kristiina; Lundell, Taina; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2021)
    Lignin is an abundant natural feedstock that offers great potential as a renewable substitute for fossil-based resources. Its polyaromatic structure and unique properties have attracted significant research efforts. The advantages of an enzymatic over chemical or thermal approach to construct or deconstruct lignins are that it operates in mild conditions, requires less energy, and usually uses non-toxic chemicals. Laccase is a widely investigated oxidative enzyme that can catalyze the polymerization and depolymerization of lignin. Its dual nature causes a challenge in controlling the overall direction of lignin-laccase catalysis. In this Review, the factors that affect laccase-catalyzed lignin polymerization were summarized, evaluated, and compared to identify key features that favor lignin polymerization. In addition, a critical assessment of the conditions that enable production of novel lignin hybrids via laccase-catalyzed grafting was presented. To assess the industrial relevance of laccase-assisted lignin valorization, patented applications were surveyed and industrial challenges and opportunities were analyzed. Finally, our perspective in realizing the full potential of laccase in building lignin-based materials for advanced applications was deduced from analysis of the limitations governing laccase-assisted lignin polymerization and grafting.
  • Avila, Marcelo P.; Brandao, Luciana P. M.; Brighenti, Ludmila S.; Tonetta, Denise; Reis, Mariana P.; Staehr, Peter A.; Asmala, Eero; Amado, Andre M.; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Bezerra-Neto, Jose F.; Nascimento, Andrea M. A. (2019)
    Bacterioplankton communities have a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. Still the interaction between microbial community and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwater ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here, we report results from a 12-day mesocosm study performed in the epilimnion of a tropical lake, in which inorganic nutrients and allochthonous DOM were supplemented under full light and shading. Although the production of autochthonous DOM triggered by nutrient addition was the dominant driver of changes in bacterial community structure, temporal covariations between DOM optical proxies and bacterial community structure revealed a strong influence of community shifts on DOM fate. Community shifts were coupled to a successional stepwise alteration of the DOM pool, with different fractions being selectively consumed by specific taxa Typical freshwater clades as Limnohabitans and Sporichthyaceae were associated with consumption of low molecular weight carbon, whereas Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria utilized higher molecular weight carbon, indicating differences in DOM preference among Glades. Importantly. Verrucomicrobiaceae were important in the turnover of freshly produced autochthonous DOM, ultimately affecting light availability and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Our findings suggest that taxonomically defined bacterial assemblages play definite roles when influencing DOM fate, either by changing specific fractions of the DOM pool or by regulating light availability and DOC levels. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Pozharitskaya, Olga N.; Shikov, Alexander N.; Faustova, Natalya M.; Obluchinskaya, Ekaterina D.; Kosman, Vera M.; Vuorela, Heikki; Makarov, Valery G. (2018)
    Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide found in Fucus (F.) vesiculosus. The pharmacokinetic profiling of active compounds is essential for drug development and approval. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of fucoidan in rats after a single-dose oral administration. Fucoidan was isolated from F. vesiculosus. The method of measuring anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity by amidolytic assay was used to analyze the plasma and tissue concentrations of fucoidan. The tissue distribution of fucoidan after intragastric administration to the rats was characterized, and it exhibited considerable heterogeneity. Fucoidan preferentially accumulates in the kidneys (AUC(0-t) = 10.74 mu g.h/g; C-max = 1.23 mu g/g after 5 h), spleen (AUC(0-t) = 6.89 mu g.h/g; C-max = 0.78 mu g/g after 3 h), and liver (AUC(0-t) = 3.26 mu g.h/g; C-max = 0.53 mu g/g after 2 h) and shows a relatively long absorption time and extended circulation in the blood, with a mean residence time (MRT) = 6.79 h. The outcome of this study provides additional scientific data for traditional use of fucoidan-containing plants and offers tangible support for the continued development of new effective pharmaceuticals using fucoidan.
  • Ma, Pei Lian; Lavertu, Marc; Winnik, Francoise M.; Buschmann, Michael D. (2017)
    The stability of DNA/chitosan complexes upon exposure to hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify DNA release. Only the highly charged heparin was found to release DNA from the complexes. Complex stability upon exposure to heparin increased with the degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan and with the ratio of chitosan amino groups to DNA phosphate groups (N/P ratio) in the complexes. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry revealed that among polyanions tested, only heparin has a binding affinity to chitosan approaching that of DNA and can therefore release DNA from the complexes. These results also indicate that anionic components with sufficiently high charge density can induce extracellular or intracellular release of DNA, the former negatively affecting delivery efficiency while the latter is required for gene transfer to occur. Our findings also suggest that increased N/P ratio of the complexes can play an important role in preventing premature dissociation of DNA/polycation complexes upon interaction with anionic components in extracellular milieu. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2020)
    Wood biomass is an abundant renewable source of materials, but due to the accelerating depletion of natural resources, it is important to explore new ways to use it in a more sustainable manner. Modern technologies enable the recovery and valorization of the main components of wood—namely, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses—contributing to sustainability. However, the method of isolation and resulting structure and purity of lignocellulosic materials determine their functionality and applicability. This review discusses the properties of all three main wood-based compounds that can stabilize emulsions, a class of industrial dispersions that are widely used in life science applications and chemicals. Due to the multi-billion-dollar annual market for hydrocolloids, the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, coating, and paint industries are actively seeking new sustainable emulsion stabilizers that fulfill the demanding requirements regarding safety and functionality. Wood-derived stabilizers facilitate various mechanisms involved in emulsion stabilization: (1) development of amphiphilic structures that decrease interfacial tension, (2) stabilization of interfaces by particles according to the Pickering theory, and (3) increase in the viscosity of emulsions’ continuous phase. This review presents pathways for treating cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses to achieve efficient stabilization and provides suggestions for their broad use in emulsions.
  • Fowler, Michael; Duhamel, Jean; Qiu, Xing Ping; Korchagina, Evgeniya; Winnik, Francoise M. (2018)
    Aqueous solutions of a series of monodisperse poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)s end-labeled with n-butyl-1-pyrene at one or both chain ends (Py-n-PNIPAMs with n=1 or 2) were studied by turbidimetry, light scattering, and fluorescence. For a given polymer concentration and heating rate, the cloud point (T-c) of an aqueous Py-n-PNIPAM solution, determined by turbidimetry, was found to increase with the number-average molecular weight (M-n) of the polymer. The steady-state fluorescence spectra and time-resolved fluorescence decays of Py-n-PNIPAM aqueous solutions were analyzed and all parameters retrieved from these analyses were found to be affected as the solution temperature passed through T-c, the solution cloud point, and T-m, the temperature where dehydration of PNIPAM occurred. The trends obtained by fluorescence to characterize the aqueous Py-n-PNIPAM solutions as a function of temperature were found to be consistent with the model proposed for telechelic PNIPAM by Koga et al. in 2006. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2018, 56, 308-318
  • Haider, Malik Salman; Ahmad, Taufiq; Yang, Mengshi; Hu, Chen; Hahn, Lukas; Stahlhut, Philipp; Groll, Jurgen; Luxenhofer, Robert (2021)
    As one kind of "smart" material, thermogelling polymers find applications in biofabrication, drug delivery and regenerative medicine. In this work, we report a thermosensitive poly(2-oxazoline)/poly(2-oxazine) based diblock copolymer comprising thermosensitive/moderately hydrophobic poly(2-N-propyl-2-oxazine) (pPrOzi) and thermosensitive/moderately hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (pEtOx). Hydrogels were only formed when block length exceeded certain length (approximate to 100 repeat units). The tube inversion and rheological tests showed that the material has then a reversible sol-gel transition above 25 wt.% concentration. Rheological tests further revealed a gel strength around 3 kPa, high shear thinning property and rapid shear recovery after stress, which are highly desirable properties for extrusion based three-dimensional (3D) (bio) printing. Attributed to the rheology profile, well resolved printability and high stackability (with added laponite) was also possible. (Cryo) scanning electron microscopy exhibited a highly porous, interconnected, 3D network. The sol-state at lower temperatures (in ice bath) facilitated the homogeneous distribution of (fluorescently labelled) human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) in the hydrogel matrix. Post-printing live/dead assays revealed that the hADSCs encapsulated within the hydrogel remained viable (approximate to 97%). This thermoreversible and (bio) printable hydrogel demonstrated promising properties for use in tissue engineering applications.
  • Karjalainen, Erno; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenhu, Heikki (2015)
    The solution properties of statistical copolymers of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm) and cationic (3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (AMPTMA) have been studied. The phase behavior of the copolymers in aqueous solutions is strongly affected by the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiNTf2), NaCl, or both. Hydrophobic NTf2 counter ions bind to the AMPTMA repeating units. By adjusting the balance between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions the transition temperature of the copolymers may be tuned over a wide temperature range. It was observed that a homopolymer PAMPTMA undergoes an UCST-type phase separation in an aqueous solution in the presence of both NaCl and LiNTf2. When AMPTMA and NIPAm are present in the copolymer in nearly equal amounts both LCST and UCST can coexist. It was observed that the effect of LiNTf2 is similar to that of the salts in the kosmotropic end of the Hofmeister series for PNIPAm.