Browsing by Subject "MONOAMINE-OXIDASE"

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  • Semenova, Svetlana; Rozov, Stanislav; Panula, Pertti (2017)
    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) is an enzyme with multiple functions in vertebrates. COMT methylates and thus inactivates catecholamine neurotransmitters and metabolizes xenobiotic catechols. Gene polymorphism rs4680 that influences the enzymatic activity of COMT affects cognition and behavior in humans. The zebrafish is widely used as an experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research, but most aspects of COMT function in this species have remained uncharacterized. We hypothesized that both comt genes play essential roles in zebrafish. Both comt-a and comt-b were widely expressed in zebrafish tissues, but their relative abundance varied considerably. Homogenates of zebra fish organs, including the brain, showed enzymatic COMT activity that was the highest in the liver and kidney. Treatment of larval zebrafish with the COMT inhibitor Ro41-0960 shifted the balance of catecholamine metabolic pathways towards increased oxidative metabolism. Whole-body concentrations of dioxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a product of dopamine oxidation, were increased in the inhibitor treated larvae, although the dopamine levels were unchanged. Thus, COMT is likely to participate in the processing of catecholamine neurotransmitters in the zebrafish, but the inhibition of COMT in larval fish is compensated efficiently and does not have pronounced effects on dopamine levels. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Oliveira, Aline A.; Rog, Tomasz; da Silva, Alberico B. F.; Amaro, Rommie E.; Johnson, Mark S.; Postila, Pekka A. (2022)
    The outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is involved in multiple cellular functions such as apoptosis, inflammation and signaling via its membrane-associated and -embedded proteins. Despite the central role of the OMM in these vital phenomena, the structure and dynamics of the membrane have regularly been investigated in silico using simple two-component models. Accordingly, the aim was to generate the realistic multi-component model of the OMM and inspect its properties using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. All major lipid components, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylserine (PS), were included in the probed OMM models. Because increased levels of anionic PS lipids have potential effects on schizophrenia and, more specifically, on monoamine oxidase B enzyme activity, the effect of varying the PS concentration was explored. The MD simulations indicate that the complex membrane lipid composition (MLC) behavior is notably different from the two-component PC-PE model. The MLC changes caused relatively minor effects on the membrane structural properties such as membrane thickness or area per lipid; however, notable effects could be seen with the dynamical parameters at the water-membrane interface. Increase of PS levels appears to slow down lateral diffusion of all lipids and, in general, the presence of anionic lipids reduced hydration and slowed down the PE headgroup rotation. In addition, sodium ions could neutralize the membrane surface, when PI was the main anionic component; however, a similar effect was not seen for high PS levels. Based on these results, it is advisable for future studies on the OMM and its protein or ligand partners, especially when wanting to replicate the correct properties on the water-membrane interface, to use models that are sufficiently complex, containing anionic lipid types, PI in particular.
  • Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T.; Repo-Tiihonen, E.; Virkkunen, M.; Ollila, H. M.; Sulkava, Sonja; Jolanki, O.; Palotie, A.; Tiihonen, J. (2016)
    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N = 370, N = 5850 for controls, GWAS; N = 173, N = 3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.19 (1.53-3.14), P = 1.9 x 10(-5)). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951-LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR = 1.59 (1.37-1.85), P = 1.6 x 10(-9)) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (beta = 0.68, P = 0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder.
  • Nair, Preethy Sasidharan; Kuusi, Tuire; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Järvelä, Irma (2019)
    Musical training and performance require precise integration of multisensory and motor centres of the human brain and can be regarded as an epigenetic modifier of brain functions. Numerous studies have identified structural and functional differences between the brains of musicians and non-musicians and superior cognitive functions in musicians. Recently, music-listening and performance has also been shown to affect the regulation of several genes, many of which were identified in songbird singing. MicroRNAs affect gene regulation and studying their expression may give new insights into the epigenetic effect of music. Here, we studied the effect of 2 hours of classical music-performance on the peripheral blood microRNA expressions in professional musicians with respect to a control activity without music for the same duration. As detecting transcriptomic changes in the functional human brain remains a challenge for geneticists, we used peripheral blood to study music-performance induced microRNA changes and interpreted the results in terms of potential effects on brain function, based on the current knowledge about the microRNA function in blood and brain. We identified significant (FDR
  • Elovaara, Heli; Huusko, Teija; Maksimow, Mikael; Elima, Kati; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Skurnik, Mikael; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Siitonen, Anja; McPherson, Michael J.; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa (2015)
    Escherichia coli amine oxidase (ECAO), encoded by the tynA gene, catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aromatic amines into aldehydes through a well-established mechanism, but its exact biological role is unknown. We investigated the role of ECAO by screening environmental and human isolates for tynA and characterizing a tynA-deletion strain using microarray analysis and biochemical studies. The presence of tynA did not correlate with pathogenicity. In tynA+ Escherichia coli strains, ECAO enabled bacterial growth in phenylethylamine, and the resultant H2O2 was released into the growth medium. Some aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibited the enzymatic activity of ECAO, which could affect the growth of tynA+ bacteria. Our results suggest that tynA is a reserve gene used under stringent environmental conditions in which ECAO may, due to its production of H2O2, provide a growth advantage over other bacteria that are unable to manage high levels of this oxidant. In addition, ECAO, which resembles the human homolog hAOC3, is able to process an unknown substrate on human leukocytes.
  • Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo (2015)
    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773).
  • Ziermans, T.; Dumontheil, I.; Roggeman, C.; Peyrard-Janvid, M.; Matsson, H.; Kere, J.; Klingberg, T. (2012)