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  • Li, Sai; Rissanen, Ilona; Zeltina, Antra; Hepojoki, Jussi; Raghwani, Jayna; Harlos, Karl; Pybus, Oliver G.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Bowden, Thomas A. (2016)
    Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses.
  • Hautala, Laura C.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Pasanen, Annukka; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Chiu, Philip C. N.; Yeung, William S. B.; Loukovaara, Mikko; Bützow, Ralf; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne; Koistinen, Hannu (2020)
    Glycodelin is a major glycoprotein expressed in reproductive tissues, like secretory and decidualized endometrium. It has several reproduction related functions that are dependent on specific glycosylation, but it has also been found to drive differentiation of endometrial carcinoma cells toward a less malignant phenotype. Here we aimed to elucidate whether the glycosylation and function of glycodelin is altered in endometrial carcinoma as compared with a normal endometrium. We carried out glycan structure analysis of glycodelin expressed in HEC-1B human endometrial carcinoma cells (HEC-1B Gd) by mass spectrometry glycomics strategies. Glycans of HEC-1B Gd were found to comprise a typical mixture of high-mannose, hybrid, and complex-type N-glycans, often containing undecorated LacNAc (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) antennae. However, several differences, as compared with previously reported glycan structures of normal human decidualized endometrium-derived glycodelin isoform, glycodelin-A (GdA), were also found. These included a lower level of sialylation and more abundant poly-LacNAc antennae, some of which are fucosylated. This allowed us to select lectins that showed different binding to these classes of glycodelin. Despite the differences in glycosylation between HEC-1B Gd and GdA, both showed similar inhibitory activity on trophoblast cell invasion and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. For the detection of cancer associated glycodelin, we established a novel in situ proximity-ligation based histochemical staining method using a specific glycodelin antibody and UEAI lectin. We found that the UEAI reactive glycodelin was abundant in endometrial carcinoma, but virtually absent in normal endometrial tissue even when glycodelin was strongly expressed. In conclusion, we established a histochemical staining method for the detection of endometrial carcinoma-associated glycodelin and showed that this specific glycodelin is exclusively expressed in cancer, not in normal endometrium. Similar methods can be used for studies of other glycoproteins. Glycodelin is a major endometrial glycoprotein. The authors analyzed glycan structures of endometrial carcinoma associated glycodelin and established a novel glycodelin-glycoform specific histochemical staining method. With this, they showed that glycodelin is differentially glycosylated in endometrial carcinoma tissue, as compared to normal endometrium, representing a neoantigen with potential clinical applications.
  • Biswal, Ajaya K.; Soeno, Kazuo; Gandla, Madhavi Latha; Immerzeel, Peter; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Lucenius, Jessica; Serimaa, Ritva; Hahn, Michael G.; Moritz, Thomas; Jonsson, Leif J.; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Mellerowicz, Ewa J. (2014)
  • Heikkinen, T.; Silvennoinen, H.; Heinonen, S.; Vuorinen, T. (2016)
    Some studies have assessed the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children separately for moderate-to-severe and any influenza, but the definition used for identifying children with moderate-to-severe illness has not been validated. We analyzed clinical and socioeconomic data from two prospective cohort studies of respiratory infections among children aged
  • Kiyuka, Patience Kerubo; Meri, Seppo; Khattab, Ayman (2020)
    The malaria parasite has for long been thought to escape host complement attack as a survival strategy. However, it was only recently that complement evasion mechanisms of the parasite were described. Simultaneously, the role of complement in antibody-mediated naturally acquired and vaccine-induced protection against malaria has also been reported. Such findings should be considered in future vaccine design, given the current need to develop more efficacious vaccines against malaria. Parasite antigens derived from molecules mediating functions crucial for parasite survival, such as complement evasion, or parasite antigens against which antibody responses lead to an efficient complement attack could present new candidates for vaccines. In this review, we discuss recent findings on complement evasion by the malaria parasites and the emerging role of complement in antibody-mediated protection against malaria. We emphasize that immune responses to vaccines based on complement inhibitors should not only induce complement-activating antibodies but also neutralize the escape mechanisms of the parasite.
  • Ribas Salvador, Alexis; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuereb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Charbonnel, Nathalie (2011)
  • Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Korkeala, Hannu; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael (2015)
    Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are considered to be the most toxic substances known on earth and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food-poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agent by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and are listed among the six agents with the highest risk to be used as bioweapons. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of effective anti-botulism therapies to deal with the potential risk of exposure. Results In this study, a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was immunized with recombinant light chain of BoNT/E3 and an immune phage display library was constructed. After a multi-step panning, several antibody fragments (scFv, single chain fragment variable) with nanomolar affinities were isolated, that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of pure BoNT/E3 in vitro by targeting its light chain. Furthermore, three scFv were confirmed to neutralize BoNT/E3 induced paralysis in an ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay. The most effective neutralization (20LD50/mL, BoNT/E3) was observed with scFv ELC18, with a minimum neutralizing concentration at 0.3 nM. Furthermore, ELC18 was highly effective in vivo when administered as an scFv-Fc construct. Complete protection of 1LD50 BoNT/E3 was observed with 1.6 ng/dose in the mouse flaccid paralysis assay. Conclusion These scFv-Fcs antibodies are the first recombinant antibodies neutralizing BoNT/E by targeting its light chain. The human-like nature of the isolated antibodies is predicting a good tolerance for further clinical development.
  • Honkimaa, Anni; Kimura, Bryn; Sioofy-Khojine, Amir-Babak; Lin, Jake; Laiho, Jutta; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyöty, Heikki (2020)
    Coxsackie B (CVB) viruses have been associated with type 1 diabetes. We have recently observed that CVB1 was linked to the initiation of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes in Finnish children. Viral persistency in the pancreas is currently considered as one possible mechanism. In the current study persistent infection was established in pancreatic ductal and beta cell lines (PANC-1 and 1.1B4) using four different CVB1 strains, including the prototype strain and three clinical isolates. We sequenced 5 ' untranslated region (UTR) and regions coding for structural and non-structural proteins and the second single open reading frame (ORF) protein of all persisting CVB1 strains using next generation sequencing to identify mutations that are common for all of these strains. One mutation, K257R in VP1, was found from all persisting CVB1 strains. The mutations were mainly accumulated in viral structural proteins, especially at BC, DE, EF loops and C-terminus of viral capsid protein 1 (VP1), the puff region of VP2, the knob region of VP3 and infection-enhancing epitope of VP4. This showed that the capsid region of the viruses sustains various changes during persistency some of which could be hallmark(s) of persistency.
  • Peck, Michael W.; Smith, Theresa J.; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Austin, John W.; Bano, Luca; Bradshaw, Marite; Cuervo, Paula; Cheng, Luisa W.; Derman, Yagmur; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Fisher, Audrey; Hill, Karen K.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Lista, Florigio; Luquez, Carolina; Mazuet, Christelle; Pirazzini, Marco; Popoff, Michel R.; Rossetto, Ornella; Rummel, Andreas; Sesardic, Dorothea; Singh, Bal Ram; Stringer, Sandra C. (2017)
    Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future.
  • Yang, Kun; Park, Chae G.; Cheong, Cheolho; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Zhang, Shusheng; Zhang, Pei; He, Yingxia; Jiang, Lingyu; Huang, Hongping; Ding, Honghui; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Shaogang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Anyi; Xia, Lianxu; Bartra, Sara S.; Plano, Gregory V.; Skurnik, Mikael; Klena, John D.; Chen, Tie (2015)
    Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes plague. After Y. pestis overcomes the skin barrier, it encounters antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans and dendritic cells. They transport the bacteria from the skin to the lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial transmission are unclear. Langerhans cells (LCs) express Langerin (CD207), a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin. Furthermore, Y. pestis possesses exposed core oligosaccharides. In this study, we show that Y. pestis invades LCs and Langerin-expressing transfectants. However, when the bacterial core oligosaccharides are shielded or truncated, Y. pestis propensity to invade Langerhans and Langerin-expressing cells decreases. Moreover, the interaction of Y. pestis with Langerin-expressing transfectants is inhibited by purified Langerin, a DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin)-like molecule, an anti-CD207 antibody, purified core oligosaccharides and several oligosaccharides. Furthermore, covering core oligosaccharides reduces the mortality associated with murine infection by adversely affecting the transmission of Y. pestis to lymph nodes. These results demonstrate that direct interaction of core oligosaccharides with Langerin facilitates the invasion of LCs by Y. pestis. Therefore, Langerin-mediated binding of Y. pestis to APCs may promote its dissemination and infection.
  • Remes, Satu M.; Leijon, Helena L.; Vesterinen, Tiina J.; Arola, Johanna T.; Haglund, Caj H. (2019)
    Neuroendocrine neoplasias (NENs) are known to express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 1-5, which are G-protein-coupled cell membrane receptors. Somatostatin receptor imaging and therapy utilizes the SSTR expression. Synthetic somatostatin analogs with radioligands are used to detect primary tumors, metastases, and recurrent disease. Receptor analogs are also used for treating NENs. Furthermore, commercially available SSTR antibodies can be used for the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of SSTRs. We investigated different SSTR antibody clones applying diverse IHC protocol settings to identify reliable clones and feasible protocols for NENs. A tissue microarray including NENs from 12 different primary sites were stained. Only UMB clones were able to localize SSTR on the cell membranes of NENs. SSTR2 (UMB1) emerged as the most common subtype followed by SSTR5 (UMB4) and SSTR1 (UMB7). SSTR3 (UMB5) expression was mainly cytoplasmic. Yet, SSTR4 expression was weak and located primarily in the cytoplasm. Thus, appropriate IHC protocols, including proper positive and negative controls, represent requirements for high-quality NEN diagnostics and for planning personalized therapy.
  • Sarrett, Samantha M.; Keinanen, Outi; Dayts, Eric J.; Dewaele-Le Roi, Guillaume; Rodriguez, Cindy; Carnazza, Kathryn E.; Zeglis, Brian M. (2021)
    This approach leverages the rapid, bio-orthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between a radiolabeled tetrazine and a trans-cyclooctene-bearing antibody to enable pretargeted positron emission tomography imaging and endoradiotherapy in a murine model of cancer. Radiolabeled antibodies have shown promise as tools for both the nuclear imaging and endoradiotherapy of cancer, but the protracted circulation time of radioimmunoconjugates can lead to high radiation doses to healthy tissues. To circumvent this issue, we have developed an approach to positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) predicated on radiolabeling the antibody after it has reached its target within the body. This in vivo pretargeting strategy is based on the rapid and bio-orthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine (Tz) and trans-cyclooctene (TCO). Pretargeted PET imaging and RIT using TCO-modified antibodies in conjunction with Tz-bearing radioligands produce high activity concentrations in target tissues as well as reduced radiation doses to healthy organs compared to directly labeled radioimmunoconjugates. Herein, we describe how to prepare a TCO-modified antibody (humanized A33-TCO) as well as how to synthesize two Tz-bearing radioligands: one labeled with the positron-emitting radiometal copper-64 ([Cu-64]Cu-SarAr-Tz) and one labeled with the beta-emitting radiolanthanide lutetium-177 ([Lu-177]Lu-DOTA-PEG(7)-Tz). We also provide a detailed description of pretargeted PET and pretargeted RIT experiments in a murine model of human colorectal carcinoma. Proper training in both radiation safety and the handling of laboratory mice is required for the successful execution of this protocol.
  • Rissanen, Ilona; Stass, Robert; Krumm, Stefanie A.; Seow, Jeffrey; Hulswit, Ruben J.G.; Paesen, Guido C.; Hepojoki, Jussi; Vapalahti, O.; Lundkvist, Åke; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor; Doores, Katie J.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Bowden, Thomas A. (2020)
    The intricate lattice of Gn and Gc glycoprotein spike complexes on the hantavirus envelope facilitates host-cell entry and is the primary target of the neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response. Through study of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody termed mAb P-4G2, which neutralizes the zoonotic pathogen Puumala virus (PUUV), we provide a molecular-level basis for antibody-mediated targeting of the hantaviral glycoprotein lattice. Crystallographic analysis demonstrates that P-4G2 binds to a multi-domain site on PUUV Gc and may preclude fusogenic rearrangements of the glycoprotein that are required for host-cell entry. Furthermore, cryo-electron microscopy of PUUV-like particles in the presence of P-4G2 reveals a lattice-independent configuration of the Gc, demonstrating that P-4G2 perturbs the (Gn-Gc)4 lattice. This work provides a structure-based blueprint for rationalizing antibody-mediated targeting of hantaviruses.
  • Strandin, Tomas; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti (2018)
    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans. Both diseases are considered to be immunologically mediated but the exact pathological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Neutrophils are considered the first line of defense against invading microbes but little is still known of their role in virus infections. We wanted to study the role of neutrophils in HFRS using blood and tissue samples obtained from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV)-infected patients. We found that neutrophil activation products myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase, together with interleukin-8 (the major neutrophil chemotactic factor in humans), are strongly elevated in blood of acute PUUV-HFRS and positively correlate with kidney dysfunction, the hallmark clinical finding of HFRS. These markers localized mainly in the tubulointerstitial space in the kidneys of PUUV-HFRS patients suggesting neutrophil activation to be a likely component of the general immune response toward hantaviruses. We also observed increased levels of circulating extracellular histones at the acute stage of the disease supporting previous findings of neutrophil extracellular trap formation in PUUV-HFRS. Mechanistically, we did not find evidence for direct PUUV-mediated activation of neutrophils but instead primary blood microvascular endothelial cells acquired a pro-inflammatory phenotype and promoted neutrophil degranulation in response to PUUV infection in vitro. These results suggest that neutrophils are activated by hantavirus-infected endothelial cells and may contribute to the kidney pathology which determines the severity of HFRS.
  • Huhtamo, Eili; Cook, Shelley; Moureau, Gregory; Uzcategui, Nathalie Y.; Sironen, Tarja; Kuivanen, Suvi; Putkuri, Niina; Kurkela, Satu; Harbach, Ralph E.; Firth, Andrew E.; Vapalahti, Olli; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier (2014)
  • Lehtinen, Julia; Raki, Mari; Bergstrom, Kim A.; Uutela, Paivi; Lehtinen, Katariina; Hiltunen, Annukka; Pikkarainen, Jere; Liang, Huamin; Pitkanen, Sari; Maatta, Ann-Marie; Ketola, Raimo A.; Yliperttula, Marjo; Wirth, Thomas; Urtti, Arto (2012)
  • Seitz, Iris; Shaukat, Ahmed; Nurmi, Kurt; Ijäs, Heini; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Helder A.; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Linko, Veikko (2021)
    Nanostructures based on DNA self-assembly present an innovative way to address the increasing need for target-specific delivery of therapeutic molecules. Currently, most of the chemotherapeutics being used in clinical practice have undesired and exceedingly high off-target toxicity. This is a challenge in particular for small molecules, and hence, developing robust and effective methods to lower these side effects and enhance the antitumor activity is of paramount importance. Prospectively, these issues could be tackled with the help of DNA nanotechnology, which provides a route for the fabrication of custom, biocompatible, and multimodal structures, which can, to some extent, resist nuclease degradation and survive in the cellular environment. Similar to widely employed liposomal products, the DNA nanostructures (DNs) are loaded with selected drugs, and then by employing a specific stimulus, the payload can be released at its target region. This review explores several strategies and triggers to achieve targeted delivery of DNs. Notably, different modalities are explained through which DNs can interact with their respective targets as well as how structural changes triggered by external stimuli can be used to achieve the display or release of the cargo. Furthermore, the prospects and challenges of this technology are highlighted.
  • Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Narvanen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu (2014)
  • Rissanen, Ilona; Krumm, Stefanie A.; Stass, Robert; Whitaker, Annalis; Voss, James E.; Bruce, Emily A.; Rothenberger, Sylvia; Kunz, Stefan; Burton, Dennis R.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Botten, Jason W.; Bowden, Thomas A.; Doores, Katie J. (2021)
    Hantaviruses are a group of emerging pathogens capable of causing severe disease upon zoonotic transmission to humans. The mature hantavirus surface presents higher-order tetrameric assemblies of two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are responsible for negotiating host cell entry and constitute key therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that recombinantly derived Gn from Hantaan virus (HTNV) elicits a neutralizing antibody response (serum dilution that inhibits 50% infection [ID50], 1:200 to 1:850) in an animal model. Using antigen-specific B cell sorting, we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exhibiting neutralizing and non-neutralizing activity, termed mAb HTN-Gn1 and mAb nn-ITN-Gn2, respectively. Crystallographic analysis reveals that these mAbs target spatially distinct epitopes at disparate sites of the N-terminal region of the HTNV Gn ectodomain. Epitope mapping onto a model of the higher order (Gn-Gc)(4) spike supports the immune accessibility of the mAb HTN-Gn1 epitope, a hypothesis confirmed by electron cryo-tomography of the antibody with virus-like particles. These data define natively exposed regions of the hantaviral Gn that can be targeted in immunogen design. IMPORTANCE The spillover of pathogenic hantaviruses from rodent reservoirs into the human population poses a continued threat to human health. Here, we show that a recombinant form of the Hantaan virus (HTNV) surface-displayed glycoprotein, Gn, elicits a neutralizing antibody response in rabbits. We isolated a neutralizing (HTN-Gn1) and a non-neutralizing (nn-ITN-Gn2) monoclonal antibody and provide the first molecular-level insights into how the Gn glycoprotein may be targeted by the antibody-mediated immune response. These findings may guide rational vaccine design approaches focused on targeting the hantavirus glycoprotein envelope.