Browsing by Subject "MONOTERPENES"

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  • Mukrimin, Mukrimin; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimaenpaa, Minna; Sun, Hui; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2019)
    Main conclusion Two terpene compounds and four genes were identified as potential biomarkers for further evaluation for Scots pine susceptibility or tolerance against Heterobasidion annosum. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is one of the main sources of timber in the boreal zone of Eurasia. Commercial pine plantations are vulnerable to root and butt rot disease caused by the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The pathogen affects host growth rate, causes higher mortality and decreases in timber quality, resulting in considerable economic losses to forest owners. Genetic and biochemical factors contributing to Scots pine tolerance against H. annosum infection are not well understood. We assessed the predictive values of a set of potential genetic and chemical markers in a field experiment. We determined the expression levels of 25 genes and the concentrations of 36 terpenoid compounds in needles of 16 Scots pine trees randomly selected from a natural population prior to artificial infection. Stems of the same trees were artificially inoculated with H. annosum, and the length of necrotic lesions was documented 5 months post inoculation. Higher expression level of four genes included in our analysis and encoding predicted alpha-pinene synthase (two genes), geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and metacaspase 5 (MC5), could be associated with trees exhibiting increased levels of necrotic lesion formation in response to fungal inoculation. In contrast, concentrations of two terpenoid compounds, beta-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene, showed significant negative correlations with the lesion size. Further studies with larger sample size will help to elucidate new biomarkers or clarify the potential of the evaluated markers for use in Scots pine disease resistance breeding programs.
  • Barreira, Luis M. F.; Ylisirnio, Arttu; Pullinen, Iida; Buchholz, Angela; Li, Zijun; Lipp, Helina; Junninen, Heikki; Horrak, Urmas; Noe, Steffen M.; Krasnova, Alisa; Krasnov, Dmitrii; Kask, Kaia; Talts, Eero; Niinemets, Ulo; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Schobesberger, Siegfried (2021)
    Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) constitute a significant fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and have been recognized to significantly affect the climate and air quality. Atmospheric SOA particulate mass yields and chemical composition result from a complex mixture of oxidation products originating from a diversity of BVOCs. Many laboratory and field experiments have studied SOA particle formation and growth in the recent years. However, a large uncertainty still remains regarding the contribution of BVOCs to SOA. In particular, organic compounds formed from sesquiterpenes have not been thoroughly investigated, and their contribution to SOA remains poorly characterized. In this study, a Filter Inlet for Gases and Aerosols (FI-GAERO) combined with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), with iodide ionization, was used for the simultaneous measurement of gas-phase and particle-phase oxygenated compounds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative contribution of sesquiterpene oxidation products to SOA in a springtime hemiboreal forest environment. Our results revealed that monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation products were the main contributors to SOA particles. The chemical composition of SOA particles was compared for times when either monoterpene or sesquiterpene oxidation products were dominant and possible key oxidation products for SOA particle formation were identified for both situations. Surprisingly, sesquiterpene oxidation products were the predominant fraction in the particle phase in some periods, while their gas-phase concentrations remained much lower than those of monoterpene products. This can be explained by favorable and effective partitioning of sesquiterpene products into the particle phase. The SOA particle volatility determined from measured thermograms increased when the concentration of sesquiterpene oxidation products in SOA particles was higher than that of monoterpenes. Overall, this study demonstrates that sesquiterpenes may have an important role in atmospheric SOA formation and oxidation chemistry, in particular during the spring recovery period.