Browsing by Subject "MONOVALENT"

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  • Daub, Christopher D.; Hänninen, Vesa; Halonen, Lauri (2019)
    We present the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the solution-air interface of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). We find that, in agreement with the experimental data and previous simulation results with empirical polarizable force field models, Br- anions prefer to accumulate just below the first molecular water layer near the interface, whereas Li+ cations remain deeply buried several molecular layers from the interface, even at very high concentration. The separation of ions has a profound effect on the average orientation of water molecules in the vicinity of the interface. We also find that the hydration number of Li+ cations in the center of the slab Na-c,Na-Li+-H2O approximate to 4.7 +/- 0.3, regardless of the salt concentration. This estimate is consistent with the recent experimental neutron scattering data, confirming that results from nonpolarizable empirical models, which consistently predict tetrahedral coordination of Li+ to four solvent molecules, are incorrect. Consequently, disruption of the hydrogen bond network caused by Li+ may be overestimated in nonpolarizable empirical models. Overall, our results suggest that empirical models, in particular nonpolarizable models, may not capture all of the properties of the solution-air interface necessary to fully understand the interfacial chemistry.
  • Harris, Vanessa; Ali, Asad; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri; Kazi, Momin; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Giaquinto, Carlo; de Weerth, Carolina; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders. We conducted a nested, matched case-control study comparing the pre-vaccination intestinal microbiota composition between 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV-responders, 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV non-responders, and 10 healthy Dutch infants. RVV response was defined as an Immunoglobulin A of >= 20 IU/mL following Rotarix (TM)(RV1) vaccination in an infant with aprevaccination IgA RV1 response correlated with a higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XI and Proteobacteria, including bacteria related to Serratia and Escherichia coli. Remarkably, abundance of these Proteobacteria was also significantly higher in Dutch infants when compared to RV1-non-responders in Pakistan. This small but carefully matched study showed the intestinal microbiota composition to correlate with RV1 seroconversion in Pakistan infants, identifying signatures shared with healthy Dutch infants.