Browsing by Subject "MOOC"

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  • Polso, Kukka-Maaria; Tuominen, Heta; Hellas, Arto; Ihantola, Petri (ACM, 2020)
    It has been suggested that performance goals focused on appearing talented (appearance goals) and those focused on outperforming others (normative goals) have different consequences, for example, regarding performance. Accordingly, applying this distinction into appearance and normative goals alongside mastery goals, this study explores what kinds of achievement goal orientation profiles are identified among over 2000 students participating in an introductory programming MOOC. Using Two-Step cluster analysis, five distinct motivational profiles are identified. Course performance and demographics of students with different goal orientation profiles are mostly similar. Students with Combined Mastery and Performance Goals perform slightly better than students with Low Goals. The observations are largely in line with previous studies conducted in different contexts. The differentiation of appearance and normative performance goals seemed to yield meaningful motivational profiles, but further studies are needed to establish their relevance and investigate whether this information can be used to improve teaching.
  • Kaul, Maya; Aksela, Maija Katariina; Wu, Xiaomeng (2018)
    One of the greatest ways to transform education systems is to develop community-centered professional supports for in-service teachers. Given the rise of distance learning platforms such as massive open online courses (MOOCs), there is a growing potential to deliver such supports at scale. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework models the asynchronous, text-based communication that defines educational experiences within such collaborative learning environments; however, methods of CoI transcript analysis must be improved. This paper uses the University of Helsinki’s 2016 MOOC, Sustainable Energy in Education, as a case study on how the CoI framework can be used to characterize the educational experience of in-service teachers in distance learning environments. Using the CoI coding protocol, this paper employs a transcript analysis of the discussion forum posts on the MOOC (n = 78), and applies improved measures of reliability in order to understand the capacity of CoI transcript analysis to reliably define online learning experiences. The findings suggest that, while the CoI framework is able to characterize some elements of online learning communities, more work needs to be done to ensure the framework captures the more nuanced elements of such educational experiences, such as the effects of course design and the relative engagement of course participants.
  • Markula, Anette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Interdisciplinary studies are currently an important topic in education. One reason behind this is the idea that students should learn 21st century skills, such as critical thinking, communication and problem-solving skills for their future careers. Interdisciplinary education has also been shown to increase students’ interest towards natural sciences. Furthermore, organizing cross-curricular learning units has become compulsory at a curricular level in Finland and other countries. Project-based learning is a widely supported teaching method in which learning is organized around projects. It is also a natural method to carry out interdisciplinary learning units. Project-based learning is usually defined by its characteristic features, and its successful implementation requires the teacher to have a good knowledge of them. However, these characteristics tend to be unknown for teachers. Research has also shown that teachers’ conceptions of what interdisciplinary education and project-based learning are, tend to vary. As such, it has been noted in the literature that there is a need to offer training and materials for the implementation of interdisciplinary and project-based learning for in-service teachers. Although MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have a lot of potential as a means of professional development, they are rarely planned to serve primarily as in-service teacher training. Empirical research into their design is also scarce. The main aims in this study were to 1) provide more information about interdisciplinary education within biology education 2) develop a MOOC for the professional development of biology teachers on the topic of interdisciplinary education and project-based learning. In addition to that the study aimed to develop the StarT programme of LUMA Centre Finland. The study was carried out as design-based research. The main research question that directed the design process was: what should a MOOC that supports teachers to carry out interdisciplinary project-based learning within the theme “nature and environment” in biology be like? Nature and environment was chosen as the context of the study as from the perspective of biology education it offers an important and current topic for interdisciplinary project units. The main research question was approached through a theoretical and empirical problem analysis. Theoretical problem analysis focused on researching the question in earlier literature, and the empirical problem analysis was carried out as a case study in which qualitative data was studied through deductive content analysis. The materials studied in the empirical problem analysis were project-based learning units of comprehensive schools and high schools. Their project units were studied through the following research questions: 1. How did teachers and students carry out the characteristics of project-based learning in the context of the theme nature and environment in biology? 2. How is biology taught in an interdisciplinary way in the theme nature and environment? The first question was studied through the characteristics that were identified for project-based learning in the theoretical problem analysis, and the second by looking at which subjects collaborated with biology, how the collaboration was carried out and how the learning communities experienced it. The goal was to find a) challenging characteristics of project-based learning and interdisciplinary education that should be considered the design of the MOOC b) good examples from the studied learning communities to be shared on the MOOC. The study subjects consisted of 12 learning communities who had participated in the international StarT programme of LUMA Centre Finland. In accordance with earlier studies, also the subjects of this study struggled especially with driving questions, the unity of the project activities and in using the projects as a means to learn central contents. Scientific practices were visible well apart from students’ questions, but it could not be defined how strongly student-led the inquiry was. The connection between instructions of StarT and the characteristics of project-based learning that were well represented in the materials seemed evident: collaboration, sharing results, end products and using technology were all visible throughout the analyzed learning communities. However, the materials offered little information about how the collaboration between different subjects was carried out in practice. The study indicated also that students and teachers paid attention to different aspects of the learning taking place in project-based learning, and that teachers might include topics of certain subjects into the project units without realizing it. This should be further researched, however. The issues identified in the problem analyses were used to design an international MOOC that is suitable especially for biology teachers. The course ”Project-based learning and the theory behind it – create your own project!” was created on the Moodle-platform of the University of Helsinki. In addition to this, a phased model for creating professional development in a situation where the studied materials can be used both to direct the design process and as materials on the course was created. The framework that was created for the analyses in this study can also be further used and developed to study how characteristics of project-based learning are represented in other cases where teachers’ and students’ project units are being studied. The study provided also new information about what is possible and feasible to study from the materials of StarT. New information was provided also of the project-based learning that takes place at the schools of the StarT participants, as they have not been researched from the perspective of the characteristics of project-based learning earlier.
  • Lindholm, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Verkko-opetuksen määrä kasvaa jatkuvasti ja opettajille suunnatuista MOOCeista tarvitaan lisää tietoa. Molekyylimallinnus kemian opetuksessa -MOOC on yhden opintopisteen kurssi molekyylimallinnuksesta MarvinSketch-ohjelmalla. MarvinSketch on molekyylimallinnusohjelma, joka on käytössä kemian sähköisissä ylioppilaskirjoituksissa. On havaittu, että kemian opettajat tarvitsevat tukea MarvinSketchin integroimiseen opetukseen. TPACK-malli on teoreettinen malli, joka kuvastaa kolmen tiedon tason (teknologinen, pedagoginen ja sisällöllinen) hallitsemista ja yhdistämistä teknologian käyttämiseksi opetuksessa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää Molekyylimallinnus kemian opetuksessa -MOOCia tukemaan MarvinSketchin integroimista opetukseen TPACK-mallia hyödyntäen. Kehittämistutkimuksessa selvitettiin kurssin kehittämistarpeet teoreettisen ja empiirisen ongelma-analyysien pohjalta. Teoreettisessa ongelma-analyysissä selvitettiin, millaisia opettajille suunnattujen MOOCien pitäisi olla ja, miten TPACK-mallia voidaan hyödyntää kurssin suunnittelussa. Empiirisessä ongelma-analyysissä tutkittiin kurssin nykytilaa kurssitehtäviä, oppimispäiväkirjan vastauksia ja kurssipalautetta analysoimalla. Ongelma-analyysien pohjalta kurssi muutettiin TPACK-pohjaiseksi siten, että se sisältää ensimmäiseksi TPACKin esittelyn, toiseksi TK:n, TCK:n ja TPK:n kehittämisen ja lopuksi TPACK:in kehittämisen. Lisäksi kurssille lisättiin vuorovaikutusta ja lopputehtävä muutettiin vastaamaan opettajan ammatissa esiintyvää aitoa tilannetta. Kehittämistuotosta arvioitiin haastattelemalla kahta alkuperäisen kurssin suorittajaa ja aineisto analysoitiin teorialähtöisenä sisällönanalyysina, minkä pohjalta saatiin tietoa haastateltavien käsityksistä kurssiuudistuksista. Alkuperäisen kurssin suorittajat kokivat uudistetun kurssin hyödylliseksi ja motivoivaksi. TPACK-pohjainen kurssirakenne auttaa hahmottamaan, mitä kurssilla tehdään ja miksi, mikä lisää motivaatiota kurssitehtävien suorittamiseen. Infografiikan uudistettu tehtävänanto koettiin hyödyllisemmäksi tulevaa opettajan uraa ajatellen kuin alkuperäinen tehtävänanto, koska tehtävän tekeminen kasvattaa omaa materiaalipankkia. Kommentointitehtävä vuorovaikutuksen lisäämiseksi koettiin tavallaan hyväksi, koska MOOCeilla on yleensä vähän vuorovaikutusta, mutta kommentointitehtävä koettiin kuitenkin jonkin verran raskaaksi. Kommentointitehtävä vaatii jatkotutkimusta uuden kurssin suorittajilta, jotta saadaan tietoa käytännön kokemuksista. Uudistetun kurssin pohjalta voi lähteä jatkotutkimaan opettajien ja opettajaopiskelijoiden TPACK-kehitystä kurssin aikana. Kyselytutkimuksen voisi toteuttaa lisäämällä kurssin alkuun ja loppuun kyselyn kurssin suorittajan TPACK-mallin mukaisten ulottuvuuksien osaamisesta.
  • Lehtonen, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of Virtual Reality (VR) in education using three forest-related massive open online course (MOOC) environments. This study utilizes digital platforms (MOOC), digital outputs (teaching tools) and new emerging technologies (VR) in forestry education. The paper presents the University of Helsinki's MOOC "Finnish Forest” and investigates how different display in content can contribute to a student’s learning results, experience, engagement and word of mouth (WOM). In addition, this study focuses on learning results and learning experiences to determine what kind of content should be presented in VR and if there are correlations between experience, engagement and WOM. This study is conducted as an experiment in three Finnish high schools. For this study, 107 students were assigned to one of the three learning environments: 1) text and photos, 2) text and 360-desktop, and 3) 360 VR environment. The theoretical background was provided by several studies on Virtual Reality (VR) and e-learning, as well as other related theories. The study is conducted in exploratory nature combining mixed methods, both qualitative and quantitative data. The post-test questionnaire was used to collect information of the experiment and to measure learning and learning experience and other variables among high school students. The results show how differing approaches in providing content can contribute to a student’s learning results, experience, engagement and WOM. The results indicate that 360-desktop environment received significantly higher learning results than other MOOC learning environments and thus the 360-laptop environment may promote learning within the context of MOOCs. On the other hand, the results imply that VR environment does not support learning in a traditional learning environment and adapting a VR technology to educational purposes should be done with careful familiarization and consideration. However, no other statistical significance was found that would have an impact on learning results or how students shared their experiences. Instead, a small tech-savvy group of students was found who likes new 360 technologies in their studies, but surprisingly, there was an even larger group that opposed the technology. The same observations could be made regarding the VR learning environment. In conclusion, new teaching technologies should be offered deliberately based on voluntary participation, providing students with new ways of learning and an opportunity to customize their learning. In addition, the results suggest that VR environment provides poor learning results when teaching content and methods are adopted from the conventional environments. This suggests designing completely new course designs when adopting VR in teaching.
  • Aksela, Maija Katariina; Wu, Xiaomeng; Halonen, Julia Elina (2016)
    Sustainable energy is one of the biggest global challenges today. This paper discusses how we can promote adolescents’ learning of sustainable energy with the help of an international massive open online course (MOOC). The aim of this case study is to understand: (i) What do the adolescents find relevant in the MOOC course about sustainable energy? and (ii) What are the opportunities and challenges of the MOOC for the adolescents to learn sustainable energy? In our study, 80 voluntary adolescents around the world, who were at least 15 year old, took part in two surveys. The themes of our MOOC course were, e.g., sustainable growth, solar power, wind power, biofuel production and smart power generation. This 38 work-hour, free of charge, online course includes an introduction video, interviews of specialists, lecture videos, reading materials of the newest research and multiple choice questions on the topics. Research data was classified by using content analysis. The study indicates that adolescents feel that both the MOOC course and sustainable energy as a subject are relevant to them. Their decision to take part in an online course was mostly influenced by individual relevance and partly influenced by both societal and vocational relevance, according to the relevancy theory used. The MOOC was experienced to be relevant for the three following reasons: (i) good content (e.g., energy production) and implementation of the course; (ii) the course makes it possible to study in a new way; and (iii) the course is personally useful. The characteristics of the MOOC, such as being available anywhere and anytime, free access, and online learning, bringing out a flexible, new way of learning and thus promoting Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the context of sustainable energy at school level around the world. This MOOC provided the school students with choice-based learning and expanded their learning opportunities in understanding sustainable energy. In the designing of MOOCs for studying sustainable energy, it is important to take the following things into consideration: (i) the balance between theory and practical examples; (ii) the support for interaction; and (iii) other support (e.g., technical and learning strategies) for students. Communication with other learners and getting feedback from teachers and tutors remain the vital challenges for the developers of MOOCs in the future.
  • Martikainen, Jyrki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tutkittiin säteilypakote-käsitteen oppimista Ilmasto.nyt-kurssilla ja kurssin taustamuuttujien vaikutusta kurssin suorittamiseen. Kurssi on monitieteinen ja se toteutettiin monimuoto-opetuksena. Ilmasto.nyt-kurssille osallistui monella tapaa heterogeeninen opiskelijajoukko. Kurssin suoritti vuosina 2016 ja 2017, 172 opiskelijaa, joista 38 otettiin mukaan tähän tutkimukseen. Kurssille osallistuneita tutkittiin sukupuolen, opiskeluvuoden, tiedekunnan, vastausten pituuden ja suorituskielen mukaan. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin että 5.-6. vuoden opiskelijat ja äidinkielellä vastanneet saivat muita parempia arvosanoja. Pidemmät vastaukset paransivat arvosanoja keskimäärin. Opiskelijat valitsivat kysymyspatterista vastattavaksi erilaisia kysymyksiä riippuen opiskelijan tiedekunnasta. Kurssia arvioitiin haastavaksi, mutta hyödylliseksi ja kattavaksi. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin tilastollisia menetelmiä, eri taustamuuttujien ja arvosanojen välisten riippuvuuksien selvittämiseksi.
  • Salovuori, Anton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study has been carried out in the form of an article. Objectives. Previous research has shown that the reasons for employees attendance on MOOCs differ from other participants. There are multiple reasons for this which vary from course to course. Participants also experience the effects of the courses in differently, but many participants have described them professionally useful. Utilization of the skills learned in the MOOC course are also influenced by the extent to which the employer and work community support the application of new skills. The purpose of this study was to find out why people in the working life attend MOOC courses in the ICT-field and what kind of impacts participants report on the courses. In addition, the way in which employer support is related to the reasons for attending the course and the perceived benefits of the course was also investigated. Methods. The data collection of the study was carried out with an online survey in 2019. The respondents were employed course participants (n = 589). The analysis of the data was carried out by qualitative and quantitative methods. The analysis of the open-ended answers to the questionnaire was performed with a theory-guided content analysis. From the answers to the multiple choice statements of the form, five factors were formed by exploratory factor analysis, which described the reasons and effects of participation in the course. Further analysis of the data included two-stage cluster analysis and analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. The reasons for participants to attend the course were divided into six categories: interest, understanding, benefit for work, promotion of studies, recommendation from others, and flexible execution. The effects experienced by the participants were also divided into six categories: increased understanding and learning of new skills, benefits in current work, benefits in studies, increased study of the topic, career benefits, and increased interest. A quantitative analysis of the data showed that the participants could be divided into a profile of the four beneficiaries through clustering. Widely supported and recognized by the work community, the effects were felt to be more significant than those that utilized working time and were not supported in relation to career advancement, career plans and work or study.
  • Satola, Kimmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään pienten opetusvideoiden käyttökelpoisuutta matematiikan itsenäisen verkkokurssin materiaa-leissa opiskelijan näkökulmasta. Toisena tavoitteena on selvittää myös, minkälaisia parannustoiveita opiskelijoilla on videoiden käytön suhteen ja muutenkin itsenäisesti opiskeltavan verkkokurssin suorittamiseen liittyen. Lisäksi kartoitettiin myös kurssin eri vaiheessa katseltujen videoiden katseluaikoja verkkoympäristön keräämän analytiikan avulla saaduista tilastoista tavoitteena sel-vittää, muuttuko katseluaktiivisuus kurssin edetessä. Tutkimuksen teoriaosassa tutustutaan aiheenmukaiseen kirjallisuuteen, mitä aiemmin on esitetty verkossa tapahtuvasta opetuk-sesta, oppimateriaaleista verkossa, opiskelusta verkossa ja erilaisista oppimisympäristöistä. Lisäksi oma lukunsa on aiemmista kokemuksista hyvistä opetusvideoista ja niiden käytöstä etäopiskelun tukena. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on kartoittaa kehitystarpeita verkko-oppimisympäristöihin soveltuvista mielekkäistä sisällöistä itseopiske-lun sujuvoittamiseksi ja motivaation ylläpitämiseksi. Tutkimuksen aineistona olen käyttänyt Helsingin yliopiston Todennäköisyyslas-kennan kurssia kesällä 2019, jossa opiskelu tapahtui kokonaan verkossa Moodle -ympäristössä. Videot Moodle -ympäristössä oli upotettu Vimeo -videopalveluun. Opiskelijoilta kerättiin sähköisellä kyselyllä kokemuksia ja mielipiteitä kurssin teoriaosuutta katta-vien lyhyiden videoklippien toimivuudesta ja käyttökelpoisuudesta tukemaan itsenäistä opiskelua verkossa ja kurssin suorittami-sessa. Myös Videopalvelu Vimeon analytiikkaa käytettiin arvioitaessa videoiden katseluaikoja. Tutkimuksen perusteella näyttäisi opiskelijanäkökulmasta nousevan selvästi esille, että videoiden käyttö verkko-opiskelussa saa erittäin tyytyväisen vastaanoton ja sitä pidetään hyvin mielekkäänä tapana opiskella itsenäisellä verkkokurssilla matematiikkaa. Opiskelijoiden parannusehdotukset olivat myös hyvin rakentavia ja heidän kokemuksistaan huomataan monia käyttökelpoisia pa-rannusehdotuksia suunniteltaessa tulevia kursseja. Koska kaikessa verkkotuotannon ylläpitämisessä tulee olla keskiössä aina pe-dagoginen prosessi ja sen ylläpitämiseksi tarvitaan opiskelijoiden jatkuvaa vuorovaikutusta ja palautetta molempiin suuntiin.