Browsing by Subject "MOOD"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 21
  • Eeroia, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2016)
    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr All (2018)
    Following an application from Unilever NV, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Ireland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to black tea and improvement of attention. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed by the applicant as the subject of the health claim is black tea. The Panel considers that black tea characterised by its content of tea solids, caffeine and L-theanine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is 'improves attention'. The Panel considers that improvement of attention is a beneficial physiological effect. Three human intervention studies provided by the applicant show an effect of black tea on attention under the conditions of used proposed by the applicant. The applicant proposed that the claimed effect depends on the concerted action of two substances, caffeine and L-theanine, both of which are present in black tea. The Panel considers that the effect of black tea on attention observed in the three human intervention studies provided by the applicant can be explained by its caffeine content. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of black tea and improvement of attention. The Panel considers that the effect of black tea on attention can be explained by its caffeine content. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: 'Owing to its caffeine content, black tea improves attention'. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 2-3 servings of black tea providing at least 75 mg of caffeine in total should be consumed within 90 min. (C) 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Muller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri (2013)
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kananen, Laura; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pirkola, Sami; Paunio, Tiina; Hovatta, Iiris (2021)
    Telomeres are repeat sequences and an associated protein complex located at the end of the chromosomes. They shorten with every cell division and are regarded markers for cellular aging. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been observed in many complex diseases, including psychiatric disorders. However, analyses focusing on psychiatric disorders are mainly based on clinical samples and the significance of shorter LTL on the population level remains uncertain. We addressed this question in a population-based sample from Finland (N = 7142). The survey was performed and the blood samples were collected in 2000-2001 to assess major public health problems and their determinants. DSM-IV diagnoses of major psychiatric illnesses were obtained by interview using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Information regarding their risk factors, including the number of self-reported childhood adversities, recent psychological distress, and sleep difficulties was collected by questionnaires. LTL was measured by qPCR. None of the studied psychiatric illnesses, sleep difficulties, or recent psychological distress associated with LTL. However, individuals with three or more childhood adversities had shorter LTL at adult age (13 = -0.006, P = 0.005). Also, current occupational status was associated with LTL (13 = -0.03, P = 0.04). These effects remained significant after adjusting for known LTLassociated lifestyle or sociodemographic factors. In conclusion, relatively common childhood adversities were associated with shorter LTL at adult age in a nationally representative population-based cohort, implying that childhood adversities may cause accelerated telomere shortening. Our finding has potentially important implications as it supports the view that childhood adversities have an impact on psychological and somatic wellbeing later in life.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina; Holm, Minna; Jokela, Markus; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    Background: The aims of this study were to (1) compare differences in psychiatric comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders between immigrants and native Finns and to (2) compare differences in the intensity of psychiatric care received by different immigrant groups and Finnish-born controls with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: The study uses registered-based data, which includes all immigrants living in Finland at the end of 2010 and matched Finnish-born controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of depression and/or an anxiety disorder during the follow-up (2011?2015) (immigrants n = 6542, Finnish-born controls n = 9281). We compared differences in comorbidity between the immigrants and the Finnish-born controls using chi-squared tests. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict psychiatric treatment intensity by immigrant status, region of origin, and other background factors. Results: In both diagnosis groups, Finnish-born participants exhibited greater comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Immigrants more often received lower intensity treatment and less often higher intensity treatment. These differences were most striking among those from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Limitations: We did not have the information on the perceived need for the services, which limits us from drawing further conclusions about the mechanisms behind the observed patterns. Conclusions: Immigrants in Finland receive less intensive treatment for depression and anxiety disorders compared to the Finnish-born population. Since lower symptom levels can unlikely alone explain these differences, they could reflect a need for improvement in the psychiatric services for immigrants.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Kuula, Liisa; Halonen, Risto; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Background: Very late sleep rhythms are risks for social adjustment problems in adolescence. Using ecological momentary assessment data, we quantified and visualized temporal and contemporaneous within-persons dynamical relations of sleepiness and emotions in adolescents with and without late sleep rhythms. Methods: We analyzed a temporal network via multilevel vector autoregression (mlVAR) modeling and a contemporaneous network through the partial associations between the residuals of temporal and the between-subject multilevel models. We tested whether these networks were different between those with a late circadian rhythm [concurrent delayed sleep phase (DSP) N = 172, 37% boys, 63% girls] and those without (N = 143, 22% boys, 78% girls). Results: In adolescents without DSP, the temporal networks showed continuity only for low mood from the previous to the following time point. In adolescents with DSP, there were more predictable patterns of emotions. Feelings of depression led to a decrease of positive emotions and increase of irritation and anxiety. The contemporaneous networks showed clusters of positive and negative emotions in both groups and sleepiness decreased the experience of positive emotions concurrently. Limitations: DSP in our current study was based only on one out of three diagnostic criteria of the full disorder (DSM-5) and it was assessed only once. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the dynamic organization of emotions and sleepiness is different in adolescents with and without DSP. DSP adolescents have more predictable and maladaptive emotional patterns during the day. Results provide new insight about why individuals with DSP are at a heightened risk for decreased emotional adjustment.
  • Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira (2014)
  • Tuovinen, Soile; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Hamalainen, Esa; Villa, Pia M.; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Raikkonen, Katri (2021)
    Background: Maternal antenatal stress, including symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress, is associated with mental and behavioral problems in children. Whether it is associated with child mental and behavioral disorders remains uncertain. We examined if maternal antenatal symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress were associated with mental and behavioral disorders in their children, if the associations varied according to gestational week, stress type, fluctuating or consistently high symptoms, and if they were driven by maternal or paternal lifetime mood or anxiety disorders. Methods: 3365 mothers participating in the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the State Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale up to 14 times throughout pregnancy. The Care Register for Health Care provided data on mental and behavioral (including neurodevelopmental) disorders for their children from birth (11/07/2006-07/24/2010) until 12/31/2016 and for parental lifetime mood and anxiety disorders until 12/31/ 2016. Results: The hazard of any childhood mental and behavioral disorder (HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.39-2.51) was significantly higher for children whose mothers reported consistently high in comparison to consistently low levels of all types of stress throughout pregnancy. The associations remained significant when adjusted for maternal and paternal lifetime mood and anxiety disorders (and their comorbidity and timing and mood disorder type). Conclusion: Maternal antenatal stress is associated with higher risk of childhood mental and behavioral disorders. Efforts to reduce maternal antenatal stress should be given a high priority to improve child mental health.
  • Saari, T. T.; Hallikainen, I.; Hintsa, T.; Koivisto, A. M. (2020)
    Background: Affective symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be rated with both informantand self-ratings. Information from these two modalities may not converge. We estimated network structures of affective symptoms in AD with both rating modalities and assessed the longitudinal stability of the networks. Methods: Network analyses combining self-rated and informant-rated affective symptoms were conducted in 3198 individuals with AD at two time points (mean follow-up 387 days), drawn from the NACC database. Self rated symptoms were assessed by Geriatric Depression Scale, and informant-rated symptoms included depression, apathy and anxiety questions from Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Results: Informant-rated symptoms were mainly connected to symptoms expressing lack of positive affect, but not to the more central symptoms of self-rated worthlessness and helplessness. Networks did not differ in structure (p = .71), or connectivity (p = .92) between visits. Symptoms formed four clinically meaningful clusters of depressive symptoms and decline, lack of positive affect, informant-rated apathy and anxiety and informant-rated depression. Limitations: The symptom dynamics in our study could have been present before AD diagnosis. The lack of positive affect cluster may represent a methodological artefact rather than a theoretically meaningful subgroup. Requiring follow-up lead to a selection of patients with less cognitive decline. Conclusions: Informant rating may only capture the more visible affective symptoms, such as not being in good spirits, instead of more central and severe symptoms, such as hopelessness and worthlessness. Future research should continue to be mindful of differences between self- and informant-rated symptoms even in earlier stages of AD.
  • Sallinen, Hanne; Sairanen, Tiina; Strbian, Daniel (2019)
    Objectives: Quality of life (QoL) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is poorly known. This study investigated factors affecting QoL and depression after spontaneous ICH. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients admitted to Helsinki University Hospital between May 2014 and December 2016. Health-related QoL (HRQoL) at 3 months after ICH was measured using the European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D-5L), and the 15D scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to test factors affecting HRQoL. EQ-5D-5L anxiety/depression dimension was used to analyze factors associated with anxiety/depression. Results: Of 277 patients, 220 were alive, and sent QoL questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 124 patients. Nonreturners had more severe strokes with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 7.8 (IQR 3.0-14.8) versus 5.0 (IQR 2.3-11.0); p = 0.018, and worse outcome assessed as modified Rankin Scale 3-5 at 3 months 59.4% versus 44.4% (p = 0.030). Predictors for lower HRQoL by both scales were higher NIHSS with OR 1.28 (95% CI 1.13-1.46) for EQ-5D-5L, and OR 1.28 (1.15-1.44) for 15D, older age (OR 1.10 [1.03-1.16], and OR 1.09 [1.03-1.15]), and chronic heart failure (OR 18.12 [1.73-189.27], and OR 12.84 [1.31126.32]), respectively. Feeling sad/depressed for more than 2 weeks during the year prior to ICH was predictor for lower EQ-5D-5L (OR 10.64 [2.39-47.28]), and history of ICH for lower 15D utility indexes (OR 11.85 [1.01-138.90]). Prior feelings of sadness/ depression were associated with depression/anxiety at 3 months after ICH with OR 3.62 (1.14-11.45). Conclusions: In this cohort of ICH patients with milder deficits, HRQoL was affected by stroke severity, comorbidities and age. Feelings of depression before ICH had stronger influence on reporting depression/anxiety after ICH than stroke severity-related and outcome parameters. Thus, simple questions on patient's premorbid feelings of sadness/depression could be used to identify patients at risk of depression after ICH for focusing follow-up and treatment.
  • Riihimaki, K.; Vuorilehto, M.; Jylhä, P.; Isometsa, E. (2016)
    Background: Response styles theory of depression postulates that rumination is a central factor in occurrence, severity and maintaining of depression. High neuroticism has been associated with tendency to ruminate. We investigated associations of response styles and neuroticism with severity and chronicity of depression in a primary care cohort study. Methods: In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 adult patients was screened for depression using the Prime-MD. Depressive and comorbid psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews. Of the 137 patients with depressive disorders, 82% completed the prospective five-year follow-up with a graphic life chart enabling evaluation of the longitudinal course of episodes. Neuroticism was measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI-Q). Response styles were investigated at five years using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ-43). Results: At five years, rumination correlated significantly with scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (r = 0.54), Beck Depression Inventory (r = 0.61), Beck Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.50), Beck Hopelessness Scale (r = 0.51) and Neuroticism (r = 0.58). Rumination correlated also with proportion of follow-up time spent depressed (r = 0.38). In multivariate regression, high rumination was significantly predicted by current depressive symptoms and neuroticism, but not by anxiety symptoms or preceding duration of depressive episodes. Conclusions: Among primary care patients with depression, rumination correlated with current severity of depressive symptoms, but the association with preceding episode duration remained uncertain. The association between neuroticism and rumination was strong. The findings are consistent with rumination as a state-related phenomenon, which is also strongly intertwined with traits predisposing to depression. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Torikka, Antti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpela, Arja; Marttunen, Mauri; Luukkaala, Tiina; Rimpela, Matti (2014)
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Frojd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri (2016)
    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.
  • Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo (2015)
    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773).
  • Vanttola, Päivi; Härmä, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Sallinen, Mikael; Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa (2019)
    PurposeAlthough shift work disorder (SWD) affects a major part of the shift working population, little is known about its manifestation in real life. This observational field study aimed to provide a detailed picture of sleep and alertness among shift workers with a questionnaire-based SWD, by comparing them to shift workers without SWD during work shifts and free time.MethodsSWD was determined by a questionnaire. Questionnaires and 3-week field monitoring, including sleep diaries, actigraphy, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), EEG-based sleep recordings, and Psychomotor Vigilance Tasks (PVT), were used to study 22 SWD cases and 9 non-SWD workers.ResultsThe SWD group had a shorter subjective total sleep time and greater sleep debt before morning shifts than the non-SWD group. Unlike the non-SWD group, the SWD group showed little compensatory sleep on days off. The SWD group had lower objective sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency on most days, and reported poorer relaxation at bedtime and sleep quality across all days than the non-SWD group. The SWD group's average KSS-sleepiness was higher than the non-SWD group's sleepiness at the beginning and end of morning shifts and at the end of night shifts. The SWD group also had more lapses in PVT at the beginning of night shifts than the non-SWD group.ConclusionsThe results indicate that SWD is related to disturbed sleep and alertness in association with both morning and night shifts, and to less compensatory sleep on days off. SWD seems to particularly associate with the quality of sleep.
  • Ritmala-Castren, M; Salantera, S; Holm, A; Heino, M; Lundgren-Laine, H; Koivunen, M (2021)
    Aim and objective The aim of the study was to investigate how the sleep improvement interventions developed for the wards were associated with patients' sleep. The objective was to promote patients' sleep. Background The quality of sleep is vital for patients' health and recovery from illness. However, patients generally sleep poorly during hospitalisation. Sleep-disturbing factors are connected to the hospital environment, patients' physical illness, emotional state and the activities of the staff. Many sleep-disturbing factors can be influenced by appropriate nursing interventions. Design A two-group intervention study including the development of nursing interventions aimed at supporting patients' sleep. One group received a sleep promotion intervention and the other received standard care. Both groups evaluated their sleep in the morning. Methods A survey of participants' sleep evaluations was collected with the five-item Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire. The data were analysed statistically. The STROBE checklist was used to report the study. Results From the participants' perspective, sleep was better in the intervention group, even though statistically significantly only among men. The pain intensity correlated with sleep quality. The number of patients in the room or whether participants had had an operation had no effect on their sleep evaluations. Conclusions Interventions targeted at supporting and promoting the sleep quality of hospital inpatients may be effective. They should be developed in collaboration with patients and nurses. Several nursing interventions can be proposed to promote better sleep among patients; however, more research is needed to confirm the results. Sleep promotion should include both standardised protocols and individualised sleep support. Relevance to clinical practice Investing in nursing interventions to promote patients' sleep is important. Patients' individual sleep-related needs should be part of their care plan. Training programmes that support nurses' knowledge and skills of patients' sleep promotion should be part of nursing education in healthcare organisations.
  • Pietikäinen, Johanna T.; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    In the general population, sleeping problems can precede an episode of depression. We hypothesized that sleeping problems during pregnancy, including insomnia symptoms, shortened sleep, and daytime tiredness, are related to maternal postnatal depressiveness. We conducted a prospective study evaluating sleep and depressive symptoms, both prenatally (around gestational week 32) and postnatally (around 3months after delivery) in the longitudinal CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort in Finland. Prenatally, 1667 women returned the questionnaire, of which 1398 women participated also at the postnatal follow-up. Sleep was measured with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) and depressive symptoms with a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Altogether, 10.3% of the women had postnatal depressiveness (CES-D 10 points). After adjusting for main background characteristics and prenatal depressiveness (CES-D 10), poor general sleep quality (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.21-2.88), tiredness during the day (AOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.41-3.38), short sleep 6 and 7h, sleep latency >20min, and sleep loss 2h were associated with postnatal depressiveness (all p
  • Suvisaari, Jaana; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Harkanen, Tommi; Yolken, Robert H. (2017)
    Objective: We investigated whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with 12-month depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and current depressive symptoms and whether inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) level, explains these associations. Method: Health 2000 study (BRIF8901), conducted in years 2000-2001, is based on a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30 and above, with 7112 participants and 88.6% response rate. DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI-21). We used logistic regression to investigate the association of T. gondii seropositivity with mental disorders and linear regression with BDI-21 scores. Results: T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly associated with 12-month generalized anxiety disorder but not with other anxiety, depressive or alcohol use disorders. T. gondii seropositivity was associated with higher BDI-21 scores (beta 0.56, 95% CI 0.12-1.00, P = 0.013) and with having a comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16-2.97, P = 0.010). Higher CRP levels were associated with these outcomes and with T. gondii seropositivity, but adjusting for CRP did not change the effect of T. gondii seropositivity. Limitations: Cross-sectional study design with no information on the timing of T. gondii infection. Conclusion: T. gondii seropositivity is associated with generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders, which is not mediated by inflammation.
  • Graziotin, Daniel; Fagerholm, Fabian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka (2018)
    The growing literature on affect among software developers mostly reports on the linkage between happiness, software quality, and developer productivity. Understanding happiness and unhappiness in all its components – positive and negative emotions and moods – is an attractive and important endeavor. Scholars in industrial and organizational psychology have suggested that understanding happiness and unhappiness could lead to cost-effective ways of enhancing working conditions, job performance, and to limiting the occurrence of psychological disorders. Our comprehension of the consequences of (un)happiness among developers is still too shallow, being mainly expressed in terms of development productivity and software quality. In this paper, we study what happens when developers are happy and unhappy while developing software. Qualitative data analysis of responses given by 317 questionnaire participants identified 42 consequences of unhappiness and 32 of happiness. We found consequences of happiness and unhappiness that are beneficial and detrimental for developers’ mental well-being, the software development process, and the produced artifacts. Our classification scheme, available as open data enables new happiness research opportunities of cause-effect type, and it can act as a guideline for practitioners for identifying damaging effects of unhappiness and for fostering happiness on the job.