Browsing by Subject "MORAXELLA-CATARRHALIS"

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  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Jero, Jussi (2016)
    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.
  • Thibau, Arno; Dichter, Alexander A.; Vaca, Diana J.; Linke, Dirk; Goldman, Adrian; Kempf, Volkhard A. J. (2020)
    The current problem of increasing antibiotic resistance and the resurgence of numerous infections indicate the need for novel vaccination strategies more than ever. In vaccine development, the search for and the selection of adequate vaccine antigens is the first important step. In recent years, bacterial outer membrane proteins have become of major interest, as they are the main proteins interacting with the extracellular environment. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors in many Gram-negative bacteria, are localised on the bacterial surface, and mediate the first adherence to host cells in the course of infection. One example is the Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), which is currently used as a subunit in a licensed vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis. Other TAAs that seem promising vaccine candidates are the Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter (Ata), the Haemophilus influenzae adhesin (Hia), and TAAs of the genus Bartonella. Here, we review the suitability of various TAAs as vaccine candidates.
  • Lin, Jizhen; Hafren, Lena; Kerschner, Joseph; Li, Jian-Dong; Brown, Steve; Zheng, Qing Y.; Preciado, Diego; Nakamura, Yoshihisa; Huang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Yan (2017)
    Objective. The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature up to 2015 on the genetics and precision medicine relevant to otitis media. Data Sources. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods. Two subpanels were formed comprising experts in the genetics and precision medicine of otitis media. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a merged draft was created. The entire panel met at the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2015 and discussed the review and refined the content. A final draft was made, circulated, and approved by the panel members. Conclusion. Many genes relevant to otitis media have been identified in the last 4 years in advancing our knowledge regarding the predisposition of the middle ear mucosa to commensals and pathogens. Advances include mutant animal models and clinical studies. Many signaling pathways are involved in the predisposition of otitis media. Implications for Practice. New knowledge on the genetic background relevant to otitis media forms a basis of novel potential interventions, including potential new ways to treat otitis media.
  • Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Alderson, Mark R.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Hakansson, Anders P.; Mason, Kevin M.; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak; Pelton, Stephen I.; Murphy, Timothy F. (2017)
    Objective. To review the literature on progress regarding (1) effectiveness of vaccines for prevention of otitis media (OM) and (2) development of vaccine antigens for OM bacterial and viral pathogens. Data Sources. PubMed database of the National Library of Science. Review Methods. We performed literature searches in PubMed for OM pathogens and candidate vaccine antigens, and we restricted the searches to articles in English that were published between July 2011 and June 2015. Panel members reviewed literature in their area of expertise. Conclusions. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are somewhat effective for the prevention of pneumococcal OM, recurrent OM, OM visits, and tympanostomy tube insertions. Widespread use of PCVs has been associated with shifts in pneumococcal serotypes and bacterial pathogens associated with OM, diminishing PCV effectiveness against AOM. The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae protein D (PHiD-CV) is effective for pneumococcal OM, but results from studies describing the potential impact on OM due to H influenzae have been inconsistent. Progress in vaccine development for H influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and OM-associated respiratory viruses has been limited. Additional research is needed to extend vaccine protection to additional pneumococcal serotypes and other otopathogens. There are likely to be licensure challenges for protein-based vaccines, and data on correlates of protection for OM vaccine antigens are urgently needed. Implications for Practice. OM continues to be a significant health care burden globally. Prevention is preferable to treatment, and vaccine development remains an important goal. As a polymicrobial disease, OM poses significant but not insurmountable challenges for vaccine development.
  • Kiessling, Andreas R.; Malik, Anchal; Goldman, Adrian (2020)
    Adhesion is the initial step in the infection process of gram-negative bacteria. It is usually followed by the formation of biofilms that serve as a hub for further spread of the infection. Type V secretion systems engage in this process by binding to components of the extracellular matrix, which is the first step in the infection process. At the same time they provide protection from the immune system by either binding components of the innate immune system or by establishing a physical layer against aggressors. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are of particular interest in this family of proteins as they possess a unique structural composition which arises from constraints during translocation. The sequence of individual domains can vary dramatically while the overall structure can be very similar to one another. This patchwork approach allows researchers to draw conclusions of the underlying function of a specific domain in a structure-based approach which underscores the importance of solving structures of yet uncharacterized TAAs and their individual domains to estimate the full extent of functions of the protein a priori. Here, we describe recent advances in understanding the translocation process of TAAs and give an overview of structural motifs that are unique to this class of proteins. The role of BpaC in the infection process of Burkholderia pseudomallei is highlighted as an exceptional example of a TAA being at the centre of infection initiation.