Browsing by Subject "MORBIDITY"

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  • Lietzen, Raija; Virtanen, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Korkeila, Jyrki; Suominen, Sakari; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Objective: This prospective, population-based cohort study of 1102 Finnish adults with asthma, examined whether exposure to stressful life events is associated with the intensity of usage of inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists. Methods: Survey data was collected by two postal questionnaires. Baseline characteristics were obtained in 1998 and data on 19 specific stressful events (e.g. death of a child or spouse or divorce) within the six preceding months in 2003. Exposure to life events was indicated by a sum score weighted by mean severity of the events. Participants were linked to records of filled prescriptions for inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists from national registers from 2000 through 2006. The rates of purchases of short-acting beta(2)-agonists before (2000 2001), during (2002 2003) and after (2004-2006) the event exposure were estimated using repeated-measures Poisson regression analyses with the generalized estimating equation. Results: Of the 1102 participants, 162 (15%) were exposed to highly stressful events, 205 (19%) to less stressful events. During the 7-year observation period, 5955 purchases of filled prescription for inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists were recorded. After exposure to highly stressful events, the rate of purchases of beta(2)-agonists was 1.50 times higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.13) than before the stressful event occurred. Among those with low or no exposure to life events, the corresponding rate ratios were not elevated (rate ratio 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99 and 0.95, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.09 respectively). Conclusion: An increase in beta(2)-agonist usage after severe life events suggests that stressful experiences may worsen asthma symptoms.
  • Karppinen, Helena; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Valvanne, Jaakko; Yoder, Kathe; Strandberg, Timo E. (2017)
    Objective: To explore changes in self-reported disabilities, health, comorbidities and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in aged cohorts over two decades. Design, setting and subjects: Cross-sectional cohort studies with postal surveys were conducted among community-dwelling people aged 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 years in 1989 (n = 660), 1999 (n = 2598) and 2009 (n = 1637) in Helsinki, Finland. Main outcome measures: Self-reported items on disability, self-rated health (SRH), diagnoses and PWB were compared between cohorts of the same age. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for each study year to explore the representativeness of the samples compared to general population of same age. Results: A significantly lower proportion of the 75-85-year-olds of the later study years reported going outdoors daily, although this group had improvements in both SRH and PWB scores. The number of comorbidities increased over time among 75-85-year-olds. The only significant change that could be verified among 90- and 95-year-olds between 1999 and 2009, was the lower proportion of participants going outdoors daily. The trend of leveling-off in disabilities was not explained by the SMRs (0.90, 0.71 and 0.60 for 1989, 1999 and 2009). Conclusions: The latest older people's cohorts showed an end to previously reported improvements in disabilities, despite having favorable trends in SRH and PWB. Primary care may be faced with increasing need of appropriate services for their senior members.
  • Sakki, Anniina; Mäkinen, Laura K.; Roine, Risto P.; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna (2019)
    Objectives: We analyzed trends in tonsil surgery over a 10-year period in a single tertiary care hospital and evaluated the effects of these changes on use of hospital services and healthcare costs. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study based on data from databases at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Children under 16 years of age with tonsillectomy (TE) or tonsillotomy (TT) performed during 2007-2016 were included in the study. Results: In 10 years, 4979 tonsil surgeries were performed on 4951 children: TE in 3170 (64%) and TT in 1781 (36%) children. The total number of tonsil surgeries stayed nearly constant. TT operations commenced in the study hospital in 2009 and from 2012 onwards have been more common than TE procedures. Altogether 279 patients visited the emergency department because of complications; TE patients had 9.0 visits/100 surgeries and TT patients 1.8 visits/100 surgeries. The most common complication was postoperative hemorrhage: 200 cases (6.3%) in the TE group and 11 cases (0.6%) in the TT group. During the two-year follow-up after tonsil surgery the total costs of healthcare services were significantly lower in the TT group than in the TE group. Conclusion: Considerable changes have occurred in tonsil surgery in children during the 10-year study period; TT is today performed more often than TE. As a consequence, complications, readmissions to hospital, and number of patients treated in the operating room because of postoperative hemorrhage have decreased, lowering the costs of healthcare.
  • Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Judge, Ken; Lahelma, Eero; Costa, Giuseppe; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2016)
    Background: Between 1997 and 2010, the English government pursued an ambitious programme to reduce health inequalities, the explicit and sustained commitment of which was historically and internationally unique. Previous evaluations have produced mixed results. None of these evaluations have, however, compared the trends in health inequalities within England with those in other European countries. We carried out an innovative analysis to assess whether changes in trends in health inequalities observed in England after the implementation of its programme, have been more favourable than those in other countries without such a programme. Methods: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys carried out in England, Finland, the Netherlands and Italy for years around 1990, 2000 and 2010. A modified difference-in-difference approach was used to assess whether trends in health inequalities in 2000-2010 were more favourable as compared to the period 1990-2000 in England, and the changes in trends in inequalities after 2000 in England were then compared to those in the three comparison countries. Health outcomes were self-assessed health, long-standing health problems, smoking status and obesity. Education was used as indicator of socioeconomic position. Results: After the implementation of the English strategy, more favourable trends in some health indicators were observed among low-educated people, but trends in health inequalities in 2000-2010 in England were not more favourable than those observed in the period 1990-2000. For most health indicators, changes in trends of health inequalities after 2000 in England were also not significantly different from those seen in the other countries. Conclusions: In this rigorous analysis comparing trends in health inequalities in England both over time and between countries, we could not detect a favourable effect of the English strategy. Our analysis illustrates the usefulness of a modified difference-in-difference approach for assessing the impact of policies on population-level health inequalities.
  • Rakkolainen, I.; Lindbohm, J. V.; Vuola, J. (2018)
    BackgroundAcute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in severe burns and can lead to significantly poorer outcomes. Although the prognosis has improved in recent decades, the mortality of AKI remains considerable. We investigated the factors that increase the risk of AKI and death after severe burn injury.MethodsIntensive care patients with 20% burned total body surface area (TBSA%) between January 2006 and December 2015 treated in Helsinki Burn Centre were enrolled retrospectively. Patients who arrived >36h after burn injury or died 80. Multivariate logistic regression model detected age, TBSA%, sepsis, and rhabdomyolysis as independent risk factors for AKI. Age (per 10yrs. OR 1.99), TBSA% (per 10% OR 1.64), and AKI predicted mortality during hospital stay; AKI had an odds ratio of (OR) of 5.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-16.2).ConclusionsAge, TBSA%, and AKI were the strongest independent factors in predicting outcome in severe burns. Even a major burn (>50% TBSA) has a relatively good prognosis without simultaneous AKI. Prognosis is poorer even in minor burns for patients with AKI.
  • Sandelin, Atte; Härtel, Heidi; Seppä-Lassila, Leena; Kaartinen, Liisa; Rautala, Helena; Soveri, Timo; Simojoki, Heli (2020)
    BackgroundBovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be great challenge in calf rearing units. The urgent need to decrease the use of antibiotics and increase animal welfare in beef production has forced us to introduce new preventive methods. Vaccinations could contribute to the solution, but the high incidence of BRD already at an early age has made it difficult to introduce suitable vaccination programs. Challenge studies have shown promising results in 3-14day old calves vaccinated with intranasal BRD vaccine, but very few field trials are available to assess the efficacy of the intranasal vaccines in field conditions. We evaluated the effect of one dose of commercial intranasal vaccination on calf mortality, daily gain, and treatment incidence for BRD in one calf rearing unit. In total, 497 calves (mean age 19days) were included in our study, 247 of which were vaccinated at the time of arrival to the unit and 250 served as negative controls (unvaccinated). Vaccinated and unvaccinated calves were situated in separate compartments until weaning. Daily gain, treatment incidence, and mortality were recorded until the calves were transported to the finishing unit, which averaged 154.5days from arrival.ResultsAverage daily gain over the complete study period was 1151.9g/day (SD 137.9) for the vaccinated calves and 1139.5g/day (SD 135.9) for the unvaccinated calves. Intranasal vaccination combined with older arrival age (17days or older) resulted in a higher daily gain (47.8g/day) compared with unvaccinated calves (coef. 0.0478, p=0.003). This association was not recorded in calves that were younger than 17days upon arrival. Intranasal vaccination was not significantly associated either with mortality (OR 0.976, p=0.968) or treatment incidence for BRD (OR 1.341, p=0.120). In total, six vaccinated calves (2.43%) and six unvaccinated calves (2.40%) died during the study period.ConclusionsVaccinating arriving calves with intranasal vaccine in the calf rearing unit did not decrease the mortality or treatment incidence for BRD, but it significantly improved the weight gain in calves transported to the unit at the age of 17days or older.
  • Kauppila, Joonas H.; Ohtonen, Pasi; Karttunen, Tuomo J.; Kokkola, Arto; Laine, Simo; Rantanen, Tuomo; Ristimäki, Ari; Räsänen, Jari V.; Saarnio, Juha; Sihvo, Eero; Toikkanen, Vesa; Tyrvänen, Tuula (2019)
    Introduction Surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancers is associated with high morbidity, mortality and poor quality of life postoperatively. The Finnish National Esophago-Gastric Cancer Cohort has been established with the aim of identifying factors that could contribute to improved outcomes in oesophago-gastric cancer. Methods and analysis All patients with oesophageal and gastric cancer diagnosed in Finland between 1987 and 2015 will be identified from the Finnish national registries. The Finnish Cancer Registry and Finnish Patient Registry will be used to identify patients that fulfil the inclusion criteria for the study: (1) diagnosis of oesophageal, gastro-oesophageal junction, or gastric cancer, (2) any surgical treatment for the diagnosed cancer and (3) age of 18 or over at the time of diagnosis. Clinical variables and complication information will be retrieved in extensive data collection from the medical records of the relevant Finnish hospitals and complete follow-up for vital status from Statistics Finland. Primary end point is overall all-cause mortality and secondary endpoints include complications, reoperations, medication use and sick leaves. Sub-studies will be implemented within the cohort to investigate specific populations undergoing oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery. The initial estimated sample size is 1800 patients with surgically treated oesophageal cancer and 7500 patients with surgically treated gastric cancer. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Ethical Committee in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland and The National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland. Study findings will be disseminated via presentations at conferences and publications in peer-reviewed journals.
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Tikkanen-Dolenc, Heidi; Wadén, Johan; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Saraheimo, Markku; Elonen, Nina; Hietala, Kustaa; Summanen, Paula; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the development of severe diabetic retinopathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • CENTER-TBI Participants Investigat; Böhm, Julia K.; Maegele, Marc; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Ripatti, Samuli; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Trauma-induced coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with high rates of complications, unfavourable outcomes and mortality. The mechanism of the development of TBI-associated coagulopathy is poorly understood. Methods This analysis, embedded in the prospective, multi-centred, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, aimed to characterise the coagulopathy of TBI. Emphasis was placed on the acute phase following TBI, primary on subgroups of patients with abnormal coagulation profile within 4 h of admission, and the impact of pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. In order to minimise confounding factors, patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) (n = 598) were selected for this analysis. Results Haemostatic disorders were observed in approximately 20% of iTBI patients. In a subgroup analysis, patients with pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy had a twice exacerbated coagulation profile as likely as those without premedication. This was in turn associated with increased rates of mortality and unfavourable outcome post-injury. A multivariate analysis of iTBI patients without pre-injury anticoagulant therapy identified several independent risk factors for coagulopathy which were present at hospital admission. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than or equal to 8, base excess (BE) less than or equal to - 6, hypothermia and hypotension increased risk significantly. Conclusion Consideration of these factors enables early prediction and risk stratification of acute coagulopathy after TBI, thus guiding clinical management.
  • Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2015 DALY & HALE (2016)
    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Findings Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs off set by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high-burden NCDs (including osteoarthritis, drug use disorders, depression, diabetes, congenital birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2.9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2.9-3.0) for men and 3.5 years (3.4-3.7) for women, while HALE at age 65 years improved by 0.85 years (0.78-0.92) and 1.2 years (1.1-1.3), respectively. Rising SDI was associated with consistently higher HALE and a somewhat smaller proportion of life spent with functional health loss; however, rising SDI was related to increases in total disability. Many countries and territories in central America and eastern sub-Saharan Africa had increasingly lower rates of disease burden than expected given their SDI. At the same time, a subset of geographies recorded a growing gap between observed and expected levels of DALYs, a trend driven mainly by rising burden due to war, interpersonal violence, and various NCDs. Interpretation Health is improving globally, but this means more populations are spending more time with functional health loss, an absolute expansion of morbidity. The proportion of life spent in ill health decreases somewhat with increasing SDI, a relative compression of morbidity, which supports continued efforts to elevate personal income, improve education, and limit fertility. Our analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework on which to benchmark geography-specific health performance and SDG progress. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform financial and research investments, prevention efforts, health policies, and health system improvement initiatives for all countries along the development continuum. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Mahmoudan, Azita; Morkrid, Lars; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Hirschberg, Angelica Linden; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Vanky, Eszter; Ravn, Pernille; Jensen, Richard Christian; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Glintborg, Dorte (2021)
    Objective: Obesity is considered to be the strongest predictive factor for cardio-metabolic risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the study was to compare blood pressure (BP) in normal weight women with PCOS and controls matched for age and BMI. Methods: From a Nordic cross-sectional base of 2615 individuals of Nordic ethnicity, we studied a sub cohort of 793 normal weight women with BMI <25 k g/m(2) (512 women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria and 281 age and BMI-matched controls). Participants underwent measurement of BP and body composition (BMI, waist-hip ratio), lipid status, and fasting BG. Data were presented as median (quartiles). Results: The median age for women with PCOS were 28 (25, 32) years and median BMI was 22.2 (20.7, 23.4) kg/m(2). Systolic BP was 118 (109, 128) mmHg in women with PCOS compared to 110 (105, 120) mmHg in controls and diastolic BP was 74 ( 67, 81) vs 70 (64, 75) mmHg, both P <0.001. The prevalence of women with BP >= 140/90 mmHg was 11.1% (57/ 512) in women with PCOS vs 1.8% (5/281) in controls, P <0.001. In women >= 35 years the prevalence of BP >= 140/90 mmHg was comparable in women with PCOS and controls (12.7% vs 9.8%, P = 0.6). Using multiple regression analyses, the strongest association with BP was found for age, waist circumference, and total cholesterol in women with PCOS. Conclusions: Normal weight women with PCOS have higher BP than controls. BP and metabolic screening are relevant also in young normal weight women with PCOS.
  • Ekström, Kaj; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Lehtonen, Jukka; Nordenswan, Hanna-Kaisa; Mäyranpää, Mikko I.; Kupari, Markku (2020)
    Aims Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) and giant cell myocarditis (GCM) are inflammatory cardiomyopathies sharing histopathological and clinical features. Their differentiation is difficult and susceptible of confusion and apparent mistakes. The possibility that they represent different phenotypes of a single disease has been debated. Methods and results We made a retrospective audit of 73 cases of GCM diagnosed in Finland since the late 1980s. All available histological material was reanalyzed as were other examinations pertinent to the distinction between GCM and CS. Finding granulomas in or outside the heart was considered diagnostic of CS and exclusive of GCM. Altogether 45 of the 73 cases of GCM (62%) were reclassified as CS. In all except one case, this was based on finding sarcoid granulomas that either had been originally missed (n = 29) or misinterpreted (n = 11) or were found in additional posttransplant myocardial specimens (n = 3) or samples of extracardiac tissue (n = 1) accrued over the disease course. Supporting the reclassification, patients relocated to the CS group had less heart failure at presentation (prevalence 20% vs. 46%, P = 0.017) and better 1 year transplant-free survival (82% vs. 45%, P = 0.011) than patients considered to represent true GCM. Conclusions Recognizing granulomas in or outside the heart remains a challenge for the pathologist. Given that CS and GCM are considered distinct diseases and granulomas exclusive of GCM, many cases of GCM, if thoroughly scrutinized, may need reclassification as CS. However, whether CS and GCM are truly different entities or parts of a one-disease continuum has not yet been conclusively settled.
  • De Luca, Giuseppe; Cercek, Miha; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Bushljetikj, Oliver; Calmac, Lucian; Johnson, Tom; Blancas, Montserrat Gracida; Ganyukov, Vladimir; Wojakowski, Wojtek; von Birgelen, Clemens; IJsselmuiden, Alexander; Tuccillo, Bernardo; Versaci, Francesco; Berg, Jurrien Ten; Laine, Mika; Berkout, Tim; Casella, Gianni; Kala, Petr; Ledesma, Bernabe Lopez; Becerra, Victor; Padalino, Roberto; Santucci, Andrea; Carrillo, Xavier; Scoccia, Alessandra; Amoroso, Giovanni; Kovarnik, Arpad Lux Tomas; Davlouros, Periklis; Gabrielli, Gabriele; Rios, Xacobe Flores; Bakraceski, Nikola; Levesque, Sebastien; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Kidawa, Michal; Marinucci, Lucia; Zilio, Filippo; Galasso, Gennaro; Fabris, Enrico; Menichelli, Maurizio; Manzo, Stephane; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Moreu, Jose; For, Juan Sanchis; Donazzan, Luca; Vignali, Luigi; Teles, Rui; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Ojeda, Francisco Bosa; Lehtola, Heidi; Camacho-Freiere, Santiago; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan; Antti, Ylitalo; Visconti, Gabriella; Martinez-Luengas, Inigo Lozano; Scheller, Bruno; Alexopulos, Dimitrios; Moreno, Raul; Kedhi, Elvin; Uccello, Giuseppe; Faurie, Benjamin; Barrios, Alejandro Gutierrez; Di Uccio, Fortunato Scotto; Wilbert, Bor; Cortese, Giuliana; Dirksen, Maurits T.; Parodi, Guido; Verdoia, Monica (2021)
    Background: Concerns have been raised on a potential interaction between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) and the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No data have been so far reported on the prognostic impact of RASI in patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during COVID-19 pandemic, which was the aim of the present study. Methods: STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and enrolled in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry were included in the present sub-analysis and divided according to RASI therapy at admission. Results: Our population is represented by 6095 patients, of whom 3654 admitted in 2019 and 2441 in 2020. No difference in the prevalence of SARSCoV2 infection was observed according to RASI therapy at admission (2.5% vs 2.1%, p = 0.5), which was associated with a significantly lower mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.51 & ndash;0.90], P = 0.006), confirmed in the analysis restricted to 2020 (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.5[0.33 & ndash;0.74], P = 0.001). Among the 5388 patients in whom data on in-hospital medication were available, in-hospital RASI therapy was associated with a significantly lower mortality (2.1% vs 16.7%, OR [95% CI]=0.11 [0.084 & ndash;0.14], p < 0.0001), confirmed after adjustment in both periods. Among the 62 SARSCoV-2 positive patients, RASI therapy, both at admission or in-hospital, showed no prognostic effect. Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on the prognosis and SARSCoV2 infection of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission and in-hospital RASI were associated with lower mortality. Among SARSCoV2-positive patients, both chronic and in-hospital RASI therapy showed no impact on survival.
  • Urtamo, Annele; Jyväkorpi, Satu K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2020)
    Background The studies on the association of various midlife risk factors with reaching 90 years or more are scarce. We studied this association in a socioeconomically homogenous cohort of businessmen. Methods The study consists of men (n = 970) from the Helsinki Businessmen Study cohort (born 1919-1928). Five major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (smoking, BMI, blood pressure, serum lipids, fasting glucose), consumption of alcohol and coffee, self-rated health and self-rated fitness, were assessed in 1974, at an average age of 50 years. The number of major risk factors was tested as a risk burden. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and the RAND-36 (SF-36) Physical and Mental health summary scores were calculated from surveys in year 2000, at age of 73 years. Mortality dates were retrieved through 31 March 2018 from the Population Information System of Finland. Results 244 men survived to the age of 90 representing 25.2% of the study cohort. The survivors had less risk factor burden in midlife, and less morbidity and higher physical health summary score in 2000. Of those with five major risk factors only 7% survived up to 90 years, whereas 51% of those without any risk factors reached that age. Single risk factors reducing odds of reaching 90 years were smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.67), glucose (0.66, 0.49-0.88), BMI (0.63, 0.46-0.86), and cholesterol (0.71, 0.53-0.96). Conclusion Lack of five major CVD risk factors in midlife strongly increased odds of reaching 90 years of age and also predicted factors related to successful ageing in late life.
  • Antila, A.; Ahola, R.; Sand, J.; Laukkarinen, J. (2019)
    Background: Centralization of pancreatic surgery has proceeded in the last few years in many countries. However, information on the effect of hospital volume specifically on distal pancreatic resections (DP) is lacking. Aim: To investigate the effect of hospital volume on postoperative complications in DP patients in Finland. Methods: All DP performed in Finland during the period 2012-2014 were analyzed, information having been retrieved from the appropriate national registers. Hospital volumes, postoperative pancreatic fistulae (POPF) and overall complications were graded. High volume centre (HVC) was defined as performing > 10 DPs, median volume centre (MVC) 4-9 DPs and low volume centre (LVC) fewer than 4 DP annually. Results: A total of 194 DPs were performed at 18 different hospitals. Of these 42% (81) were performed in HVCs (2 hospitals), 43% (84) in MVCs (6 hospitals) and the remaining 15% (29) in LVCs (10 hospitals). Patient demographics did not differ between the hospital volume groups. The overall rate of clinically relevant POPF, Clavien-Dindo grade 3-5 complications, and 90-day mortality showed no significant differences between the different hospital volumes. Grade C POPF was found more often in LVCs, being 1.2% in HVCs, 0% in MCVs and 6.9% in LVCs, p = 0.030. More reoperations were performed in LVCs (10.3%) than in HVCs (1.2%) or MVCs (1.2%); p = 0.025. Conclusions: Even though the rate of postoperative complications after DP is not affected by hospital volume, reoperations were performed ten times more often in the low-volume centres. Optimal management of postoperative complications may favour centralization not only of PD, but also of DP. (C) 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Local Burden Dis Diarrhoea; Wiens, Kirsten E.; Lindstedt, Paulina A.; Blacker, Brigette F.; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Shiri, Rahman (2020)
    Background Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is a form of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea that has the potential to drastically reduce child mortality; yet, according to UNICEF estimates, less than half of children younger than 5 years with diarrhoea in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) received ORS in 2016. A variety of recommended home fluids (RHF) exist as alternative forms of ORT; however, it is unclear whether RHF prevent child mortality. Previous studies have shown considerable variation between countries in ORS and RHF use, but subnational variation is unknown. This study aims to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of relative and absolute coverage of ORS, RHF, and ORT (use of either ORS or RHF) in LMICs. Methods We used a Bayesian geostatistical model including 15 spatial covariates and data from 385 household surveys across 94 LMICs to estimate annual proportions of children younger than 5 years of age with diarrhoea who received ORS or RHF (or both) on continuous continent-wide surfaces in 2000-17, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. Additionally, we analysed geographical inequality in coverage across administrative units and estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths averted by increased coverage over the study period. Uncertainty in the mean coverage estimates was calculated by taking 250 draws from the posterior joint distribution of the model and creating uncertainty intervals (UIs) with the 2 center dot 5th and 97 center dot 5th percentiles of those 250 draws. Findings While ORS use among children with diarrhoea increased in some countries from 2000 to 2017, coverage remained below 50% in the majority (62 center dot 6%; 12 417 of 19 823) of second administrative-level units and an estimated 6 519 000 children (95% UI 5 254 000-7 733 000) with diarrhoea were not treated with any form of ORT in 2017. Increases in ORS use corresponded with declines in RHF in many locations, resulting in relatively constant overall ORT coverage from 2000 to 2017. Although ORS was uniformly distributed subnationally in some countries, within-country geographical inequalities persisted in others; 11 countries had at least a 50% difference in one of their units compared with the country mean. Increases in ORS use over time were correlated with declines in RHF use and in diarrhoeal mortality in many locations, and an estimated 52 230 diarrhoeal deaths (36 910-68 860) were averted by scaling up of ORS coverage between 2000 and 2017. Finally, we identified key subnational areas in Colombia, Nigeria, and Sudan as examples of where diarrhoeal mortality remains higher than average, while ORS coverage remains lower than average. Interpretation To our knowledge, this study is the first to produce and map subnational estimates of ORS, RHF, and ORT coverage and attributable child diarrhoeal deaths across LMICs from 2000 to 2017, allowing for tracking progress over time. Our novel results, combined with detailed subnational estimates of diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality, can support subnational needs assessments aimed at furthering policy makers' understanding of within-country disparities. Over 50 years after the discovery that led to this simple, cheap, and life-saving therapy, large gains in reducing mortality could still be made by reducing geographical inequalities in ORS coverage. Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Bergholt, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn E.; Pyykönen, Aura; Rasmussen, Steen C.; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I.; Smárason, Alexander; Másdóttir, Birna B.; Klungsøyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Källén, Karin; Gissler, Mika; Løkkegaard, Ellen C. L. (2020)
    Abstract Introduction Over the last decades, induction of labor has increased in many countries along with increasing maternal age. We assessed the effects of maternal age and labor induction on cesarean section at term among nulliparous and multiparous women without previous cesarean section. Material and methods We performed a retrospective national registry-based study from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden including 3 398 586 deliveries between 2000 and 2011. We investigated the impact of age on cesarean section among 196 220 nulliparous and 188 158 multiparous women whose labor was induced, had single cephalic presentation at term and no previous cesarean section. Confounders comprised country, time-period and gestational age. Results In nulliparous women with induced labor the rate of cesarean section increased from 14.0% in women less than 20 years of age to 39.9% in women 40 years and older. Compared to women aged 25-29 years, the corresponding relative risk were 0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI); 0.57 to 0.64) and 1.72 (95% CI; 1.66 to 1.79). In multiparous induced women the risk of cesarean section was 3.9% in women less than 20 years rising to 9.1% in women 40 years and older. Compared to women aged 25-29 years, the relative risk were 0.86 (95% CI; 0.54 to 1.37) and 1.98 (95% CI; 1.84 to 2.12), respectively. There were minimal confounding effects of country, time-period and gestational age on risk for cesarean section. Conclusions Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of cesarean section in women undergoing labor induction with a single cephalic presentation at term without a previous cesarean section. The absolute risk of cesarean section is 3-5 times higher across 5-year age groups in nulliparous relative to multiparous women having induced labor.
  • Seppänen, P.M.; Sund, R.T.; Uotila, J.T.; Helminen, M.T.; Suominen, T.M. (2020)
    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the course of pregnancy and delivery of obstetric patients admitted for intensive care, and determine the health status of their infants. Methods: This was a retrospective register-based study. Four university hospitals in Finland participated. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit in any trimester of pregnancy, during delivery or up to 42 days post partum were identified from clinical information systems over a five-year study period. Parturient and infant data were collected from the Medical Birth Register. Results: During the study period (2007-2011), 283 obstetric patients were identified from the clinical information system. The most common reason for admission was hypertensive complications (58%), followed by obstetric haemorrhage (25.1 %). Advanced maternal age, nulliparity and multiple pregnancies were associated with obstetric intensive care unit admissions. Of patients admitted to intensive care, 68.9% delivered by unscheduled caesarean section. Nearly 60% of neonates were born preterm, 56.1% needed treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit or an observation unit and 4.6 % died within one week. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age, nulliparity and multiple pregnancy were more common among intensive care unit-admitted women than in the general obstetric population. The main causes for admission were hypertensive complications and obstetric haemorrhage. Compared with the general obstetric population, neonates of intensive care unit-admitted mothers were eight times more likely to require treatment on a neonatal ward and their risk of neonatal death was also eight times greater. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Risnes, Kari; Bilsteen, Josephine Funck; Brown, Paul; Pulakka, Anna; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Opdahl, Signe; Kajantie, Eero; Sandin, Sven (2021)
    IMPORTANCE Adverse long-term outcomes in individuals born before full gestation are not confined to individuals born at extreme gestational ages. Little is known regarding mortality patterns among individuals born in the weeks close to ideal gestation, and the exact causes are not well understood; both of these are crucial for public health, with the potential for modification of risk. OBJECTIVE To examine the risk of all-cause and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) deaths among young adults born preterm and early term. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multinational population-based cohort study used nationwide birth cohorts from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland for individuals born between 1967 and 2002. Individuals identified at birth who had not died or emigrated were followed up for mortality from age 15 years to 2017. Analyses were performed from June 2019 to May 2020. EXPOSURES Categories of gestational age (ie, moderate preterm birth and earlier [23-33 weeks], late preterm [34-36 weeks], early term [37-38 weeks], full term [39-41 weeks] and post term [42-44 weeks]). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality from NCD, defined as cancer, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS A total of 6 263 286 individuals were followed up for mortality from age 15 years. Overall, 339 403 (5.4%) were born preterm, and 3 049 100 (48.7%) were women. Compared with full-term birth, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for all-cause mortality were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.34-1.55) for moderate preterm birth and earlier; 1.23 (95% CI, 1.18-1.29) for late preterm birth; and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09-1.15) for early-term birth. The association between gestational age and all-cause mortality were stronger in women than in men (P for interaction = .03). Preterm birth was associated with 2-fold increased risks of death from CVD (aHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.47), diabetes (aHR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.44-2.73), and chronic lung disease (aHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.36-3.82). The main associations were replicated across countries and could not be explained by familial or individual confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings of this study strengthen the evidence of increased risk of death from NCDs in young adults born preterm. Importantly, the increased death risk was found across gestational ages up to the ideal term date and includes the much larger group with early-term birth. Excess mortality associated with shorter gestational age was most pronounced for CVDs, chronic lung disease, and diabetes.
  • Suikkanen, Sara; Soukkio, Paula; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Kääriä, Sanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Hupli, Markku (2019)
    Background Increasing the level of physical activity among persons with signs of frailty improves physical functioning. There is a lack of long-term supervised physical exercise intervention studies including a validated definition of frailty. Aims To present baseline characteristics of persons with signs of frailty participating in a randomized long-term home-based physical exercise trial (HIPFRA), and to study associations between the severity of frailty, functional independence and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Methods Three hundred persons, >= 65 years old and with signs of frailty (assessed by Fried ' s phenotype criteria) were recruited from South Karelia, Finland and randomized to a 12-month physiotherapist-supervised home-based physical exercise program (n = 150), and usual care (n = 150). Assessments at the participants' homes at baseline, and after 3, 6 and 12 months included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), HRQoL (15D) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results Eligibility was screened among 520 persons; 300 met the inclusion criteria and were randomized. One person withdrew consent after randomization. A majority (75%) were women, 182 were pre-frail and 117 frail. The mean age was 82.5 (SD 6.3) years, SPPB 6.2 (2.6), FIM 108.8 (10.6) and MMSE 24.4 (3.1) points, with no significant differences between the study groups. Inverse associations between the severity of frailty vs. FIM scores and HRQoL (p <0.001 for both) were found. Conclusions Our participants showed marked physical frailty without major disabilities. The severity of frailty seems to be associated with impaired functional independence and HRQoL.