Browsing by Subject "MOSAIC-VIRUS"

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  • Swarnalok, De; Pollari, Maija; Varjosalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Kristiina (2020)
    In this study, we investigated the significance of a conserved five-amino acid motif 'AELPR' in the C-terminal region of helper component-proteinase (HCPro) for potato virus A (PVA; genusPotyvirus) infection. This motif is a putative interaction site for WD40 domain-containing proteins, including VARICOSE (VCS). We abolished the interaction site in HCPro by replacing glutamic acid (E) and arginine (R) with alanines (A) to generate HCPro(WD). These mutations partially eliminated HCPro-VCS co-localization in cells. We have earlier described potyvirus-induced RNA granules (PGs) in which HCPro and VCS co-localize and proposed that they have a role in RNA silencing suppression. We now demonstrate that the ability of HCPro(WD)to induce PGs, introduce VCS into PGs, and suppress RNA silencing was impaired. Accordingly, PVA carrying HCPro(WD)(PVA(WD)) infectedNicotiana benthamianaless efficiently than wild-type PVA (PVA(WT)) and HCPro(WD)complemented the lack of HCPro in PVA gene expression only partially. HCPro was purified from PVA-infected leaves as part of high molecular weight (HMW) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. These complexes were more stable when associated with wild-type HCPro than with HCPro(WD). Moreover, VCS and two viral components of the HMW-complexes, viral protein genome-linked and cylindrical inclusion protein were specifically decreased in HCPro(WD)-containing HMW-complexes. A boost in translation of replication-deficient PVA (PVA(Delta GDD)) was observed only if viral RNA expressed wild-type HCPro. The role of VCS-VPg-HCPro coordination in PVA translation was further supported by results from VCS silencing and overexpression experiments and by significantly elevated PVA-derivedRenillaluciferase vs PVA RNA ratio upon VPg-VCS co-expression. Finally, we found that PVA(WD)was unable to form virus particles or to spread systemically in the infected plant. We highlight the role of HCPro-VCS containing multi-protein assemblies associated with PVA RNA in protecting it from degradation, ensuring efficient translation, formation of stable virions and establishment of systemic infection. Author summary This study revealed that the potyviral helper component proteinase (HCPro) and the host protein VARICOSE (VCS) are linked in a manner that is important for suppression of RNA silencing, formation of potyvirus-induced RNA granules, translation of viral proteins, stability of virions, and development of systemic potato virus A (PVA) infection. The results suggest that HCPro and VCS belong to the core components of large RNP complexes regulating PVA infection. We suggest that these complexes protect viral RNAs in the cytoplasm after release from the replication complex and direct them to translation and intact to the viral particles.
  • De, Swarnalok; Chavez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Wahlsten, Matti; Mäkinen, Kristiina (2018)
    Infection caused by the synergistic interaction of two plant viruses is typically manifested by severe symptoms and increased accumulation of either virus. In potex-potyviral synergism, the potyviral RNA silencing suppressor helper component proteinase (HCPro) is known to enhance the pathogenicity of the potexvirus counterpart. In line with this, Potato virus X (PVX; genus Potexvirus) genomic RNA (gRNA) accumulation and gene expression from subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) are increased in Nicotiana benthamiana by Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) HCPro expression. Recently, we have demonstrated that PVA HCPro interferes with the host cell methionine cycle by interacting with its key enzymes S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthetase (SAMS) and S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH). To study the involvement of methionine cycle enzymes in PVX infection, we knocked down SAMS and SAHH. Increased PVX sgRNA expression between 3 and 9 days post-infiltration (dpi) and upregulation of (-)-strand gRNA accumulation at 9 dpi were observed in the SAHH-silenced background. We found that SAMS and SAHH silencing also caused a significant reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration, specifically in PVX-infected plants between 2 and 9 dpi. Interestingly, HCPro expression in PVX-infected plants caused an even stronger reduction in GSH levels than did SAMS+SAHH silencing and a similar level of reduction was also achieved by knocking down GSH synthetase. PVX sgRNA expression was increased in the GSH synthetase-silenced background. GSH is a major antioxidant of plant cells and therefore GSH shortage may explain the strong oxidative stress and severe symptoms observed during potex-potyvirus mixed infection.
  • Santovito, Elisa; Mascia, Tiziana; Siddiqui, Shahid A.; Minutillo, Serena Anna; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Gallitelli, Donato (2014)
  • Makinen, Kristiina; Lohmus, Andres; Pollari, Maija (2017)
    Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and their individual components contribute to these processes. In this review we discuss the roles of cellular RNA regulatory mechanisms and RNA granules in plant virus infection in the light of current knowledge and compare the findings to those made in animal virus studies.
  • Weinheimer, Isabel; Haikonen, Tuuli; Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Moser, Mirko; Streng, Janne; Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2016)
    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3) that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA) and long dsRNA to fragments that are too short to be utilized in RNAi. However, RNase3 can suppress only RNAi induced by sense RNA. Sense-mediated RNAi involves host suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6). In this study, subcellular localization and host interactions of RNase3 were studied in plant cells. RNase3 was found to interact with SGS3 of sweetpotato and Arabidopsis thaliana when expressed in leaves, and it localized to SGS3/RDR6 bodies in the cytoplasm of leaf cells and protoplasts. RNase3 was also detected in the nucleus. Co-expression of RNase3 and SGS3 in leaf tissue enhanced the suppression of RNAi, as compared with expression of RNase3 alone. These results suggest additional mechanisms needed for efficient RNase3-mediated suppression of RNAi and provide new information about the subcellular context and phase of the RNAi pathway in which RNase3 realizes RNAi suppression.
  • Deng, Xianbao; Elomaa, Paula; Nguyen, Cuong X.; Hytonen, Timo; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Teeri, Teemu H. (2012)