Browsing by Subject "MOSQUITOS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Putkuri, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli (2016)
    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (
  • Pietikainen, Risto; Nordling, Stig; Jokiranta, Sakari; Saari, Seppo; Heikkinen, Petra; Gardiner, Chris; Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Kantanen, Tiina; Nikanorova, Anna; Laaksonen, Sauli; Lavikainen, Antti; Oksanen, Antti (2017)
    Background: The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. Results: Herein, we describe an autochthonous D. repens infection in a Finnish woman. We also present two cases of D. repens infection in imported dogs indicating the life-cycle in the Russian Vyborg and St Petersburg areas, close to the Finnish border. Conclusions: The most obvious limiting factor of the northern distribution of D. repens is the summer temperature, due to the temperature-dependent development of larvae in vectors. With continuing climate change, further spread of D. repens in Fennoscandia can be expected.
  • Rossow, Heidi; Forbes, Kristian M.; Tarkka, Eveliina; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Hemmila, Heidi; Huitu, Otso; Nikkari, Simo; Henttonen, Heikki; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli (2014)
  • Jansen, Stephanie; Heitmann, Anna; Lühken, Renke; Jöst, Hanna; Helms, Michelle; Vapalahti, Olli; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Tannich, Egbert (2018)
    The invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Ae. japonicus) is widely distributed in Central Europe and is a known vector of various arboviruses in the laboratory, including flaviviruses such as Japanese Encephalitis virus or West Nile virus. However, the vector competence of Ae. japonicus for the recently emerging Zika virus (ZIKV) has not been determined. Therefore, field-caught Ae. japonicus from Germany were orally infected with ZIKV and incubated at 21, 24, or 27 degrees C to evaluate the vector competence under climate conditions representative of the temperate regions (21 degrees C) in the species' main distribution area in Europe and of Mediterranean regions (27 degrees C). Aedes japonicus was susceptible to ZIKV at all temperatures, showing infection rates between 10.0% (21 degrees C) and 66.7% (27 degrees C). However, virus transmission was detected exclusively at 27 degrees C with a transmission rate of 14.3% and a transmission efficiency of 9.5%. Taking into account the present distribution of Ae. japonicus in the temperate regions of Central Europe, the risk of ZIKV transmission by the studied Ae. japonicus population in Central Europe has to be considered as low. Nevertheless, due to the species' vector competence for ZIKV and other mosquito-borne viruses, in combination with the possibility of further spread to Mediterranean regions, Ae. japonicus must be kept in mind as a potential vector of pathogens inside and outside of Europe.
  • Ling, Jiaxin; Smura, Teemu; Lundström, Jan O.; Pettersson, John H-O; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli; Lundkvist, Åke; Hesson, Jenny C. (2019)
    Bird-hosted viruses have the potential to be transported over large areas of the world and to be transmitted in distant geographical regions. Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is locally amplified in a bird-mosquito enzootic cycle and distributed all over the Old World and Australia/Oceania. Sindbis virus genotype I (SINV-I) is the cause of disease outbreaks in humans in South Africa as well as in northern Europe. To trace the evolutionary history and potential strain-disease association of SINV-I, we sequenced 36 complete genomes isolated from field material in Europe, as well as in Africa and the Middle East, collected over 58 years. These were analyzed together with 30 additional published whole SINV-I genomes using Bayesian analysis. Our results suggested that SINV-I was introduced only once to northern Europe from central Africa, in the 1920s. After its first introduction to Sweden, it spread east and southward on two separate occasions in the 1960s and 1970s. Another introduction from central Africa to southern/central Europe seems to have occurred, and where these two introductions meet, one recombination event was detected in central Europe. In addition, another recombinant strain was found in central Africa, where the most divergent SINV-I strains also originated. IMPORTANCE This study shows that only a single introduction of SINV into a new geographical area is required for spread and establishment, provided that the requisite vector(s) and reservoir(s) of epizootological and epidemiological importance are present. Furthermore, we present the first report of recombination between two strains of SINV in nature. Our study increases the knowledge on new introductions and dispersal of arboviruses in general and of SINV in particular.
  • Uusitalo, Ruut; Siljander, Mika; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Hendrickx, Guy; Linden, Andreas; Dub, Timothee; Aalto, Juha; Sane, Jussi; Marsboom, Cedric; Suvanto, Maija T.; Vajda, Andrea; Gregow, Hilppa; Korhonen, Essi M.; Huhtamo, Eili; Pellikka, Petri; Vapalahti, Olli (2021)
    Pogosta disease is a mosquito-borne infection, caused by Sindbis virus (SINV), which causes epidemics of febrile rash and arthritis in Northern Europe and South Africa. Resident grouse and migratory birds play a significant role as amplifying hosts and various mosquito species, including Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Cx. torrentium and Culiseta morsitans are documented vectors. As specific treatments are not available for SINV infections, and joint symptoms may persist, the public health burden is considerable in endemic areas. To predict the environmental suitability for SINV infections in Finland, we applied a suite of geospatial and statistical modeling techniques to disease occurrence data. Using an ensemble approach, we first produced environmental suitability maps for potential SINV vectors in Finland. These suitability maps were then combined with grouse densities and environmental data to identify the influential determinants for SINV infections and to predict the risk of Pogosta disease in Finnish municipalities. Our predictions suggest that both the environmental suitability for vectors and the high risk of Pogosta disease are focused in geographically restricted areas. This provides evidence that the presence of both SINV vector species and grouse densities can predict the occurrence of the disease. The results support material for public-health officials when determining area-specific recommendations and deliver information to health care personnel to raise awareness of the disease among physicians.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf EFSA AHA; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose; Sihvonen, Liisa Helena (2020)
    Effectiveness of surveillance and control measures against Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Mayotte (overseas France) and in continental EU were assessed using mathematical models. Surveillance for early detection of RVF virus circulation implies very low design prevalence values and thus sampling a high number of animals, so feasibility issues may rise. Passive surveillance based on notified abortions in ruminants is key for early warning and at present the only feasible surveillance option. The assessment of vaccination and culling against RVF in Mayotte suggests that vaccination is more effective when quickly implemented throughout the population, e.g. at a rate of 200 or 2,000 animals vaccinated per day. Test and cull is not an option for RVF control in Mayotte given the high number of animals that would need to be tested. If the risk of RVFV introduction into the continental EU increases, ruminant establishments close to possible points of disease incursion should be included in the surveillance. An enhanced surveillance on reproductive disorders should be applied during summer in risk areas. Serosurveillance targets of 0.3% animals should be at least considered. RVF control measures possibly applied in the continental EU have been assessed in the Netherlands, as an example. Culling animals on farms within a 20 km radius of detected farms appears as the most effective measure to control RVF spread, although too many animals should be culled. Alternative measures are vaccination in a 50 km radius around detection, ring vaccination between 20 and 50 km and culling of detected farms. The assessment of zoning showed that, following RVFV introduction and considering an R-0 = 2, a mean vector dispersal of 10 km and 10 farms initially detected, RVFV would spread beyond a radius of up to 100 km or 50 km from the infected area with 10% or 55% probability, respectively. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf AHAW; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose (2020)
    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by different mosquito species, especially Aedes and Culex genus, to animals and humans. In November 2018, RVF re-emerged in Mayotte (France) after 11 years. Up to the end of October 2019, 126 outbreaks in animals and 143 human cases were reported. RVF mortality was 0.01%, and the number of abortions reported in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive ruminants was fivefold greater than the previous 7 years. Milk loss production in 2019 compared to 2015-2018 was estimated to be 18%, corresponding to an economic loss of around Euro191,000 in all of Mayotte. The tropical climate in Mayotte provides conditions for the presence of mosquitoes during the whole year, and illegal introductions of animals represent a continuous risk of (re)introduction of RVF. The probability of RVF virus (RVFV) persisting in Mayotte for 5 or more years was estimated to be <10% but could be much lower if vertical transmission in vectors does not occur. Persistence of RVF by vertical transmission in Mayotte and Reunion appears to be of minor relevance compared to other pathways of re-introduction (i.e. animal movement). However, there is a high uncertainty since there is limited information about the vertical transmission of some of the major species of vectors of RVFV in Mayotte and Reunion. The only identified pathways for the risk of spread of RVF from Mayotte to other countries were by infected vectors transported in airplanes or by wind currents. For the former, the risk of introduction of RVF to continental France was estimated to 4 x 10(-6) epidemic per year (median value; 95% CI: 2 x 10(-8); 0.0007), and 0.001 epidemic per year to Reunion (95% CI: 4 x 10(-6); 0.16). For the latter pathway, mosquitoes dispersing on the wind from Mayotte between January and April 2019 could have reached the Comoros Islands, Madagascar, Mozambique and, possibly, Tanzania. However, these countries are already endemic for RVF, and an incursion of RVFV-infected mosquitoes would have negligible impact. (c) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Evander, Magnus; Putkuri, Niina; Eliasson, Mats; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Vapalahti, Olli; Ahlm, Clas (2016)
    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P <0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45-54 years for men and 55-64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Tran Van, Van; Fournier, Corentin; Potier, Patrick; Roiz, David; Mavingui, Patrick; Valiente Moro, Claire (2018)
    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus became of public health concern as it can replicate and transmit viral and filarial pathogens with a strong invasive success over the world. Various strategies have been proposed to reduce mosquito population's vectorial capacity. Among them, symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease offers promising perspectives. Such method is likely to be affected by the dynamics of mosquito-associated symbiotic communities, which might in turn be affected by host genotype and environment. Our previous study suggested a correlation between mosquitoes' origin, genetic diversity and midgut bacterial diversity. To distinguish the impact of those factors, we have been studying the midgut bacterial microbiota of two Ae. albopictus populations from tropical (La Re A union) and temperate (Montpellier) origins under controlled laboratory conditions. the two populations experienced random mating or genetic bottleneck. Microbiota composition did not highlight any variation of the alpha and beta-diversities in bacterial communities related to host's populations. However, sizes of the mosquitoes were negatively correlated with the bacterial a-diversity of females. Variations in mosquito sex were associated with a shift in the composition of bacterial microbiota. The females' mosquitoes also exhibited changes in the microbiota composition according to their size and after experiencing a reduction of their genetic diversity. These results provide a framework to investigate the impact of population dynamics on the symbiotic communities associated with the tiger mosquito.