Browsing by Subject "MOTHERS"

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  • Hannula, Leena; Puukka, Pauli; Asunmaa, Marjut; Mäkijärvi, Markku (2020)
    Background Many infants under 4 months suffer from infantile colic. Infants with colic cry a lot, appear to be in pain, and it is difficult to sooth them. Colic is a painful condition for the infant and very stressful to parents. Parents in Finland get advice to try reflexology treatment for their infant, but there are no studies in Finland to support this advice. Aim The aim of the pilot study was to treat infants with reflexology and find out parents' experiences of the effects of the treatment on colic symptoms and parental stress. Method A total of 33 parents of 35 infants diagnosed with colic participated to the pilot study. Three certified reflexologists with health care education background and extensive experience in infant reflexology were trained to give the reflexology treatment in a standardised manner. They treated each infant 3-4 times. The whole body reflexology treatment session consisted of gentle pressure treatment of soles and feet, hands, head, face, ears, back, neck and whole stomach area. One treatment session lasted about 20-30 minutes, and treatments were delivered within 8-12 days. The data were collected from the parents with semi-structured questionnaires. Results The series of the treatments helped reduce the suffering of all the babies with infant colic. The colic symptoms disappeared on 43% of infants and decreased on the remaining 57%. The parents reported having pleasant experiences with the treatment, regardless whether the colic symptoms disappeared or continued. Parents stated that the treatment reduced the most typical colic symptoms; infants' body tension, colic crying and restless movements, poor sleep quality and irregular bowel movements. Conclusions Reflexology treatment seems to be a safe and effective way to treat infants with colic when conducted by a health care professional with reflexology training and experience.
  • Hellstrand, Julia Ingrid Sofia; Nisén, Jessica; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    The ongoing period fertility decline in the Nordic countries is particularly strong in Finland, where the total fertility rate (TFR) reached an all-time low of 1.41 in 2018. We analyse the decrease in Finland's TFR in 2010–17, and assess its consequences for cohort fertility using complementary approaches. Decomposition of this fertility decline shows that first births and women aged <30 are making the largest contributions. However, women aged 30–39 are also, for the first time in decades, experiencing a sustained fertility decline. Tempo adjustments to the TFR suggest that quantum change is part of the decline. Several forecasting methods indicate that cohort fertility is likely to decline from the long-lasting level of 1.85–1.95 to 1.75 or lower among women born in the mid-1980s. Without an exceptionally strong recovery in fertility, Finnish cohort fertility is likely to decline to levels currently observed among countries with very low fertility.
  • Syrjänen, Milla; Hautamäki, Airi; Pleshkova, Natalia; Maliniemi, Sinikka (2019)
    This study aimed to explore the self-protective strategies of six parents with ADHD and the sensitivity they displayed in dyadic interaction with their under 3-years-old children. The parents were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Interview. Parental sensitivity was assessed using the CARE-Index. The study showed a variation of the parents' self-protective strategies and sensitivity. The more complex the parent's self-protective strategy was, the less sensitive was the interaction. Some parents' need for self-protection compromised their ability to protect their child and decreased their sensitivity. All parents displayed indications of unresolved traumas, which also impaired their sensitivity to the signals of their child and ability to engage in mutual regulation of arousal and emotion with their child. Attachment-oriented family psychological assessment, including assessments of the self-protective strategies of each family member would make possible to design a treatment adapted to the unique family needs, also in order to alleviate early risk.
  • Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kylmä, Jari; Bondas, Terese Elisabet (2021)
    Perinatal psychological distress (PPD) may cause delays in help-seeking in the perinatal period, which is crucial for families with small children. Help-seeking theories focus on rational processes of behavior wherein 'help-seeking' is viewed as a decision-making process, in which action is preceded by recognizing a problem. We identified the phase prior to actual help-seeking actions as a life situation and a phenomenon through which to gain a deeper understanding from women's own perspectives. The aim of this study was to integrate and synthesize knowledge of women's experiences of contemplating seeking help for PPD. We chose interpretative meta-ethnography by Noblit and Hare (1988) and implemented eMERGe guidelines in reporting. The search was performed systematically, and the 14 included studies were evaluated with Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist (CASP). We identified seven themes and a metaphor in a lines-of-argument synthesis, showing that contemplating help-seeking is a multidimensional phenomenon. We did not observe a straightforward and linear process (as previous research suggests) but instead a complex process of contemplating help-seeking. A clinical implication is that service providers should work with outreach and develop their tools to connect with mothers with PPD. Another suggestion is to improve training in mental health literacy prior to or during pregnancy.
  • Olander, R. F. W.; Sundholm, J. K. M.; Ojala, T. H.; Andersson, S.; Sarkola, T. (2020)
    Objectives Both excessive and restricted fetal growth are associated with changes in cardiac geometry and function at birth. There are significant issues when indexing cardiac parameters for body size in the neonatal period. The aims of this study were to determine to what extent cardiac geometry is dependent on body size in term and preterm neonates with restricted or excessive fetal growth and how this is affected by adiposity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of neonates born between 31 and 42 weeks of gestation, divided into three groups: (1) small-for-gestational age (SGA, birth weight > 2 SD below the mean); (2) large-for-gestational age (LGA, birth weight > 2 SD above the mean); and (3) appropriate-for-gestational-age controls (AGA, birth weight Results In total, 174 neonates were included, of which 39 were SGA, 45 were LGA and 90 were AGA. Body size was reflected in cardiac dimensions, with differences in cardiac dimensions disappearing between the SGA and AGA groups when indexed for body surface area (BSA) or thoracic circumference. The same was true for the differences in atrial and ventricular areas between the LGA and AGA groups. However, left ventricular inflow and outflow tract dimensions did not follow this trend as, when indexed for BSA, they were associated negatively with adiposity, resulting in diminished dimensions in LGA compared with AGA and SGA neonates. Adiposity was associated positively with left ventricular mass, right ventricular length and area and right atrial area. The SGA group showed increased right ventricular fractional area change, possibly reflecting differences in the systolic function of the right ventricle. We found evidence of altered diastolic function between the groups, with the mitral valve inflow E-to lateral E'-wave peak velocity ratio being increased in the LGA group and decreased in the SGA group. Conclusions Cardiac geometry is explained by body size in both term and preterm AGA and SGA infants. However, the nature of the relationship between body size and cardiac dimensions may be influenced by adiposity in LGA infants, leading to underestimation of left ventricular inflow and outflow tract dimensions when adjusted for BSA. Adjustments for thoracic circumference provide similar results to those for BSA. Copyright (C) 2020 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Ni, Qianqian; Cheng, Guizhi; Chen, An; Heinonen, Seppo (2020)
    Background The mental health of pregnant women, particularly those with elevated risks, has been an issue of global concern. Thus far, few studies have addressed the mental health of pregnant women with threatened preterm labour (TPL). This study investigated the prevalence of self-perceived burden (SPB) among Chinese women hospitalized due to TPL during pregnancy and early postpartum depressive disorders, exploring the effect of SPB and other potential risk factors on the early signs of postpartum depressive disorders. Methods A self-reported survey was conducted in the obstetrics department of Anhui Provincial Hospital, China. Women hospitalized with TPL were approached 1 week after delivery. One hundred fifty women were recruited from January 2017 to December 2017. The Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were the main measures. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and a multiple logistic regression were employed for data analysis. Results SPB and early postpartum depressive disorders were commonly experienced by Chinese women hospitalized with TPL, and SPB was positively and significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that for the women hospitalized with TPL during pregnancy, the emotional aspect of SPB (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.11-1.83, p = 0.006), age (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02-1.27, p = 0.023), occupation (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.18-10.20, p = 0.023), the history of scarred uterus (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.49-42.48, p = 0.015), the delivery mode of the present birth (OR = 6.19, 95% CI = 1.72-22.30, p = 0.005), and family support during pregnancy (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82, p = 0.001) were significant factors predicting early postpartum depressive symptoms. Conclusion This study indicates that SPB and early postpartum depressive disorders are prevalent mental issues among Chinese women hospitalized with TPL, and that SPB, especially perceived emotional burden, is a strong predictor of early postpartum depressive disorders. Our study suggests the necessity of paying attention to mental health issues, e.g. SPB and postpartum depressive symptoms among hospitalized women with TPL, and providing appropriate interventions at the prenatal stage to prevent adverse consequences.
  • Kuusela, Salla; Keskinen, Päivi; Pokka, Tytti; Knip, Mikael; Ilonen, Jorma; Vähäsalo, Paula; Veijola, Riitta (2020)
    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the extended family history of type 1 diabetes in children at genetic risk and define the impact of a positive family history on the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Methods The subjects were participants in The Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study and carried increased HLA-conferred risk for type 1 diabetes. The case children (N = 343) were positive for at least one islet autoantibody, and the control children (N = 343) matched by age, gender and class II HLA genotype were negative for islet autoantibodies at the time of data collection. Extended family history of type 1 diabetes was obtained by using a structured questionnaire. Results Among children who were autoantibody positive and progressed to type 1 diabetes 62.2% (28/45) had at least one relative with type 1 diabetes. Interestingly, 57.8% of these children (26/45) had such a relative outside the nuclear family compared to 30.7% of children with no autoantibodies (P= .001), 35.2% of those with only classical islet cell antibodies (P= .006), and 35.2% of non-progressors with biochemical autoantibodies (P= 0.011). A positive history of type 1 diabetes in the paternal extended family was more common in children with multiple biochemical autoantibodies compared to those with only one biochemical autoantibody (P= .010). No association between the specificity of the first appearing autoantibody and family history of the disease was found. Conclusions Type 1 diabetes in relatives outside the nuclear family is a significant risk factor for islet autoimmunity and progression to clinical disease in HLA susceptible children.
  • Teramo, Kari; Piñeiro-Ramos, José David (2019)
    Oxidative stress is responsible for microvascular complications (hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy) of diabetes, which during pregnancy increase both maternal and fetal complications. Chronic hypoxia and hyperglycemia result in increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity. However, oxidative stress induces also anti-oxidative reactions both in pregnant diabetes patients and in their fetuses. Not all type 1 diabetes patients with long-lasting disease develop microvascular complications, which suggests that some of these patients have protective mechanisms against these complications. Fetal erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of red cell production in the mother and in the fetus, but it has also protective effects in various maternal and fetal tissues. This dual effect of EPO is based on EPO receptor (EPO-R) isoforms, which differ structurally and functionally from the hematopoietic EPO-R isoform. The tissue protective effects of EPO are based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cell proliferative and angiogenic properties. Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that EPO has also positive metabolic effects on hyperglycemia and diabetes, although these have not yet been fully delineated. Whether the tissue protective and metabolic effects of EPO could have clinical benefits, are important topics for future research in diabetic pregnancies.
  • Cavonius-Rintahaka, Diana; Aho, Anna Liisa; Voutilainen, Arja; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher (2019)
    Introduction: Several studies have reported that having a child with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) increases parental stress and that parental psychosocial functioning influences child's development and behavior. It is unclear how parents of children with NDD experience family functionality, family health and receive support and if there are differences between experiences of mothers and fathers. Methods: Families with children referred to a neurocognitive unit were invited to the study. A modified version of the FAmily Functionality, HEalth, and Social support (FAFHES) questionnaire was used. Open-ended questions were also included. Results: Parents rated their social support lower than their family functionality and family health. Family functionality correlated positively with family health. No significant differences were found between mothers' and fathers' experiences. A three-months test-retest using the FAFHES showed no significant change in ratings of family functionality, family health, and social support. Conclusions: Family functionality was connected to family health in families with a child with NDD. Mothers and fathers experienced their family health, family functionality, and received social support in similar ways.
  • Genetics of DNA Methylation Consortium; BIOS Consortium; van Dongen, Jenny; Lundgren, Sara; Ollikainen, Miina; Kaprio, Jaakko (2021)
    The mechanisms underlying how monozygotic (or identical) twins arise are yet to be determined. Here, the authors investigate this in an epigenome-wide association study, showing that monozygotic twinning has a characteristic DNA methylation signature in adult somatic tissues. Monozygotic (MZ) twins and higher-order multiples arise when a zygote splits during pre-implantation stages of development. The mechanisms underpinning this event have remained a mystery. Because MZ twinning rarely runs in families, the leading hypothesis is that it occurs at random. Here, we show that MZ twinning is strongly associated with a stable DNA methylation signature in adult somatic tissues. This signature spans regions near telomeres and centromeres, Polycomb-repressed regions and heterochromatin, genes involved in cell-adhesion, WNT signaling, cell fate, and putative human metastable epialleles. Our study also demonstrates a never-anticipated corollary: because identical twins keep a lifelong molecular signature, we can retrospectively diagnose if a person was conceived as monozygotic twin.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Merjonen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    We examined the intergenerational transmission of parent-child relationship qualities in a population-based Finnish sample of 1418 participants (G2) and their mothers (G1). At baseline, G1 (Mage=38) reported qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 (age range 3-18). After 28years, G2 (Mage=39) rated the qualities of the parent-child relationship regarding their own children using the same questionnaire. Emotional warmth and acceptance were transmitted across generations even after controlling for demographic and family characteristics in both generations. The transmission was stronger for emotional warmth than acceptance. For emotional warmth, intergenerational transmission was stronger for men than women. The findings provide evidence for the long-term transmission of parenting quality across generations.
  • Klemetti, Miira M.; Teramo, Kari; Kautiainen, Hannu; Wasenius, Niko; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2021)
    Objective To investigate associations between exposure to fetal hypoxia and indicators of metabolic health in young adult offspring of women with type 1 diabetes (OT1D). Methods 156 OT1D born between 7/1995 and 12/2000 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, were invited for follow-up between 3/2019 and 11/2019. A control group of 442 adults born from non-diabetic pregnancies, matched for date and place of birth, was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. In total, 58 OT1D and 86 controls agreed to participate. All OT1D had amniotic fluid (AF) sampled for erythropoietin (EPO) measurement within two days before delivery in order to diagnose fetal hypoxia. In total, 29 OTID had an AF EPO concentration = 14.0 mU/ml, defined as fetal hypoxia, and were categorized into the high EPO (H-EPO) group. At the age of 18-23 years, participants underwent a 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in addition to height, weight, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, HbA(1c), cholesterol, triglyceride, high-sensitivity CRP and leisure-time physical activity measurements. Results Two OT1D were diagnosed with diabetes and excluded from further analyses. At young adult age, OT1D in the H-EPO group had a higher BMI than those in the L-EPO group. In addition, among female participants, waist circumference and body fat percentage were highest in the H-EPO group. In the OGTTs, the mean (SD) 2-h post-load plasma glucose (mmol/L) was higher in the H-EPO [6.50 (2.11)] than in the L-EPO [5.21 (1.10)] or control [5.67 (1.48)] offspring (p=0.009). AF EPO concentrations correlated positively with 2-h post-load plasma glucose [r=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.62)] and serum insulin [r=0.44 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.69)] concentrations, even after adjusting for maternal BMI, birth weight z-score, gestational age at birth and adult BMI. Control, L-EPO and H-EPO groups did not differ with regards to other assessed parameters. Conclusions High AF EPO concentrations in late pregnancy, indicating fetal hypoxia, are associated with increased adiposity and elevated post-load glucose and insulin concentrations in young adult OT1D.
  • DAGIS Consortium Grp (2018)
    Background: Studies investigating dietary resemblance between parents and their children have gained mixed results, and the resemblance seems to vary across nutrients, foods, dietary-assessment tools used, and parent-child pairs. We investigated parent-child dietary resemblance using a novel approach in applying statistical analysis, which allowed the comparison of 'whole-diet' between parents and their children. Additionally, we sought to establish whether sociodemographic factors or family meals were associated with dietary resemblance and whether parent-child dietary resemblance was dependent on the parent providing food consumption data on behalf of the child (father or mother, "the respondent"). Methods: The DAGIS study investigated health behaviors among Finnish preschoolers using a cross-sectional design. One parent filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measuring the child's food consumption outside preschool hours during the last week. In addition, we instructed both parents or legal guardians, should the child have two, to fill in a similar FFQ regarding their own food use. Parents also reported their educational level, the number of children living in the same household, and the number of family meals. As a measure of dietary resemblance between a parent and a child, we computed Spearman correlations ranging mostly from no resemblance (0) to complete resemblance (+1) between parent-child pairs over the 'whole-diet' (excluding preschool hours). These resemblance measures were further investigated using linear mixed models. Results: We obtained 665 father-child and 798 mother-child resemblance measures. Mother-child resemblance was on average 0.57 and stronger than father-child resemblance (0.50, p <0.0001), which was explained by a parent-respondent interaction: the diet of the child resembled more the diet of the parent who provided food consumption data for the child. In univariate models, father-and mother-reported number of family meals were positively associated with father-child and mother-child resemblances. Mother-reported number of family meals was positively associated with mother-child resemblance in a full model. Conclusions: The diet of the child seems to resemble more the diet of the parent responsible for the reporting of food consumption. Studies should report who provided the food consumption data for the child and take this into account in analyses, since reporter-bias can influence the results.
  • Girchenko, Polina; Robinson, Rachel; Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Heinonen, Kati; Lemola, Sakari; Wolke, Dieter; Schnitzlein, Daniel; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Villa, Pia; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri (2022)
    Preterm birth has been linked with postpartum depressive (PPD) disorders and high symptom levels, but evidence remains conflicting and limited in quality. It remains unclear whether PPD symptoms of mothers with preterm babies were already elevated before childbirth, and whether PPD symptoms mediate/aggravate the effect of preterm birth on child mental disorders. We examined whether preterm birth associated with maternal PPD symptoms, depressive symptoms trajectories from antenatal to postpartum stage, and whether PPD symptoms mediated/aggravated associations between preterm birth and child mental disorders. Mothers of preterm (n = 125) and term-born (n = 3033) children of the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction study reported depressive symptoms four times within 8 weeks before and twice within 12 months after childbirth. Child mental and behavioral disorder diagnoses until age 8.4-12.8 years came from medical register. Preterm birth associated with higher PPD symptoms (mean difference = 0.19 SD, 95% CI 0.01, 0.37, p = 0.04), and higher odds (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% CI 1.22, 4.09, p = 0.009) of the mother to belong to a group that had consistently high depressive symptoms levels trajectory from antenatal to postpartum stage. PPD symptoms partially mediated and aggravated the association between preterm birth and child mental disorders. Preterm birth, maternal PPD symptoms and child mental disorders are associated, calling for timely prevention interventions.
  • Litwin, Linda; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Sarkola, Taisto (2020)
    Aims We aimed to investigate associations between pre-pregnancy obesity, gestational diabetes (GDM), offspring body composition, and left ventricular diastolic and systolic function in early childhood. Methods This is an observational study, including 201 mother-child pairs originating from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL; 96 with GDM, 128 with pre-pregnancy obesity) with follow-up from gestation to 6-year postpartum. Follow-up included dyads anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, and child left ventricular function with comprehensive echocardiography (conventional and strain imaging). Results Offspring left ventricular diastolic and systolic function was not associated with gestational glucose concentrations, GDM, or pregravida obesity. Child body fat percentage correlated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI in the setting of maternal obesity (r = 0.23,P = 0.009). After adjusting for child lean body mass, age, sex, systolic BP, resting HR, maternal lean body mass, pre-gestational BMI, and GDM status, child left atrial volume increased by 0.3 ml (95% CI 0.1, 0.5) for each 1% increase in child body fat percentage. Conclusions No evidence of foetal cardiac programming related to GDM or maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was observed in early childhood. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with early weight gain. Child adiposity in early childhood is independently associated with increased left atrial volume, but its implications for long-term left ventricle diastolic function and cardiovascular health remain unknown.
  • Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Roine, Risto P. (2017)
    Objectives To assess the associations of perceived financial satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms in an unselected pregnant population in early pregnancy. Methods 750 consecutive pregnant women attending the first communal ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate. Questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric, and socioeconomic status were handed out. The participants were divided into three groups according to their satisfaction with their financial status, (unsatisfied, somewhat satisfied, and satisfied). Main outcome measures were 15D and EPDS-scores and dimensions of HRQoL. Results 325 (43,3%) questionnaires were returned. The mean 15D-score for HRQoL was 0,926 (SD 0,056). The financially unsatisfied women had lower HRQoL than women in more satisfied groups (0.906, 0.923 and 0.931, p = 0.012). The result remained significant, even after adjusting for age and education(p = 0.032). The unsatisfied women had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (25.4, 24.4 and 23.2 kg/m(2), p for linearity = 0.002), were more often smokers, (13 vs. 4 and 3%, p = 0.029), and had experienced at least one abortion (18, 14 and 7%, p = 0.017). Dimensions of depression, distress and sleep explained the differences between the groups. 27% of unsatisfied women scored EPDS ae10 points suggesting increased risk of depression. Conclusions Financial satisfaction in early pregnancy associates with HRQoL and risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. Unsatisfied women more often have risk factors for unfavourable pregnancy outcomes which may influence the later health and wellbeing of the mother and child.
  • Yakupova, Vera A.; Suarez, Anna (2021)
    Background. In European countries, postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 13-19% of women. The statistics indicate that postpartum depressive disorders affect up to 300,000 women in Russia annually. There is still an extremely acute lack of psychological comfort provided to women during labor in Russia. Objective. To our knowledge, ours is the first study that examines the association between childbirth experience and the risk of PPD in Russia. Design. We collected data from 190 Russian-speaking mothers, ages 19 to 46, (M = 32 +/- 4.3) two months after their delivery. Results. Birth satisfaction and physical well-being two months after delivery were significantly inversely associated with PPD. Birth satisfaction negatively correlated with the perceived severity and unpredictability of labor, and positively correlated with physical well-being two months after delivery. The presence of a partner and a personal midwife or doula at birth was associated with higher birth satisfaction. Conclusion. Our results emphasize the significance of childbirth satisfaction in the context of PPD and suggest the importance of individual professional support during labor.
  • Adebayo, Folasade A.; Itkonen, Suvi T.; Lilja, Eero; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Lundqvist, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Koponen, Paivikki; Cashman, Kevin D.; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel (2020)
    Objective: We investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and dietary vitamin D sources among three immigrant groups in Finland and compared their S-25(OH)D to the general Finnish population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the nationally representative Finnish Health 2011 Survey. S-25(OH)D was standardised according to the Vitamin D Standardisation Program. Vitamin D sources were assessed by interview. Setting: Six different municipalities in Finland (60 degrees-63 degrees N). Participants: Immigrants aged 18-64 years (446 Russians, 346 Somalis, 500 Kurds), 798 Finns aged 30-64 years. Results: The mean of S-25(OH)D was 64 (95 % CI 62, 66), 44 (95 % CI 41, 46), 35 (95 % CI 34, 37) and 64 (95 % CI 62, 66) nmol/l for Russians, Somalis, Kurds and Finns, respectively. S-25(OH)D among Somalis and Kurds was lower compared with Finns (P <0 center dot 001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (S-25(OH)D
  • Liskola, Krista; Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lipsanen, Jari; Sinkkonen, Jari; Elovainio, Marko (2021)
    Background Even though child psychopathology assessment guidelines emphasize comprehensive multi-method, multimodal, and multi-informant methodologies, maternal-report symptom-rating scales often serve as the predominant source of information. Research has shown that parental mood symptomatology affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. For example, the depression-distortion hypothesis suggests that maternal depression promotes a negative bias in mothers' perceptions of their children's behavioral and emotional problems. We investigated this difference of perception between adoptive mothers and internationally adopted children. Most previous studies suffer from the potential bias caused by the fact that parents and children share genetic risks. Methods Data were derived from the Finnish Adoption (FinAdo) survey study (a subsample of adopted children aged between 9 and 12 years, n = 222). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess emotional and behavioral problems and competences of the adopted children. The CBCL was filled in by the adopted children and the adoptive mothers, respectively. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the General Health Questionnaire. Results On average, mothers reported less total CBCL symptoms in their children than the children themselves (0.25 vs 0.38, p-value < 0.01 for difference). Mothers' depressive symptoms moderated the discrepancy in reporting internalizing symptoms (beta = - 0.14 and p-value 0.01 for interaction) and the total symptoms scores (beta = - 0.22 and p-value < 0.001 for interaction) and externalizing symptoms in girls in the CBCL. Limitations The major limitation of our study is its cross-sectional design and the fact that we only collected data in the form of questionnaires. Conclusions The results of our research support the depression-distortion hypothesis concerning the association of maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms in girls in a sample without genetic bias
  • Fox, Jonathan; Myrskyla, Mikko (2015)
    BACKGROUND During the 1920s and early 1930s, U. S. fertility declined overall but with large regional variations. Changes in foreign born populations explain only part of this. Differences in public health and poverty relief programs may further help explain these declines because of their potential impact on fertility determinants, in particular on breastfeeding and child mortality. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether public health investments in child health (conservation of child life programs) and poverty relief (outdoor care of poor or charity for children and mothers) affected fertility for U. S. cities over 100,000 persons between 1923 and 1932. METHODS We analyze data covering 64 cities between 1923-1932 that include birth information from the U. S. Birth, Stillbirth and Infant Mortality Statistics volumes and city financial information from the Financial Statistics of Cities volumes. Time and city fixed-effects models are used to identify the impact of public investments on fertility. RESULTS Fixed effects estimates indicating the conservation of child life programs explain about 10 % of the fertility change between 1923 and 1932. Outdoor care of poor did not seem to be related to fertility. Investments in charity for children and mothers were associated with fertility increases, possibly because poorer areas experienced relative increases in both higher fertility and charitable spending. CONCLUSIONS Public spending on child health was strongly related to decreasing fertility in the U. S. during the 1920s, possibly because of increased breastfeeding and decreased child mortality. This leads to a better understanding of the 1920s fertility decline and highlights how public policy may affect fertility.