Browsing by Subject "MOTIVATION"

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  • Matilainen, A.; Pohja-Mykrä, M.; Lähdesmäki, M.; Kurki, S. (2017)
    The use of natural resources often generates conflict among stakeholders. Conflict analysis and management in this sector has traditionally been based on compliance enforcement and/or education. Recently, however, the need for alternative approaches has been increasingly highlighted. In this study, we address the need for in-depth analysis, and introduce the theoretical concept of psychological ownership to improve the understanding and potential management of conflict situations. We suggest that ownership feelings may play a significant role both in successful co-operation, and in conflicts related to the use of natural resources. The study is qualitative in nature. The data consisted of two interview datasets related to nature tourism: nature tourism in private forests and bear watching safaris. We show that the ways the psychological ownership of stakeholder groups is constructed and taken into account in co-operative relationships are of the utmost importance for the sustainability and success of the interplay among stakeholders. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Holm, Marja; Björn, Piia Maria; Laine, Anu; Korhonen, Johan; Hannula, Markku S. (2020)
    This study investigated mathematics-related achievement emotions among Finnish adolescents (N = 1379) receiving special education support (SEdS) in self-contained and general mathematics classrooms and receiving no mathematics SEdS through multilevel modeling. Mathematics performance, gender, and classroom size were controlled for. Adolescents receiving SEdS in general classrooms reported less enjoyment and pride and more anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom than those receiving SEdS in self-contained classrooms and those receiving no SEdS. In contrast, adolescents receiving SEdS in self-contained classrooms reported more enjoyment and pride and less anger, anxiety, and hopelessness than those receiving no SEdS. Furthermore, adolescents receiving no SEdS reported more anxiety, hopelessness, and boredom in general classrooms when the proportion of classmates receiving SEdS was higher. We discuss the practical implications for developing SEdS in relation to achievement emotions.
  • Tang, Xin; Wang, Ming-Te; Guo, Jiesi; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    Despite academics' enthusiasm about the concept of grit (defined as consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), its benefit for academic achievement has recently been challenged. Drawing from a longitudinal sample (N=2018; 55.3% female; sixth-nineth grades) from Finland, this study first aimed to investigate and replicate the association between grit and achievement outcomes (i.e., academic achievement and engagement). Further, the present study examined whether growth mindset and goal commitment impacted grit and whether grit acted as a mediator between growth mindset, goal commitment, and achievement outcomes. The results showed that the perseverance facet of grit in the eighth grade was associated with school achievement and engagement in the nineth grade, after controlling for students' conscientiousness, academic persistence, prior achievement and engagement, gender and SES, although the effect on engagement was stronger than on achievement. In addition, grit was predicted by goal commitment in the sixth grade, but not by the growth mindset in the sixth grade. Finally, the perseverance of effort (not the consistency of interest) mediated the effect of goal commitment on engagement. These findings suggest that grit is associated with increased engagement and academic achievement; and practitioners who wish to improve grit of adolescents may encourage goal commitment more than growth mindset.
  • Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (Springer, 2019)
    Contributions from Science Education Research
    The aim of this research was to examine if a set of three science and technology workshops would promote first-grade pupils’ science-related competence beliefs. The first workshop dealt with electric circuits and related handicraft tasks. The second workshop involved programming with Lego Mindstorms robots. The third workshop was related to computer-based data logging. Fifty-nine Finnish first graders (age 7–8 years) participated in the digitally intensive science workshops, and 38 pupils served as a control group. The data were analysed using a paired samples t-test. The analysis results reveal that the set of three workshops increased the pupils’ science and technology-related competence beliefs.
  • Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Araujo-Soares, Vera (2020)
    Background:School-based interventions that increase physical activity (PA) in a sustainable way are lacking. Systematic and participatory, theory and evidence-based intervention development may enhance the effectiveness of complex behavioural interventions in the long term. However, detailed descriptions of the intervention development process are rarely openly published, hindering transparency and progress in the field. Aims:To illustrate a stepwise process to develop intervention targeting PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) among older adolescents, and to describe the final, optimised version of the intervention, detailing content of sessions by theoretical determinants and techniques. Methods:Two established intervention development frameworks (Intervention Mapping and Behaviour Change Wheel) were integrated, leading to a comprehensive evidence and theory-based process. It was informed by empirical studies, literature reviews, expert and stakeholder consultation, including scenario evaluation and component pre-testing. In all steps, contextual fit and potential for sustainability were ensured by stakeholder engagement. Results:As a large majority of youth opposed decreasing screen time, increasing PA and decreasing SB were defined as target behaviours, with peers and the school context including classroom practices as key social environments in influencing youth PA (problem specification, step 1). Behavioural diagnosis (step 2) identified a variety of determinants in the domains of capability (e.g. self-regulation skills), motivation (e.g. outcome expectations) and environmental opportunities. These were organised into an intervention theory integrating several formal theories, including Self-Determination Theory. Theory-aligned principles guided material design (Step 3). Feasibility RCT allowed optimisation into a final intervention protocol (step 4). Conclusions:Intervention elements target students directly, and indirectly by changing teacher behaviour and the school and wider environment. A systematic development and optimisation led to a high potential for sustainability. The detailed intervention content, with specification of the hypothesised mechanisms, allows for other researchers to replicate, adapt or refine parts or the whole intervention, considering specific target groups and (sub-)cultures.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2017)
    The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health "and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The indepth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.
  • Niemi, Hannele; Niu, Shuanghong Jenny (2021)
    The aim of this study was to uncover how digital storytelling advances students’ self-efficacy in mathematics learning and what kinds of learning experiences contribute to self-efficacy. Four Chinese classes with 10- to 11-year-old students (N = 121) participated in the project. The mathematics learning theme was geometry. Quantitative data was collected with questionnaires. The qualitative data was based on teachers’ and students’ interviews and observations. Both data sets showed that the students’ self-efficacy increased significantly during the project. The most important mediator was students’ perception of the meaningfulness of mathematics learning; digital storytelling enhanced the students’ ability to see mathematics learning as useful. They became more confident that they could learn mathematics and understand what they had learned. They also felt more confident in talking with their classmates about mathematical concepts. The role of self-efficacy was twofold: it supported students’ learning during the project and it increased due to meaningful mathematics learning experiences.
  • Palmgren, Marina; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Sullanmaa, Jenni; Soini, Tiina (2021)
    The aim of the study was to enhance understanding of how seventh graders vary in emotional engagement and experienced well-being at school in terms of anxiety and cynicism. The two profiles were explored, and comparisons were made between students in general education and those in special education. The study participants comprised 119 Finland-Swedish students from five secondary schools. Four emotional-engagement and well-being profiles were identified based on cluster analysis. The students with the most typical profile were moderately engaged in teacher-student interaction and emotionally highly engaged in peer interaction, combined with a low risk of anxiety and cynicism. The profiles showed no statistically significant differences regarding gender and school achievement. However, there were differences between students in special education and those in general education. In Finland, Swedish -speaking Finns are a language minority group. Swedish has official language status in Finland. Compared to many other language minority groups they can be considered somewhat exceptional, since according to many welfare indicators they tend to do better than the general population. There are a few studies on differences between Swedish and Finnish- speaking students' school experiences in Finland, however, so far studies exploring Swedish- speaking general and special education students' emotional engagement and study well-being in terms of anxiety and cynicism have been scarce.
  • Makkonen, Taina; Tirri, Kirsi; Lavonen, Jari (2021)
    Research on the advantages and disadvantages of project-based learning (PBL) among gifted pupils studying physics is scarce. This mixed-methods study investigates engagement, experiences, and learning outcomes among gifted Finnish uppersecondary-level students learning physics through PBL. A six-lesson PBL module on basic Newtonian mechanics was designed and implemented for a group of gifted students (N = 38), whereas a traditional teacher-driven approach was used among a control group (N = 38) of gifted students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews and a physics test. According to the results, PBL met the preconditions (challenge, skill, interest) for engaging the students in learning physics. It generated interest in learning among the vast majority, but not as many found it challenging. The findings also highlight the impact of autonomy when learning through PBL. No differences in overall learning outcomes were found between the groups.
  • Syrjämäki, Marja; Pihlaja, Päivi; Sajaniemi, Nina (2019)
    This article focuses on the initiatives taken by children and the responses given by professional adults with regard to the pedagogy of enhancing peer interaction among diverse learners. The study took place in four integrated special groups of public early childhood education. In groups of this kind, typically developing children and those with special educational needs (SEN) spent time together on a daily basis. We analysed 12 videotaped play sessions with 33 (3- to 6-year-old) children and 10 adults to examine the children's initiatives, the adults' responses, and the consequences that ensued. The study revealed verbal and nonverbal initiatives followed by a variety of responses scaffolding the children's interaction and participation. However, the nonverbal or faint initiatives, especially those taken by the children with SEN, were at risk of being unnoticed or ignored. These findings call for professional reflection on pedagogical sensitivity in recognizing and responding to the initiatives of children.
  • Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Postareff, Liisa; Hailikari, Telle (2017)
    The aim of the present study was to explore the individual profiles of successful, rapidly progressing first-year university students. The participants numbered 38 humanities and law students, who volunteered to be interviewed. The interview data were analysed using abductive content analysis. Two student profiles were distinguished: strenuously progressing students, who were interested and motivated but had to work hard to meet their deadlines and maintain a rapid study pace (applying a defensive pessimism cognitive strategy), and effortlessly progressing students, who had very good self-regulation skills, strong self-efficacy for self-regulation and the most positive experiences of their learning environment. These students applied a deep approach to learning and an optimistic cognitive strategy. The results highlight the complex interplay between motivational and volitional factors, the approaches to learning and the cognitive attributional strategies affecting individual study paths.
  • Inkinen, Janna; Klager, Christopher; Juuti, Kalle; Schneider, Barbara; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Krajcik, Joseph; Lavonen, Jari (2020)
    This study seeks to understand how different scientific practices in high school science classrooms are associated with student situational engagement. In this study, situational engagement is conceptualized as the balance between skills, interest, and challenge when the reported experiences are all high. In this study, data on situational engagement were collected using the experience sampling method (ESM) from 142 students in southern Michigan (the United States), resulting 993 ESM responses, and 133 students in southern Finland, resulting 1,351 responses. In both countries, scientific practices related to developing models and constructing explanations were associated with higher student situational engagement than other practices. In southern Finland, using a model was also associated with a high level of student situational engagement. The results indicate that students may experience situational engagement more often in science classrooms that use models than those that do not employ such practices. Thus, scientific practices related to models should be used frequently in science classrooms to situationally engage students while learning science.
  • Levinthal, Cristiana; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi (2021)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore parental engagement in the home-learning environment, and parents’ implicit beliefs about learning underlying such engagement. Nineteen parents of elementary school children between seven and twelve years old were interviewed in two different cultural contexts, Finland (N = 10) and Portugal (N = 9). The interviews were subjected to inductive and deductive content analysis. Forms of parental engagement at home were similar in both countries, divided between two main categories: engagement with the child’s holistic development and engagement with the child’s schooling process. Parental narratives about engagement were, for the most part, embedded in a growth mindset (or an incremental meaning system). The most common actualizations of engagement included considering the child’s learning contexts and emotions; encouraging effort, persistence and practice; approaching difficulties as a natural part of learning and suggesting strategies for overcoming them. Parental practices of engagement were combined with the actualization of their implicit beliefs to create engagement–mindset parental profiles. Twelve parents were classified as having a Growth mindset to support the child’s holistic development profile, and the other seven were distributed amongst the three remaining profiles. The study contributes to the growing interest on the association between parental engagement and their learning-related implicit beliefs, giving clear first-person illustrations of how both occur and interact in the home-learning environment. Implications for practice are discussed.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Tuominen, Moona; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    In this article we take up the two-fold task of creating a framework for a growth mindset pedagogy on the basis of our previous studies and exploring the critical points of this pedagogy in the classroom of a mixed-mindset teacher. The data include classroom observations and stimulated recall interviews. The results show how a teacher who is socialized into the Finnish educational system pursues core features of growth mindset pedagogy, despite not having a dominant growth mindset herself. However, we identify critical points in her practices, which suggest that teaching the theory of mindset in teacher education is needed. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Guo, Jiesi; Wang, Ming-Te; Ketonen, Elina E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    This study used variable- and pattern-centered approaches to better capture the impact of adolescents’ joint developmental trajectories of subjective task values (STVs) in three domains (Finnish, math and science, and social subject) from grades 9 to 11 on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aspirations at four years postsecondary school and STEM participation at six years postsecondary school (N = 849 Finnish youth; 52.1% female; 99% native Finnish). Results showed that while adolescents’ average STVs in different domains remained stable, three differential joint STV trajectories emerged across domains. Individual changes of STVs in one domain shaped STVs in other domains to form unique relative STV hierarchies within subgroups that impacted long-term STEM aspirations and participation. Gender differences in STV trajectory profile distributions partially explained the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. This study is among the first to incorporate multiple domains and explore how STVs fluctuate over time in both homogeneous and heterogeneous fashions. These findings underscore the importance of examining heterogeneity in motivational trajectories across domains.
  • Kruskopf, Milla; Hakkarainen, Kai; Li, Shupin; Lonka, Kirsti (2021)
    The rise of modern socio-digital technologies has fundamentally changed the everyday environments in which young people communicate with each other and cultivate interests. To gain a more sophisticated understanding of this phenomenon, this study provides in-depth, qualitative insights into adolescents’ experiences of their socio-digital developmental ecologies. The 15 interview participants were recruited based on a previously conducted questionnaire. The semi-structured theme interview addressed the socio-digital aspects of the participants’ interest-driven behaviours and related networks with the aid of participant-generated egocentric maps. The data not only qualitatively enrich the picture on adolescents’ friendship- and interest-driven socio-digital participation but also provide new perspectives on the phenomena through the added network-layer of analysis. The youth seem to vary in their motivational profiles related to their participation and the potential relevant psychological background factors for this variation are considered. Educational implications of these results are discussed when it comes to effective student engagement and connected learning.
  • Rawlings, Anna Maria; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku (2020)
    Students’ goal strivings are known to be connected with important outcomes, both academically and with regard to individual well-being. In spite of their importance, our knowledge of factors contributing to their early development is rather limited. In this longitudinal study on school beginners (N= 212), we focused on the interrelationships between achievement goal orientations (mastery; performance-approach; performance-avoidance; work-avoidance) and two temperamental sensitivities that appear relevant for the developing sense of mastery and performance in the school setting: interindividual reward sensitivity (reward derived from social approval and attention) and sensitivity to punishment (propensity to perceive cues of potential threat in the environment, and react with withdrawal and avoidance). The data were collected over the first three school years, from grade 1 (7–8 years) to grade 3 (9–10 years), and analysed using PLS-SEM. As expected, both temperamental sensitivities and achievement goal orientations remained relatively stable over time. Interindividual reward sensitivity was related negatively with mastery and positively with performance-approach and performance-avoidance orientations, from the first through to the third year. Punishment sensitivity had a positive effect on performance-avoidance orientation, and indirect, reciprocal, negative effects with performance-approach orientation. The findings provide new knowledge on early relationships between temperament and goal strivings. Interindividual reward sensitivity appears consistently associated with performance concerns and decreased mastery strivings. Such connections may have long-standing negative influence on students’ educational trajectories, and point to the importance of acknowledging individual differences in temperament and their role in motivation and learning.