Browsing by Subject "MOTOR BEHAVIOR"

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  • Svarcbahs, Reinis; Julku, Ulrika; Kilpelainen, Tommi; Kyyrö, Mirva; Jäntti, Maria; Myohänen, Timo T. (2019)
    Changes in prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) expression levels, protein distribution, and activity correlate with aging and are reported in many neurodegenerative conditions. Together with decreased neuropeptide levels observed in aging and neurodegeneration, and PREP's ability to cleave only small peptides, PREP was identified as a druggable target. Known PREP non-enzymatic functions were disregarded or attributed to PREP enzymatic activity, and several potent small molecule PREP inhibitors were developed during early stages of PREP research. These showed a lot of potential but with variable results in experimental memory models, however, the initial excitement was short-lived and all of the clinical trials were discontinued in either Phase I or II clinical trials for unknown reasons. Recently, PREP's ability to form protein-protein interactions, alter cell proliferation and autophagy has gained more attention than earlier recognized catalytical activity. Of new findings, particularly the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) that is seen in the presence of PREP is especially interesting because PREP inhibitors are capable of altering aSyn-PREP interaction in a manner that reduces the aSyn dimerization process. Therefore, it is possible that PREP inhibitors that are altering interactions could have different characteristics than those aimed for strong inhibition of catalytic activity. Moreover, PREP co-localization with aSyn, tau, and amyloid-beta hints to PREP's possible role not only in the synucleinopathies but in other neurodegenerative diseases as well. This commentary will focus on less well-acknowledged non-enzymatic functions of PREP that may provide a better approach for the development of PREP inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
  • Eteläinen, Tony S.; Kilpeläinen, Tommi P.; Ignatius, Adele; Auno, Samuli; De Lorenzo, Francesca; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna K.; Julku, Ulrika H.; Myöhänen, Timo T. (2022)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and accumu-lation of alpha-synuclein (alpha Syn) as Lewy bodies. Currently, there is no disease-modifying therapy available for PD. We have shown that a small molecular inhibitor for prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP), KYP-2047, relieves alpha Syn-induced toxicity in various PD models by inducing autophagy and preventing alpha Syn aggregation. In this study, we wanted to study the effects of PREP inhibition on different alpha Syn species by using cell culture and in vivo models.We used Neuro2A cells with transient alpha Syn overexpression and oxidative stress or proteasomal inhibition -induced alpha Syn aggregation to assess the effect of KYP-2047 on soluble alpha Syn oligomers and on cell viability. Here, the levels of soluble alpha Syn were measured by using ELISA, and the impact of KYP-2047 was compared to anle138b, nilotinib and deferiprone. To evaluate the effect of KYP-2047 on alpha Syn fibrillization in vivo, we used unilateral nigral AAV1/2-A53T-alpha Syn mouse model, where the KYP-2047 treatment was initiated two-or four -weeks post injection.KYP-2047 and anle138b protected cells from alpha Syn toxicity but interestingly, KYP-2047 did not reduce soluble alpha Syn oligomers. In AAV-A53T-alpha Syn mouse model, KYP-2047 reduced significantly proteinase K-resistant alpha Syn oligomers and oxidative damage related to alpha Syn aggregation. However, the KYP-2047 treatment that was initiated at the time of symptom onset, failed to protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Our results emphasize the importance of whole alpha Syn aggregation process in the pathology of PD and raise an important question about the forms of alpha Syn that are reasonable targets for PD drug therapy.