Browsing by Subject "MOUSE LUNG"

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  • Nagaraj, Ashwini S.; Lahtela, Jenni; Hemmes, Annabrita; Pellinen, Teijo; Blom, Sami; Devlin, Jennifer R.; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Mäyränpää, Mikko; Narhi, Katja; Verschuren, Emmy W. (2017)
    Lung cancers exhibit pronounced functional heterogeneity, confounding precision medicine. We studied how the cell of origin contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity following conditional expression of Kras(G12D) and loss of Lkb1 (Kras; Lkb1). Using progenitor cell-type-restricted adenoviral Cre to target cells expressing surfactant protein C (SPC) or club cell antigen 10 (CC10), we show that Ad5-CC10-Cre-infected mice exhibit a shorter latency compared with Ad5-SPC-Cre cohorts. We further demonstrate that CC10(+) cells are the predominant progenitors of adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) tumors and give rise to a wider spectrum of histotypes that includes mucinous and acinar adenocarcinomas. Transcriptome analysis shows ASC histotype-specific upregulation of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory genes. This is accompanied by an ASC-specific immunosuppressive environment, consisting of downregulated MHC genes, recruitment of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), and decreased T cell numbers. We conclude that progenitor cell-specific etiology influences the Kras; Lkb1-driven tumor histopathology spectrum and histotype-specific immune microenvironment.
  • Syed, Mansoor; Das, Pragnya; Pawar, Aishwarya; Aghai, Zubair H.; Kaskinen, Anu; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Pryhuber, Gloria; Andersson, Sture; Bhandari, Vineet (2017)
    Hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI) is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in neonates, for which no specific preventive or therapeutic agent is available. Here we show that lung micro-RNA (miR)-34a levels are significantly increased in lungs of neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. Deletion or inhibition of miR-34a improves the pulmonary phenotype and BPD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in BPD mouse models, which, conversely, is worsened by miR-34a overexpression. Administration of angiopoietin-1, which is one of the downstream targets of miR34a, is able to ameliorate the BPD pulmonary and PAH phenotypes. Using three independent cohorts of human samples, we show that miR-34a expression is increased in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and BPD. Our data suggest that pharmacologic miR-34a inhibition may be a therapeutic option to prevent or ameliorate HALI/BPD in neonates.
  • Närhi, Katja; Nagaraj, Ashwini S.; Parri, Elina; Turkki, Riku; van Duijn, Petra W.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Lahtela, Jenni; Uotinen, Virva; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Räsänen, Jari; Linder, Nina; Trapman, Jan; Rannikko, Antti; Kallioniemi, Olli; Af Hällström, Taija M.; Lundin, Johan; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Anders, Simon; Verschuren, Emmy W. (2018)
    A key question in precision medicine is how functional heterogeneity in solid tumours informs therapeutic sensitivity. We demonstrate that spatial characteristics of oncogenic signalling and therapy response can be modelled in precision-cut slices from Kras-driven non-small-cell lung cancer with varying histopathologies. Unexpectedly, profiling of in situ tumours demonstrated that signalling stratifies mostly according to histopathology, showing enhanced AKT and SRC activity in adenosquamous carcinoma, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in adenocarcinoma. In addition, high intertumour and intratumour variability was detected, particularly of MAPK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 activity. Using short-term treatment of slice explants, we showed that cytotoxic responses to combination MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mTOR inhibition correlate with the spatially defined activities of both pathways. Thus, whereas genetic drivers determine histopathology spectra, histopathology-associated and spatially variable signalling activities determine drug sensitivity. Our study is in support of spatial aspects of signalling heterogeneity being considered in clinical diagnostic settings, particularly to guide the selection of drug combinations. (c) 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.