Browsing by Subject "MOUSE-BRAIN"

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  • Alitalo, Okko; Rantamäki, Tomi; Huhtala, Tuulia (2020)
    Autoradiography (ARG) is a high-resolution imaging method for localization of radiolabeled biomarkers in ex vivo specimen. ARG using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) method is used in to study drug actions on brain functional activity, as it provides results comparable to clinically used functional positron-emission tomography (PET). The requirement of slow analog detection methods and emerging advances in small animal PET imaging have, however, reduced the interest in ARG. In contrast to ARG, experimental animals need to be restrained or sedated/anesthetized for PET imaging, which strongly influence functional activity and thus complicate the interpretation of the results. Digital direct particle-counting ARG systems have gained attraction during the last decade to overcome the caveats of conventional ARG methods. Here we demonstrate that the well-established 2-DG imaging method can be adapted into use with contemporary digital detectors. This method readily and rapidly captures the characteristic effects of phencyclidine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a dissociative agent targeting the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor), on regional glucose utilization in the adult mouse brain. Pretreatment with antipsychotic drug clozapine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) essentially abolishes these effects of phencyclidine on brain functional activity. Digital ARG produces viable data for the regional analysis of functional activity in a fraction of time required for film development. These results support the use of digital ARG in preclinical drug research, where high throughput and response linearity are preferred and use of sedation/anesthesia has to be avoided.
  • Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josee; Prado, Marco A. M.; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää (Nee Nuutinen), Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric (2018)
    Histamine H-3 receptors are widely distributed Gi-coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H-3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H-3 agonist alpha-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically-evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H-3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H-3-modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H-3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H-3 receptors by alpha-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by alpha-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by alpha-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H-3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. (C) 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Suominen, Tina; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Kostiainen, Risto (2015)
    Dopamine sulfate (DA-3- and DA-4-S) have been determined in the human brain, but it is unclear whether they are locally formed in the central nervous system (CNS), or transported into the CNS from peripheral sources. In the current study, permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by DA-S was studied by injecting C-13(6)-labelled regioisomers of DA-S ((13)DA-3-S and (13)DA-4-S) and dopamine (DA) subcutaneously (s.c.) in anesthetized rats, then analyzing brain microdialysis and plasma samples by UPLC-MS/MS. The results in the microdialysis samples demonstrated that brain concentrations of (13)DA-S regioisomers clearly increased after the s.c. injections. The concentration of DA did not change, indicating the permeation of DA-S through an intact BBB. The analysis of plasma samples, however, showed that DA-S only permeates the BBB to a small extent, as the concentrations in plasma were substantially higher than in the microdialysis samples. The results also showed that the concentrations of DA-3-S were around three times higher than the concentrations of DA-4-S in rat brain, as well as in the plasma samples after the s.c. injections, indicating that DA-3-S and DA-4-S permeate the BBB with similar efficiency. The fate of (13)DA-S in brain was followed by monitoring C-13(6)-labelled DA-S hydrolysis products, i.e. (13)DA and its common metabolites; however, no C-13(6)-labelled products were detected. This suggests that DA-S either permeates through the BBB back to the peripheral circulation or is dissociated or metabolized by unexpected mechanisms.
  • Manninen, Otto; Laitinen, Teemu; Lehtimaki, Kimmo K.; Tegelberg, Saara; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Grohn, Olli; Kopra, Outi (2014)
  • Sarajärvi, T.; Jäntti, M.; Paldanius, K. M. A.; Natunen, T.; Wu, J. C.; Mäkinen, P.; Tarvainen, I.; Tuominen, R. K.; Talman, V.; Hiltunen, M. (2018)
    Abnormal protein kinase C (PKC) function contributes to many pathophysiological processes relevant for Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. Phorbol esters and other PKC activators have been demonstrated to enhance the secretion of soluble APP alpha (sAPP alpha), reduce the levels of beta-amyloid (A beta), induce synaptogenesis, and promote neuroprotection. We have previously described isophthalate derivatives as a structurally simple family of PKC activators. Here, we characterised the effects of isophthalate derivatives HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 on neuronal viability, neuroinflammatory response, processing of APP and dendritic spine density and morphology in in vitro. HMI-1a3 increased the viability of embryonic primary cortical neurons and decreased the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, but not that of nitric oxide, in mouse neuron-BV2 microglia co-cultures upon LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, both HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 increased the levels of sAPPa relative to total sAPP and the ratio of A beta 42/A beta 40 in human SH-Sv5v neuroblastoma cells. Finally, bryostatin-1, but not HMI-1a3, increased the number of mushroom spines in proportion to total spine density in mature mouse hippocampal neuron cultures. These results suggest that the PKC activator HMI-1a3 exerts neuroprotective functions in the in vitro models relevant for AD by reducing the production of TNF alpha and increasing the secretion of neuroprotective sAPPa.
  • Liu, Wei; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Kurupassery, Neel; Li, Yang; Zhou, Qifa; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Yao, Junjie (2018)
    A conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system typically has to make tradeoffs between its spatial resolution and penetration depth, by choosing a fixed configuration of optical excitation and acoustic detection. The single-scale imaging capability of PAM may limit its applications in biomedical studies. Here, we report a quad-mode photoacoustic microscopy (QM-PAM) system with four complementary spatial resolutions and maximum penetration depths. For this we first developed a ring-shaped focused ultrasound transducer that has two independent elements with respective central frequencies at 20 MHz and 40 MHz, providing complementary acoustically-determined spatial resolutions and penetration depths. To accommodate the dual-element ultrasound transducer, we implemented two optical excitation modes to provide tightly-and weakly-focused light illumination. The dual-element acoustic detection combined with the two optical focusing modes can thus provide four imaging scales in a single imaging device, with consistent contrast mechanisms and co-registered field of views. We have demonstrated the multiscale morphological, functional, and molecular imaging capability of QM-PAM in the mouse head, leg and ear in vivo. We expect the high scale flexibility of QM-PAM will enable broad applications in preclinical studies.
  • Gabriel, Elke; Ramani, Anand; Karow, Ulrike; Gottardo, Marco; Natarajan, Karthick; Gooi, Li Ming; Goranci-Buzhala, Gladiola; Krut, Oleg; Peters, Franziska; Nikolic, Milos; Kuivanen, Suvi; Hasu, Essi; Smura, Teemu; Vapalahti, Olli; Papantonis, Argyris; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Riparbelli, Maria; Callaini, Giuliano; Kroenke, Martin; Utermoehlen, Olaf; Gopalakrishnan, Jay (2017)
    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is associated with microcephaly in newborns. Although the connection between ZIKV and neurodevelopmental defects is widely recognized, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that two recently isolated strains of ZIKV, an American strain from an infected fetal brain (FB-GWUH-2016) and a closely-related Asian strain (H/PF/2013), productively infect human iPSC-derived brain organoids. Both of these strains readily target to and replicate in proliferating ventricular zone (VZ) apical progenitors. The main phenotypic effect was premature differentiation of neural progenitors associated with centrosome perturbation, even during early stages of infection, leading to progenitor depletion, disruption of the VZ, impaired neurogenesis, and cortical thinning. The infection pattern and cellular outcome differ from those seen with the extensively passaged ZIKV strain MR766. The structural changes we see after infection with these more recently isolated viral strains closely resemble those seen in ZIKV-associated microcephaly.
  • Puttonen, Henri A. J.; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Panula, Pertti (2017)
    Monoaminergic neurotransmission is greatly dependent on the function of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2, which is responsible for loading monoamines into secretory vesicles. The role of VMAT2 in histaminergic neurotransmission is poorly understood. We studied the structure and function of the histaminergic system in larval zebrafish following inhibition of VMAT2 function by reserpine. We found that reserpine treatment greatly reduced histamine immunoreactivity in neurons and an almost total disappearance of histamine-containing nerve fibers in the dorsal telencephalon and habenula, the most densely innervated targets of the hypothalamic histamine neurons. The reserpine treated larvae had an impaired histamine-dependent dark-induced flash response seen during the first second after onset of darkness, implying that function of the histaminergic network is VMAT2 dependent. Levels of histamine and other monoamines were decreased in reserpine treated animals. This study provides conclusive evidence of the relevance of VMAT2 in histaminergic neurotransmission, further implying that the storage and release mechanism of neural histamine is comparable to that of other monoamines. Our results also reveal potential new insights about the roles of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the regulation of locomotion increase during adaptation to darkness.