Browsing by Subject "MULTIPLE COMMON"

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  • Airaksinen, Laura; Cerqueira, Juliana X. M.; Huhtala, Heini; Saavalainen, Päivi; Yohannes, Dawit A.; Mäki, Markku; Kurppa, Kalle; Kilpeläinen, Elina; Shcherban, Anastasia; Palotie, Aarno; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri (2021)
    Purpose and objectives: Given their role in homing immune cells to the intestine, CC motif chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and its specific ligand CC motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25) are interesting candidate genes for celiac disease. These genes are located in regions previously shown to be associated with or linked to celiac disease, but no investigations on their association with various celiac disease phenotypes have so far been conducted. Here we studied such associations of both genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with either regulatory function or exonic location of the CCR9 and CCL25 loci. Results: Exploiting a carefully phenotyped cohort of 625 celiac disease patients and 1817 non-celiac controls, we identified that multiple SNPs with predicted regulatory function (RegulomeDB score 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that SNPs in the region of CCR9 and CCL25 with predicted functional effect or exonic localization likely contribute only modestly to various celiac disease phenotypes.
  • Yohannes, Dawit A.; de Kauwe, Andrea; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Mäki, Markku; Anderson, Robert P.; Linnarsson, Sten; Greco, Dario; Saavalainen, Päivi (2020)
    The pathological mechanisms that lead to the onset and reactivation of celiac disease (CD) remain largely unknown. While gluten free diet (GFD) improves the intestinal damage and associated clinical symptoms in majority of cases, it falls short of providing full recovery. Additionally, late or misdiagnosis is also common as CD presents with a wide range of symptoms. Clear understanding of CD pathogenesis is thus critical to address both diagnostic and treatment concerns. We aimed to study the molecular impact of short gluten exposure in GFD treated CD patients, as well as identify biological pathways that remain altered constitutively in CD regardless of treatment. Using RNAseq profiling of PBMC samples collected from treated CD patients and gluten challenged patient and healthy controls, we explored the peripheral transcriptome in CD patients following a short gluten exposure. Short gluten exposure of just three days was enough to alter the genome-wide PBMC transcriptome of patients. Pathway analysis revealed gluten-induced upregulation of mainly immune response related pathways, both innate and adaptive, in CD patients. We evaluated the perturbation of biological pathways in sample-specific manner. Compared to gluten exposed healthy controls, pathways related to tight junction, olfactory transduction, metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids (such as arachidonic acid), metabolism of amino acids (such as cysteine and glutamate), and microbial infection were constitutively altered in CD patients regardless of treatment, while GFD treatment appears to mostly normalize immune response pathways to "healthy" state. Upstream regulator prediction analysis using differentially expressed genes identified constitutively activated regulators relatively proximal to previously reported CD associated loci, particularly SMARCA4 on 19p13.2 and CSF2 on 5q31. We also found constitutively upregulated genes in CD that are in CD associated genetic loci such as MEF2BNB-MEF2B (BORCS8-MEF2B) on 19p13.11 and CSTB on 21q22.3. RNAseq revealed strong effects of short oral gluten challenge on whole PBMC fraction and constitutively altered pathways in CD PBMC suggesting important factors other than gluten in CD pathogenesis.
  • Cerqueira, Juliana X. M.; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kurppa, Kalle; Laurikka, Pilvi; Huhtala, Heini; Nykter, Matti; Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; Yohannes, Dawit A.; Kilpeläinen, Elina; Shcherban, Anastasia; Palotie, Aarno; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri (2021)
    The phenotype of coeliac disease varies considerably for incompletely understood reasons. We investigated whether established coeliac disease susceptibility variants (SNPs) are individually or cumulatively associated with distinct phenotypes. We also tested whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on genome-wide associated (GWA) data could explain the phenotypic variation. The phenotypic association of 39 non-HLA coeliac disease SNPs was tested in 625 thoroughly phenotyped coeliac disease patients and 1817 controls. To assess their cumulative effects a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS39) was built, and stratified by tertiles. In our PRS model in cases, we took the summary statistics from the largest GWA study in coeliac disease and tested their association at eight P value thresholds (P-T) with phenotypes. Altogether ten SNPs were associated with distinct phenotypes after correction for multiple testing (P-EMP2 1.62 for having coeliac disease-related symptoms during childhood, a more severe small bowel mucosal damage, malabsorption and anaemia. PRS was associated only with dermatitis herpetiformis (P-T = 0.2, P-EMP2 = 0.02). Independent coeliac disease-susceptibility loci are associated with distinct phenotypes, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in determining the disease presentation. Moreover, the increased number of coeliac disease susceptibility SNPs might predispose to a more severe disease course.