Browsing by Subject "MULTIPLICITY"

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  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    Angular conclations between heavy-flavor decay electrons and charged particles at midrapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) are measured in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The analysis is carried out for the 0%-20% (high) and 60%-100% (low) multiplicity ranges. The jet contribution in the correlation distribution from high-multiplicity events is removed by subtracting the distribution from low-multiplicity events. An azimuthal modulation remains after removing the jet contribution, similar to previous observations in two-particle angular correlation measurements for light-flavor hadrons. A Fourier decomposition of the modulation results in a positive second-order coefficient (nu(2)) for heavy-flavor decay electrons in the transverse momentum interval 1.5 < p(T) < 4 GeV/c in high-multiplicity events, with a significance larger than 5 sigma. The results are compared with those of charged particles at midrapidity and those of inclusive muons at forward rapidity. The nu(2) measurement of open heavy-flavor particles at midrapidity in small collision systems could provide crucial information to help interpret the anisotropies observed in such systems.
  • Lappi, T. (2015)
    Recent experimental results have revealed a surprisingly rich structure of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy proton-nucleus collisions. Final state collective effects can be responsible for many of the observed effects, but it has recently been argued that a part of these correlations are present already in the wavefunctions of the colliding particles. We evaluate the momentum space 2-particle cumulant azimuthal anisotropy coefficients v(n){2}, n = 2, 3, 4 from fundamental representation Wilson line distributions describing the high energy nucleus. These would correspond to the flow coefficients in very forward proton-nucleus scattering. We find significant differences between Wilson lines from the MV model and from JIMWLK evolution. The magnitude and qualitative transverse momentum dependence of the v(n){2} values suggest that the fluctuations present in the initial fields are a significant contribution to the observed anisotropies. (C) 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkila, J. K.; Jarvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaa, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Karimäki, V.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    The almost hermetic coverage of the CMS detector is used to measure the distribution of transverse energy, E-T, over 13.2 units of pseudorapidity, eta, for pPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The huge angular acceptance exploits the fact that the CASTOR calorimeter at -6.6 <eta <-5.2 is effectively present on both sides of the colliding system because of a switch in the proton-going and lead-going beam directions. This wide acceptance enables the study of correlations between well-separated angular regions and makes the measurement a particularly powerful test of event generators. For minimum bias pPb collisions the maximum value of dE(T)/d eta is 22 GeV, which implies an E-T per participant nucleon pair comparable to that of peripheral PbPb collisions at root s(NN) 7 = 2.76 TeV. The increase of dE(T)/d eta with centrality is much stronger for the lead-going side than for the proton-going side. The i dependence of dE(T)/d eta is sensitive to the eta range in which the centrality variable is defined. Several modern generators are compared to these results but none is able to capture all aspects of the eta and centrality dependence of the data and the correlations observed between different eta regions.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV in centrality classes measured by ALICE. The measurement covers a wide pseudorapidity range from -3.5 to 5, which is sufficient for reliable estimates of the total number of charged particles produced in the collisions. For the most central (0-5%) collisions we find 21 400 +/- 1 300, while for the most peripheral (80-90%) we find 230 +/- 38. This corresponds to an increase of (27 +/- 4)% over the results at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV previously reported by ALICE. The energy dependence of the total number of charged particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is found to obey a modified power-law like behaviour. The charged-particle pseudorapidity density of the most central collisions is compared to model calculations-none of which fully describes the measured distribution. We also present an estimate of the rapidity density of charged particles. The width of that distribution is found to exhibit a remarkable proportionality to the beam rapidity, independent of the collision energy from the top SPS to LHC energies. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    The pseudorapidity density of charged particles, dN(ch)/d eta, in p-Pb collisions has been measured at a centre of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair of root S-NN = 8.16 TeV at mid-pseudorapidity for non-single-diffractive events. The results cover 3.6 units of pseudorapidity, vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.8. The dN(ch)/d eta value is 19.1 +/- 0.7 at vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.5. This quantity divided by < N-part >/2 is 4.73 +/- 0.20, where < N-part > is the average number of participating nucleons, is 9.5% higher than the corresponding value for p-Pb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV. Measurements are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production. All models agree within uncertainties with data in the Pb-going side, while HIJING overestimates, showing a symmetric behaviour, and EPOS underestimates the p-going side of the dN(ch)/d eta distribution. Saturation-based models reproduce the distributions well for eta > -1.3. The dN(ch)/d eta is also measured for different centrality estimators, based both on the charged particle multiplicity and on the energy deposited in the Zero Degree Calorimeters. A study of the implications of the large multiplicity fluctuations due to the small number of participants for systems like p-Pb in the centrality calculation for multiplicity-based estimators is discussed, demonstrating the advantages of determining the centrality with energy deposited near beam rapidity.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Event-by-event long-range correlations of azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients (v(n)) in 8.16 TeV pPb data, collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, are extracted using a subevent four-particle cumulant technique applied to very low multiplicity events. Each combination of four charged particles is selected from either two, three, or four distinct subevent regions of a pseudorapidity range from -2.4 to 2.4 of the CMS tracker, and with transverse momentum between 0.3 and 3.0 GeV. Using the subevent cumulant technique, correlations between v(n) of different orders are measured as functions of particle multiplicity and compared to the standard cumulant method without subevents over a wide event multiplicity range. At high multiplicities, the v(2) and v(3) coefficients exhibit an anticorrelation; this behavior is observed consistently using various methods. The v(2) and v(4) correlation strength is found to depend on the number of subevents used in the calculation. As the event multiplicity decreases, the results from different subevent methods diverge because of different contributions of noncollective or few-particle correlations. Correlations extracted with the four-subevent method exhibit a tendency to diminish monotonically toward the lowest multiplicity region (about 20 charged tracks) investigated. These findings extend previous studies to a significantly lower event multiplicity range and establish the evidence for the onset of long-range collective multiparticle correlations in small system collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    We report on the inclusive J/psi production cross section measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy root s = 13 TeV. The J/psi mesons are reconstructed in the e(+)e(-) decay channel and the measurements are performed at midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.9) in the transverse-momentum interval 0 < p(T) < 40 GeV/c, using a minimum-bias data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity L-i(nt) = 32.2 nb(-1) and an Electromagnetic Calorimeter triggered data sample with L-i(nt) = 8.3 pb(-1). The p(T)-integrated J/psi production cross section at midrapidity, computed using the minimumbias data sample, is d sigma/dy vertical bar(y) =0 = 8.97 +/- 0.24 (stat) 0.48 (syst) +/- 0.15 (lumi) mu b. An approximate logarithmic dependence with the collision energy is suggested by these results and available world data, in agreement with model predictions. The integrated and p(T)-differential measurements are compared with measurements in pp collisions at lower energies and with several recent phenomenological calculations based on the non-relativistic QCD and Color Evaporation models.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Two-particle Azimuthal correlations are measured with the ALICE apparatus in pp collisions at root s = 13 TeV to explore strangeness- and multiplicity-related effects in the fragmentation of jets and the transition regime between bulk and hard production, probed with the condition that a strange meson (K-S(0)) or baryon (Lambda) with transverse momentum p(T) > 3 GeV/c is produced. Azimuthal correlations between kaons or Lambda hyperons with other hadrons are presented at midrapidity for a broad range of the trigger (3 < p(T)(trigg) < 20 GeV/c) and associated particle p(T) (1 GeV/c < p(T)(assoc) < p(T)(trigg)), for minimum-bias events and as a function of the event multiplicity. The near- and away-side peak yields are compared for the case of either K-S(0) or Lambda((Lambda) over bar) being the trigger particle with that of inclusive hadrons (a sample dominated by pions). In addition, the measurements are compared with predictions from PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC event generators.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    We report the transverse energy (ET) measured with ALICE at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV as a function of centrality. The transverse energy was measured using identified single-particle tracks. The measurement was cross checked using the electromagnetic calorimeters and the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles previously reported by ALICE. The results are compared to theoretical models as well as to results from other experiments. The mean ET per unit pseudorapidity (eta), <dE(T)/d eta >, in 0%-5% central collisions is 1737 +/- 6(stat.) +/- 97(sys.) GeV. We find a similar centrality dependence of the shape of <dE(T)/d eta > as a function of the number of participating nucleons to that seen at lower energies. The growth in <dE(T)/d eta > at the LHC energies exceeds extrapolations of low-energy data. We observe a nearly linear scaling of <dE(T)/d eta > with the number of quark participants. With the canonical assumption of a 1 fm/c formation time, we estimate that the energy density in 0%-5% central Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV is 12.3 +/- 1.0 GeV/fm(3) and that the energy density at the most central 80 fm(2) of the collision is at least 21.5 +/- 1.7 GeV/fm(3). This is roughly 2.3 times that observed in 0%-5% central Au-Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV.