Browsing by Subject "MUSCLE"

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  • Nemaline Working Grp; Neuhaus, Sarah B.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Schara, Ulrike; Servais, Laurent (2020)
  • Strandberg, Timo E.; Levinson, Susan L.; DiNubile, Mark J.; Jyväkorpi, Satu; Kivimäki, Mika (2022)
    Background Biomarkers are needed for frailty, a common phenotype often associated with muscle loss in older people. Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) is a protein largely synthesized and secreted by skeletal muscle. Aims To investigate whether pGSN could be a biomarker of the frailty phenotype and predict mortality. Methods A homogenous cohort of males (born 1919-1934, baseline n = 3490) has been followed since the 1960s. In 2010/11, frailty phenotypes by modified Fried criteria were assessed. pGSN was measured in a convenience subset (n = 469, mean age 83) and re-measured in survivors (n = 127) in 2017. Mortality through December 31, 2018 was retrieved from national registers. Regression models were used for analyses. Results Of 469 males, 152 (32.4%) were robust, 284 (60.6%) prefrail, and 33 (7.0%) frail in 2010/11. There was a graded (p = 0.018) association between pGSN (mean 58.1 ug/mL, SD 9.3) and frailty. After multivariable adjustment, higher pGSN levels were associated with lower odds of having contemporaneous phenotypic prefrailty (OR per 1 SD 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.92) and frailty (OR per 1 SD 0.70, 95% CI 0.44-1.11). By 2018, 179 males (38.2%) had died, and higher baseline pGSN predicted a lower 7-year mortality rate (HR per 1 SD 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-1.00). pGSN concentrations in 2010/11 and 2017 were correlated (n = 127, r = 0.34, p < 0.001). Discussion Higher baseline pGSN concentrations were associated with a persistently robust phenotype and lower mortality rate over 7 years in a cohort of octogenarian males with high socioeconomic status and may be a promising laboratory biomarker for the development of a frailty phenotype.
  • Cheng, Lu; Walker, Alan W.; Corander, Jukka (2012)
  • Cabrera-Serrano, Macarena; Caccavelli, Laure; Savarese, Marco; Vihola, Anna; Jokela, Manu; Johari, Mridul; Capiod, Thierry; Madrange, Marine; Bugiardini, Enrico; Brady, Stefen; Quinlivan, Rosaline; Merve, Ashirwad; Scalco, Renata; Hilton-Jones, David; Houlden, Henry; Aydin, Halil Ibrahim; Ceylaner, Serdar; Drewes, Sarah; Vockley, Jerry; Taylor, Rhonda L.; Folland, Chiara; Kelly, Aasta; Goullee, Hayley; Ylikallio, Emil; Auranen, Mari; Tyynismaa, Henna; Udd, Bjarne; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Davis, Mark R.; Bratkovic, Drago; Manton, Nicholas; Robertson, Thomas; O'Gorman, Cullen; McCombe, Pamela; Laing, Nigel G.; Phillips, Liza; de Lonlay, Pascale; Ravenscroft, Gianina (2022)
    Rhabdomyolysis is the acute breakdown of skeletal myofibres in response to an initiating factor, most commonly toxins and over exertion. A variety of genetic disorders predispose to rhabdomyolysis through different pathogenic mechanisms, particularly in patients with recurrent episodes. However, most cases remain without a genetic diagnosis. Here we present six patients who presented with severe and recurrent rhabdomyolysis, usually with onset in the teenage years; other features included a history of myalgia and muscle cramps. We identified 10 bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding obscurin (OBSCN) predisposing individuals to recurrent rhabdomyolysis. We show reduced expression of OBSCN and loss of obscurin protein in patient muscle. Obscurin is proposed to be involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum function and Ca2+ handling. Patient cultured myoblasts appear more susceptible to starvation as evidenced by a greater decreased in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content compared to control myoblasts. This likely reflects a lower efficiency when pumping Ca2+ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and/or a decrease in Ca2+ sarcoplasmic reticulum storage ability when metabolism is diminished. OSBCN variants have previously been associated with cardiomyopathies. None of the patients presented with a cardiomyopathy and cardiac examinations were normal in all cases in which cardiac function was assessed. There was also no history of cardiomyopathy in first degree relatives, in particular in any of the carrier parents. This cohort is relatively young, thus follow-up studies and the identification of additional cases with bi-allelic null OBSCN variants will further delineate OBSCN-related disease and the clinical course of disease. Cabrera-Serrano et al. show that biallelic loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding obscurin (OBSCN) predispose individuals to recurrent and severe episodes of rhabdomyolysis, typically with onset in the teenage years.
  • Ciuba, Katarzyna; Hawkes, William; Tojkander, Sari; Kogan, Konstantin; Engel, Ulrike; Iskratsch, Thomas; Lappalainen, Pekka (2018)
    Contractile actomyosin bundles, stress fibers, contribute to morphogenesis, migration, and mechanosensing of non-muscle cells. In addition to actin and non-muscle myosin II (NMII), stress fibers contain a large array of proteins that control their assembly, turnover, and contractility. Calponin-3 (Cnn3) is an actin-binding protein that associates with stress fibers. However, whether Cnn3 promotes stress fiber assembly, or serves as either a positive or negative regulator of their contractility has remained obscure. Here, we applied U2OS osteosarcoma cells as a model system to study the function of Cnn3. We show that Cnn3 localizes to both NMII-containing contractile ventral stress fibers and transverse arcs, as well as to non-contractile dorsal stress fibers that do not contain NMII. Fluorescencerecovery-after-photobleaching experiments revealed that Cnn3 is a dynamic component of stress fibers. Importantly, CRISPR/Cas9 knockout and RNAi knockdown studies demonstrated that Cnn3 is not essential for stress fiber assembly. However, Cnn3 depletion resulted in increased and uncoordinated contractility of stress fibers that often led to breakage of individual actomyosin bundles within the stress fiber network. Collectively these results provide evidence that Cnn3 is dispensable for the assembly of actomyosin bundles, but that it is required for controlling proper contractility of the stress fiber network.
  • Yang, Ying; Paivinen, Pekka; Xie, Chang; Krup, Alexis Leigh; Mäkelä, Tomi P.; Mostov, Keith E.; Reiter, Jeremy F. (2021)
    The mechanisms underlying tubular organ elongation remain poorly understood. Here, the authors show that primary cilia interpret Hedgehog signals to pattern the developing gut and that smooth muscle in the gut wall generates mechanical forces that direct longitudinal growth. How tubular organs elongate is poorly understood. We found that attenuated ciliary Hedgehog signaling in the gut wall impaired patterning of the circumferential smooth muscle and inhibited proliferation and elongation of developing intestine and esophagus. Similarly, ablation of gut-wall smooth muscle cells reduced lengthening. Disruption of ciliary Hedgehog signaling or removal of smooth muscle reduced residual stress within the gut wall and decreased activity of the mechanotransductive effector YAP. Removing YAP in the mesenchyme also reduced proliferation and elongation, but without affecting smooth muscle formation, suggesting that YAP interprets the smooth muscle-generated force to promote longitudinal growth. Additionally, we developed an intestinal culture system that recapitulates the requirements for cilia and mechanical forces in elongation. Pharmacologically activating YAP in this system restored elongation of cilia-deficient intestines. Thus, our results reveal that ciliary Hedgehog signaling patterns the circumferential smooth muscle to generate radial mechanical forces that activate YAP and elongate the gut.
  • Ran, Li; Tan, Xiaoqian; Li, Shuhong; Jin, Yu; Li, Song; Li, Shulei; Takala, Timo; Saris, Per (2021)
    Cystatins are proteins, which inhibit cysteine proteases, such as papain. In this study, the 336-bp cystatin C gene (family II, HmCysC) of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). HmCysC encodes the mature peptide of cystatin C (HmCystatin C), with 111 amino acids. A typical QXXXG motif was found in HmCystatin C and it formed a cluster with Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio cystatin C in the phylogenetic tree. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that HmCysC was transcribed at different levels in five tested tissues of silver carp. Following purification with Ni2+– nitrilotriacetic acid agarose affinity chromatography, HmCystatin C displayed a molecular weight of 20 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified HmCystatin C had strong inhibitory effects toward the proteolytic activity of papain. Immunochemical staining with anti-HmCystatin C antibody showed that HmCystatin C was widely distributed in silver carp tissues. These results collectively demonstrated the properties of HmCystatin C, providing information for further studies of cystatins from fish organisms.
  • Aikio, R.; Laaksonen, K.; Sairanen, A; Parkkonen, E.; Abou Elseoud, A.; Kujala, J.; Forss, N. (2021)
    In healthy subjects, motor cortex activity and electromyographic (EMG) signals from contracting contralateral muscle show coherence in the beta (15-30 Hz) range. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is considered a sign of functional coupling between muscle and brain. Based on prior studies, CMC is altered in stroke, but functional significance of this finding has remained unclear. Here, we examined CMC in acute stroke patients and correlated the results with clinical outcome measures and corticospinal tract (CST) integrity estimated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). During isometric contraction of the extensor carpi radialis muscle, EMG and magneto encephalographic oscillatory signals were recorded from 29 patients with paresis of the upper extremity due to ischemic stroke and 22 control subjects. CMC amplitudes and peak frequencies at 13-30 Hz were compared between the two groups. In the patients, the peak frequency in both the affected and the unaffected hemisphere was significantly (p < 0.01) lower and the strength of CMC was significantly (p < 0.05) weaker in the affected hemisphere compared to the control subjects. The strength of CMC in the patients correlated with the level of tactile sensitivity and clinical test results of hand function. In contrast, no correlation between measures of CST integrity and CMC was found. The results confirm the earlier findings that CMC is altered in acute stroke and demonstrate that CMC is bidirectional and not solely a measure of integrity of the efferent corticospinal tract.
  • Sagath, Lydia; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Välipakka, Salla; Vihola, Anna; Gardberg, Maria; Hackman, Peter; Pelin, Katarina; Jokela, Manu; Kiiski, Kirsi; Udd, Bjarne; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina (2021)
    We report the first mosaic mutation, a deletion of exons 11-107, identified in the nebulin gene in a Finnish patient presenting with a predominantly distal congenital myopathy and asymmetric muscle weakness. The female patient is ambulant and currently 26 years old. Muscle biopsies showed myopathic features with type 1 fibre predominance, strikingly hypotrophic type 2 fibres and central nuclei, but no nemaline bodies. The deletion was detected in a copy number variation analysis based on next-generation sequencing data. The parents of the patient did not carry the deletion. Mosaicism was detected using a custom, targeted comparative genomic hybridisation array. Expression of the truncated allele, less than half the size of full-length nebulin, was confirmed by Western blotting. The clinical and histological picture resembled that of a family with a slightly smaller deletion, and that in patients with recessively inherited distal forms of nebulin-caused myopathy. Asymmetry, however, was a novel feature. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Grunewald, M.; Kumar, S.; Sharife, H.; Volinsky, E.; Gileles-Hillel, A.; Licht, T.; Permyakova, A.; Hinden, L.; Azar, S.; Friedmann, Y.; Kupetz, P.; Tzuberi, R.; Anisimov, A.; Alitalo, K.; Horwitz, M.; Leebhoff, S.; Khoma, O. Z.; Hlushchuk, R.; Djonov, Valentin G; Abramovitch, R.; Tam, J.; Keshet, E. (2021)
    Aging is an established risk factor for vascular diseases, but vascular aging itself may contribute to the progressive deterioration of organ function. Here, we show in aged mice that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling insufficiency, which is caused by increased production of decoy receptors, may drive physiological aging across multiple organ systems. Increasing VEGF signaling prevented age-associated capillary loss, improved organ perfusion and function, and extended life span. Healthier aging was evidenced by favorable metabolism and body composition and amelioration of aging-associated pathologies including hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, "inflammaging" (age-related multiorgan chronic inflammation), and increased tumor burden. These results indicate that VEGF signaling insufficiency affects organ aging in mice and suggest that modulating this pathway may result in increased mammalian life span and improved overall health.
  • Stenroth, Lauri; Sefa, Sandra; Arokoski, Jari; Töyräs, Juha (2019)
    This study investigated the reliability of Achilles and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) measurement using ultrasound imaging (USI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen healthy adults were imaged twice on two occasions, interrupted by a tendon loading protocol. Tendon CSA segmentations were conducted by an experienced and an inexperienced rater blinded to information regarding subject, session and loading status. USI provided good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] 2,1 > 0.85, standard error of measurement [SEM] 5%-6%), while with MRI it was excellent (ICC 2,1 > 0.92, SEM 4%) for the experienced rater. This study suggests that MRI provides superior reliability for tendon CSA measurements compared with USI. However, the difference in reliability between the methods was small, and the results were inconclusive regarding objectivity and sensitivity to change when assessed based on the effect of loading. We concluded that both methods can be used for reliable CSA measurements of the Achilles and patellar tendons when using a highly standardized measurement protocol and when conducted by an experienced rater. (C) 2019 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.
  • Cox, Melissa L.; Evans, Jacquelyn M.; Davis, Alexander G.; Guo, Ling T.; Levy, Jennifer R.; Starr-Moss, Alison N.; Salmela, Elina; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Campbell, Kevin P.; Clark, Leigh Anne; Shelton, G. Diane (2017)
    Background: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited autosomal myopathies that preferentially affect voluntary muscles of the shoulders and hips. LGMD has been clinically described in several breeds of dogs, but the responsible mutations are unknown. The clinical presentation in dogs is characterized by marked muscle weakness and atrophy in the shoulder and hips during puppyhood. Methods: Following clinical evaluation, the identification of the dystrophic histological phenotype on muscle histology, and demonstration of the absence of sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex by immunostaining, whole exome sequencing was performed on five Boston terriers: one affected dog and its three family members and one unrelated affected dog. Results: Within sarcoglycan-delta (SGCD), a two base pair deletion segregating with LGMD in the family was discovered, and a deletion encompassing exons 7 and 8 was found in the unrelated dog. Both mutations are predicted to cause an absence of SGCD protein, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The mutations are private to each family. Conclusions: Here, we describe the first cases of canine LGMD characterized at the molecular level with the classification of LGMD2F.
  • Hoppela, Erika; Grönroos, Tove J.; Saarikko, Anne M.; Tervala, Tomi V.; Kauhanen, Susanna; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kivinen, Katri; Hartiala, Pauliina (2018)
    Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity. This led us to speculate, whether the metabolic increase of the graft is a result of browning of the transferred WAT toward beige adipose tissue. Methods: We investigated the metabolic and histological characteristics and BAT marker Ucp1 gene expression in different types of WAT grafts placed either in subcutaneous or muscle tissue in mice. Metabolic activity of the grafts was investigated by FDG-PET/CT at 4- and 12-week time-points. Results: The glucose uptake of all transferred fat types was increased when compared with respective control WAT regardless of transfer location. Ucp1 gene and protein expression was increased in 4 of 15 intramuscularly placed fat graft samples and showed histological resemblance to BAT with multilocular cells. Conclusions: Grafting of metabolically inactive fat intramuscularly may induce browning of fat grafts toward more active beige adipose tissue. This opens up new research areas in exploiting fat grafting in metabolic diseases.
  • Forsström, Saara; Jackson, Christopher B.; Carroll, Christopher J.; Kuronen, Mervi; Pirinen, Eija; Pradhan, Swagat; Marmyleva, Anastasiia; Auranen, Mari; Kleine, Iida-Marja; Khan, Nahid A.; Roivainen, Anne; Marjamäki, Paivi; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Wang, Liya; Battersby, Brendan J.; Richter, Uwe; Velagapudi, Vidya; Nikkanen, Joni; Euro, Liliya; Suomalainen, Anu (2019)
    Mitochondrial dysfunction elicits stress responses that safeguard cellular homeostasis against metabolic insults. Mitochondrial integrated stress response (ISRmt) is a major response to mitochondrial (mt)DNA expression stress (mtDNA maintenance, translation defects), but the knowledge of dynamics or interdependence of components is lacking. We report that in mitochondrial myopathy, ISRmt progresses in temporal stages and development from early to chronic and is regulated by autocrine and endocrine effects of FGF21, a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects. Initial disease signs induce transcriptional ISRmt (ATF5, mitochondria) one-carbon cycle, FGF21, and GDF15). The local progression to 2nd metabolic ISRmt stage (ATF3, ATF4, glucose uptake, serine biosynthesis, and transsulfuration) is FGF21 dependent. Mitochondria! unfolded protein response marks the 3rd ISRmt stage of failing tissue. Systemically, FGF21 drives weight loss and glucose preference, and modifies metabolism and respiratory chain deficiency in a specific hippocampal brain region. Our evidence indicates that FGF21 is a local and systemic messenger of mtDNA stress in mice and humans with mitochondrial disease.
  • Screen, Mark; Raheem, Olayinka; Holmlund-Hampf, Jeanette; Jonson, Per Harald; Huovinen, Sanna; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne (2014)
  • Chen, Yan; Stegaev, Vasily; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Sillat, Tarvo; Chazot, Paul L.; Stark, Holger; Wen, Jian Guo; Konttinen, Yrjo T. (2015)
    To date, conventional and/or novel histamine receptors (HRs) have not been investigated in mouse skeletal myogenesis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the HR-subtypes in skeletal myogenesis. The myogenesis of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts was evaluated using desmin, myogenin and myosin heavy chain (Myh) as early, intermediate and late differentiation markers, respectively. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were performed and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of the HR-subtypes and markers were determined. H1R mRNA was found to be highly expressed in myoblasts at day 0; however, the expression levels were reduced as differentiation progressed. By contrast, H2R mRNA expression remained constant, while H3R mRNA expression increased by 28-, 103- and 198-fold at days 2, 4 and 6 compared with the baseline level (day 0), respectively. In addition, Myh expression increased by 7,718-, 94,487- and 286,288-fold on days 2, 4 and 6 compared with the baseline expression level (day 0). Weak positive staining of the cells for H3R protein was observed on day 2, whereas highly positive staining was observed on days 4 and 6. HR expression during myogenesis was, in part, regulated by the stage of differentiation. These results along with previous findings indicated possible involvement of H1R in the regulation of progenitor cell mitogenesis and of H2R in the relaxation of acetylcholine-stimulated contraction of muscle cells, following the activation of professional histamine-producing cells, including mast cells. By contrast, H3R may participate in the regulation of specialized myocyte functions, potentially by maintaining the relaxed state under the influence of constitutive H3R activity and low histamine concentrations, locally produced/released by non-professional histamine-producing cells.
  • Tolmacheva, Aleksandra; Savolainen, Sarianna; Kirveskari, Erika; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kuusela, Linda; Brandstack, Nina; Ylinen, Aarne; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Shulga, Anastasia (2017)
    A large proportion of spinal cord injuries (SCI) are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent non-functional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS] with peripheral nerve stimulation [PNS]) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS. Five patients (4 males; age 38-68, mean 48) with no contraindications to TMS received 4 weeks (16 sessions) of stimulation. PAS was given to one hand and PNS combined with sham TMS to the other hand. Patients were blinded to the treatment. Hands were selected randomly. The patients were evaluated by a physiotherapist blinded to the treatment. The follow-up period was 1 month. Patients were evaluated with Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Testing (0-5 scale) before the first stimulation session, after the last stimulation session, and 1 month after the last stimulation session. One month after the last stimulation session, the improvement in the PAS-treated hand was 1.02 +/- 0.17 points (p <0.0001, n = 100 muscles from 5 patients). The improvement was significantly higher in PAS-treated than in PNS-treated hands (176 +/- 29%, p = 0.046, n = 5 patients). Longterm PAS might be an effective tool for improving motor performance in incomplete chronic SCI patients. Further studies on PAS in larger patient cohorts, with longer stimulation duration and at earlier stages after the injury, are warranted.
  • Kaukinen, P.; Podlipska, J.; Guermazi, A.; Niinimaki, J.; Lehenkari, P.; Roemer, F. W.; Nieminen, M. T.; Koski, J. M.; Saarakkala, S.; Arokoski, J. P. A. (2017)
    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the associations between Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-defined structural pathologies of the knee and physical function. Design: A cohort study with frequency matching on age and sex with eighty symptomatic subjects with knee pain and suspicion or diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and 57 asymptomatic subjects was conducted. The subjects underwent knee MRI, and the severity of structural changes was graded by MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) in separate knee locations. WOMAC function subscores were recorded and physical function tests (20-m and 5-min walk, stair ascending and descending, timed up & go and repeated sit-to-stand tests) performed. The association between MRI-defined structural pathologies and physical function tests and WOMAC function subscores were evaluated by linear regression analysis with adjustment for demographic factors, other MRI-features and pain with using effect size (ES) as a measure of the magnitude of an association. Results: Cartilage degeneration showed significant association with poor physical performance in TUG-, stair ascending and descending-, 20-m- and 5-min walk-tests (ESs in the subjects with cartilage degeneration anywhere between 0.134 [95%CI 0.037-0.238] and 0.224 [0.013-0.335]) and with increased WOMAC function subscore (ES in the subjects with cartilage degeneration anywhere 0.088 [0.012-0.103]). Also, lateral meniscus maceration and extrusion were associated with poor performance in stair ascending test (ESs 0.067 [0.008-0.163] and 0.077 [0.012-0.177]). Conclusions: After adjustments cartilage degeneration was associated with both decreased self-reported physical function and poor performance in the physical function tests. Furthermore, subjects with lateral meniscus maceration and extrusions showed significantly worse performance in stair ascending tests. (C) 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Meakin, Paul J.; Morrison, Vicky L.; Sneddon, Claire C.; Savinko, Terhi; Uotila, Liisa; Jalicy, Susan M.; Gabriel, Jennie L.; Kang, Li; Ashford, Michael L. J.; Fagerholm, Susanna C. (2015)
    Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice), leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo.
  • Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Ertbjerg, Per (2017)
    Minced beef was stored for 8 days and myofibrillar protein (MP) was extracted to investigate the effect of oxygen concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%) in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on heat-induced gel properties. Compression force of gels was lower when prepared from beef packaged in 0% oxygen, intermediate in 20 to 60% oxygen and greater in 80% oxygen. Total water loss of gels prepared from beef packaged with oxygen (20-80%) was higher and rheology measurements presented higher G' and G '' values. Additionally, gels from beef packaged without oxygen exhibited higher J (t) values during creep and recovery tests, demonstrating that oxygen exposure of meat during storage in MAP affect MP in such a way that heat-induced protein gels alter their characteristics. Generally, storage with oxygen in MAP resulted in stronger and more elastic MP gels, which was observed already at a relative low oxygen concentration of 20%. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.