Browsing by Subject "MUTATION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 74
  • Chew, Tracy; Haase, Bianca; Bathgate, Roslyn; Willet, Cali E.; Kaukonen, Maria K.; Mascord, Lisa J.; Lohi, Hannes T.; Wade, Claire M. (2017)
    Progressive retinal atrophy is a common cause of blindness in the dog and affects >100 breeds. It is characterized by gradual vision loss that occurs due to the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Similar to the human counterpart retinitis pigmentosa, the canine disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and the underlying cause remains unknown for many cases. We use a positional candidate gene approach to identify putative variants in the Hungarian Puli breed using genotyping data of 14 family-based samples (CanineHD BeadChip array, Illumina) and whole-genome sequencing data of two proband and two parental samples (Illumina HiSeq 2000). A single nonsense SNP in exon 2 of BBS4 (c.58A > T, p.Lys20*) was identified following filtering of high quality variants. This allele is highly associated (P-CHISQ = 3.425e(-14), n = 103) and segregates perfectly with progressive retinal atrophy in the Hungarian Puli. In humans, BBS4 is known to cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome which includes a retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. From the observed coding change we expect that no functional BBS4 can be produced in the affected dogs. We identified canine phenotypes comparable with Bbs4-null mice including obesity and spermatozoa flagella defects. Knockout mice fail to form spermatozoa flagella. In the affected Hungarian Puli spermatozoa flagella are present, however a large proportion of sperm are morphologically abnormal and
  • Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Hairlessness is a breed-specific feature selected for in some dog breeds but a rare abnormality in some others such as Scottish Deerhounds (SD). In SDs, the affected puppies are born with sparse hair but lose it within the first 2months leaving the dogs completely hairless. The previous studies have implicated variants in FOXI3 and SGK3 in hairlessness; however, the known variants do not explain hairlessness in all breeds such as SDs. We investigated the genetic cause in 66 SDs, including a litter with two hairless dogs. We utilized a combined approach of genome-wide homozygosity mapping and whole-genome sequencing of a hairless SD followed by recessive filtering according to a recessive model against 340 control genomes. Only two homozygous-coding variants were discovered in the homozygosity regions, including a 1-bp insertion in exon 2 of SGK3. This results in a predicted frameshift and very early truncation (49/490 amino acids) of the SGK3 protein. Additional screening of the recessive variant demonstrated a full segregation with the hairlessness and a 12% carrier frequency in the SD breed. The variant was not found in the related Irish Wolfhound breed. This study identifies the second hairless variant in the SGK3 gene in dogs and further highlights its role as a candidate gene for androgen-independent hair loss or alopecia in human.
  • Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Syrjä, Pernilla; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Arumilli, Meharji; Hundi, Sruthi; Karkamo, Veera; Viitmaa, Ranno; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Inherited skeletal disorders affect both humans and animals. In the current study, we have performed series of clinical, pathological and genetic examinations to characterize a previously unreported skeletal disease in the Karelian Bear Dog (KBD) breed. The disease was recognized in seven KBD puppies with a variable presentation of skeletal hypomineralization, growth retardation, seizures and movement difficulties. Exome sequencing of one affected dog revealed a homozygous missense variant (c. 1301T > G; p. V434G) in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene, ALPL. The identified recessive variant showed full segregation with the disease in a cohort of 509 KBDs with a carrier frequency of 0.17 and was absent from 303 dogs from control breeds. In humans, recessive and dominant ALPL mutations cause hypophosphatasia (HPP), a metabolic bone disease with highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations, ranging from lethal perinatal hypomineralization to a relatively mild dental disease. Our study reports the first naturally occurring HPP in animals, resembling the human infantile form. The canine HPP model may serve as a preclinical model while a genetic test will assist in breeding programs.
  • Leeb, Tosso; Leuthard, Fabienne; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Kiener, Sarah; Letko, Anna; Roosje, Petra; Welle, Monika M.; Gailbreath, Katherine L.; Cannon, Andrea; Linek, Monika; Banovic, Frane; Olivry, Thierry; White, Stephen D.; Batcher, Kevin; Bannasch, Danika; Minor, Katie M.; Mickelson, James R.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Casal, Margret L. (2020)
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) in humans encompasses multiple subtypes that exhibit a wide array of skin lesions and, in some cases, are associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated dogs with exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus (ECLE), a dog-specific form of chronic CLE that is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 14 cases and 29 controls confirmed a previously published result that the causative variant maps to chromosome 18. Autozygosity mapping refined the ECLE locus to a 493 kb critical interval. Filtering of whole genome sequence data from two cases against 654 controls revealed a single private protein-changing variant in this critical interval, UNC93B1:c.1438C>A or p.Pro480Thr. The homozygous mutant genotype was exclusively observed in 23 ECLE affected German Shorthaired Pointers and an ECLE affected Vizsla, but absent from 845 controls. UNC93B1 is a transmembrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum and endolysosomes, which is required for correct trafficking of several Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The p.Pro480Thr variant is predicted to affect the C-terminal tail of the UNC93B1 that has recently been shown to restrict TLR7 mediated autoimmunity via an interaction with syndecan binding protein (SDCBP). The functional knowledge on UNC93B1 strongly suggests that p.Pro480Thr is causing ECLE in dogs. These dogs therefore represent an interesting spontaneous model for human lupus erythematosus. Our results warrant further investigations of whether genetic variants affecting the C-terminus of UNC93B1 might be involved in specific subsets of CLE or SLE cases in humans and other species.
  • Bhutta, Mahmood F.; Lambie, Jane; Hobson, Lindsey; Goel, Anuj; Hafren, Lena; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Mattila, Petri S.; Farrall, Martin; Brown, Steve; Burton, Martin J. (2017)
    Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is the most common cause of hearing loss in children, and known to have high heritability. Mutant mouse models have identified Fbxo11, Evi1, Tgif1, and Nisch as potential risk loci. We recruited children aged 10 and under undergoing surgical treatment for COME from 35 hospitals in the UK, and their nuclear family. We performed association testing with the loci FBXO11, EVI1, TGIF1 and NISCH and sought to replicate significant results in a case-control cohort from Finland. We tested 1296 families (3828 individuals), and found strength of association with the T allele at rs881835 (p = 0.006, OR 1.39) and the G allele at rs1962914 (p = 0.007, OR 1.58) at TGIF1, and the A allele at rs10490302 (p = 0.016, OR 1.17) and the G allele at rs2537742 (p = 0.038, OR 1.16) at FBXO11. Results were not replicated. This study supports smaller studies that have also suggested association of otitis media with polymorphism at FBX011, but this is the first study to report association with the locus TGIF1. Both FBX011 and TGIF1 are involved in TGF-beta signalling, suggesting this pathway may be important in the transition from acute to chronic middle ear inflammation, and a potential molecular target.
  • Kaukonen, Maria; Quintero, Ileana B.; Mukarram, Abdul Kadir; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Holopainen, Saila; Wickström, Kaisa; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Arumilli, Meharji; Jalomäki, Sari; Daub, Carsten O.; Kere, Juha; Lohi, Hannes; Consortium, the DoGA (2020)
    Author summary Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding eye disease that affects nearly two million people worldwide. Several genes and variants have been associated with the disease, but still 30-80% of the patients lack genetic diagnosis. There is currently no standard treatment for RP, and much is expected from gene therapy. A similar disease, called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), affects many dog breeds. We performed clinical, genetic and functional analyses to find the genetic cause for PRA in Miniature Schnauzers. We discovered two forms of PRA in the breed, named type 1 and 2, and show that they are genetically distinct as they map to different chromosomes, 15 and X, respectively. Further genetic, bioinformatic and functional analyses discovered a fully penetrant recessive variant in a putative silencer region for type 1 PRA. Silencer regions are important for gene regulation and we found that two of its predicted target genes, EDN2 and COL9A2, were overexpressed in the retina of the affected dog. Defects in both EDN2 and COL9A2 have been associated with retinal degeneration. This study provides new insights to retinal biology while the genetic test guides better breeding choices. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the leading cause of blindness with nearly two million people affected worldwide. Many genes have been implicated in RP, yet in 30-80% of the RP patients the genetic cause remains unknown. A similar phenotype, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), affects many dog breeds including the Miniature Schnauzer. We performed clinical, genetic and functional experiments to identify the genetic cause of PRA in the breed. The age of onset and pattern of disease progression suggested that at least two forms of PRA, types 1 and 2 respectively, affect the breed, which was confirmed by genome-wide association study that implicated two distinct genomic loci in chromosomes 15 and X, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a fully segregating recessive regulatory variant in type 1 PRA. The associated variant has a very recent origin based on haplotype analysis and lies within a regulatory site with the predicted binding site of HAND1::TCF3 transcription factor complex. Luciferase assays suggested that mutated regulatory sequence increases expression. Case-control retinal expression comparison of six best HAND1::TCF3 target genes were analyzed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay and indicated overexpression of EDN2 and COL9A2 in the affected retina. Defects in both EDN2 and COL9A2 have been previously associated with retinal degeneration. In summary, our study describes two genetically different forms of PRA and identifies a fully penetrant variant in type 1 form with a possible regulatory effect. This would be among the first reports of a regulatory variant in retinal degeneration in any species, and establishes a new spontaneous dog model to improve our understanding of retinal biology and gene regulation while the affected breed will benefit from a reliable genetic testing.
  • Sola-Carvajal, Agustin; Revechon, Gwladys; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Whisenant, Daniel; Hagblom, Robin; Döhla, Julia; Katajisto, Pekka; Brodin, David; Fagerstrom-Billai, Fredrik; Viceconte, Nikenza; Eriksson, Maria (2019)
    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is the result of a defective form of the lamin A protein called progerin. While progerin is known to disrupt the properties of the nuclear lamina, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiology of HGPS remain less clear. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that progerin expression in murine epidermal basal cells results in impaired stratification and halted development of the skin. Stratification and differentiation of the epidermis is regulated by asymmetric stem cell division. Here, we show that expression of progerin impairs the ability of stem cells to maintain tissue homeostasis as a result of altered cell division. Quantification of basal skin cells showed an increase in symmetric cell division that correlated with progerin accumulation in HGPS mice. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon revealed a putative role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Further analysis suggested an alteration in the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin involving the inner and outer nuclear membrane proteins, emerin and nesprin-2. Taken together, our results suggest a direct involvement of progerin in the transmission of Wnt signaling and normal stem cell division. These insights into the molecular mechanisms of progerin may help develop new treatment strategies for HGPS.
  • Llavona, Pablo; Pinelli, Michele; Mutarelli, Margherita; Singh Marwah, Veer; Schimpf-Linzenbold, Simone; Thaler, Sebastian; Yoeruek, Efdal; Vetter, Jan; Kohl, Susanne; Wissinger, Bernd (2017)
    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are often associated with variable clinical expressivity (VE) and incomplete penetrance (IP). Underlying mechanisms may include environmental, epigenetic, and genetic factors. Cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) can be implicated in the regulation of genes by favoring or hampering the expression of one allele over the other. Thus, the presence of such loci elicits allelic expression imbalance (AEI) that can be traced by massive parallel sequencing techniques. In this study, we performed an AEI analysis on RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data, from 52 healthy retina donors, that identified 194 imbalanced single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in 67 IRD genes. Focusing on SNPs displaying AEI at a frequency higher than 10%, we found evidence of AEI in several IRD genes regularly associated with IP and VE (BEST1, RP1, PROM1, and PRPH2). Based on these SNPs commonly undergoing AEI, we performed pyrosequencing in an independent sample set of 17 healthy retina donors in order to confirm our findings. Indeed, we were able to validate CDHR1, BEST1, and PROM1 to be subjected to cis-acting regulation. With this work, we aim to shed light on differentially expressed alleles in the human retina transcriptome that, in the context of autosomal dominant IRD cases, could help to explain IP or VE.
  • Everson, Richard; Pettitt, Louise; Forman, Oliver P.; Dower-Tylee, Olivia; McLaughlin, Bryan; Ahonen, Saija; Kaukonen, Maria; Komaromy, Andras M.; Lohi, Hannes; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Sansom, Jane; Ricketts, Sally L. (2017)
    The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10(-11)) that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10(-19)). In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls), the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a similar to 20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10(-27)). Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.
  • Lek, Monkol; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Minikel, Eric V.; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Banks, Eric; Fennell, Timothy; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H.; Ware, James S.; Hill, Andrew J.; Cummings, Beryl B.; Tukiainen, Taru; Birnbaum, Daniel P.; Kosmicki, Jack A.; Duncan, Laramie E.; Estrada, Karol; Zhao, Fengmei; Zou, James; Pierce-Hollman, Emma; Berghout, Joanne; Cooper, David N.; Deflaux, Nicole; DePristo, Mark; Do, Ron; Flannick, Jason; Fromer, Menachem; Gauthier, Laura; Goldstein, Jackie; Gupta, Namrata; Howrigan, Daniel; Kiezun, Adam; Kurki, Mitja I.; Moonshine, Ami Levy; Natarajan, Pradeep; Orozeo, Lorena; Peloso, Gina M.; Poplin, Ryan; Rivas, Manuel A.; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Rose, Samuel A.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Shakir, Khalid; Stenson, Peter D.; Stevens, Christine; Thomas, Brett P.; Tiao, Grace; Tusie-Luna, Maria T.; Weisburd, Ben; Palotie, Aarno; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Daly, Mark J.; Exome Aggregation Consortium (2016)
    Large-scale reference data sets of human genetic variation are critical for the medical and functional interpretation of DNA sequence changes. Here we describe the aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) DNA sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ancestries generated as part of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). This catalogue of human genetic diversity contains an average of one variant every eight bases of the exome, and provides direct evidence for the presence of widespread mutational recurrence. We have used this catalogue to calculate objective metrics of pathogenicity for sequence variants, and to identify genes subject to strong selection against various classes of mutation; identifying 3,230 genes with near-complete depletion of predicted protein-truncating variants, with 72% of these genes having no currently established human disease phenotype. Finally, we demonstrate that these data can be used for the efficient filtering of candidate disease-causing variants, and for the discovery of human 'knockout' variants in protein-coding genes.
  • Cooper, Helen M.; Yang, Yang; Ylikallio, Emil; Khairullin, Rafil; Woldegebriel, Rosa; Lin, Kai-Lan; Euro, Liliya; Palin, Eino; Wolf, Alexander; Trokovic, Ras; Isohanni, Pirjo; Kaakkola, Seppo; Auranen, Mari; Lonnqvist, Tuula; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Tyynismaa, Henna (2017)
    De novo mutations in ATAD3A (ATPase family AAA-domain containing protein 3A) were recently found to cause a neurological syndrome with developmental delay, hypotonia, spasticity, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a dominantly inherited heterozygous variant c.1064G > A (p.G355D) in ATAD3A in a mother presenting with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and axonal neuropathy and her son with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, both with disease onset in childhood. HSP is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder of the upper motor neurons. Symptoms beginning in early childhood may resemble spastic cerebral palsy. The function of ATAD3A, a mitochondrial inner membrane AAA ATPase, is yet undefined. AAA ATPases form hexameric rings, which are catalytically dependent on the co-operation of the subunits. The dominant-negative patient mutation affects the Walker A motif, which is responsible for ATP binding in the AAA module of ATAD3A, and we show that the recombinant mutant ATAD3A protein has a markedly reduced ATPase activity. We further show that overexpression of the mutant ATAD3A fragments the mitochondrial network and induces lysosome mass. Similarly, we observed altered dynamics of the mitochondrial network and increased lysosomes in patient fibroblasts and neurons derived through differentiation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells. These alterations were verified in patient fibroblasts to associate with upregulated basal autophagy through mTOR inactivation, resembling starvation. Mutations in ATAD3A can thus be dominantly inherited and underlie variable neurological phenotypes, including HSP, with intrafamiliar variability. This finding extends the group of mitochondrial inner membrane AAA proteins associated with spasticity.
  • Hanninen, Reetta L.; Ahonen, Saija; Marquez, Merce; Myohanen, Maarit J.; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (2015)
    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDS) are often serious autosomal recessively inherited disorders characterized by tissue-specific mtDNA copy number reduction. Many genes, including MPV17, are associated with the hepatocerebral form of MDS. MPV17 encodes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with a poorly characterized function. Several MPV17 mutations have been reported in association with a heterogeneous group of early-onset manifestations, including liver disease and neurological problems. Mpv17-deficient mice present renal and hearing defects. We describe here a MPV17 truncation mutation in dogs. We found a 1-bp insertion in exon 4 of the MPV17 gene, resulting in a frameshift and early truncation of the encoded protein. The mutation halves MPV17 expression in the lymphocytes of the homozygous dogs and the truncated protein is not translated in transfected cells. The insertion mutation is recurrent and exists in many unrelated breeds, although is highly enriched in the Boxer breed. Unexpectedly, despite the truncation of MPV17, we could not find any common phenotypes in the genetically affected dogs. The lack of observable phenotype could be due to a late onset, mild symptoms or potential tissue-specific compensatory mechanisms. This study suggests species-specific differences in the manifestation of the MPV17 defects and establishes a novel large animal model to further study MPV17 function and role in mitochondrial biology.
  • 99 Lives Cat Genome Consortium; Jaffey, Jared A.; Reading, N. Scott; Giger, Urs; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; Buckley, Ruben M.; Johnstone, Sophie; Lyons, Leslie A.; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Two non-pedigreed male castrated cats had persistent cyanosis over a 3-year observation period. Clinical cardiopulmonary evaluations did not reveal abnormalities, but the blood remained dark after exposure to air. Erythrocytic methemoglobin concentrations were high (40% of hemoglobin) and cytochrome b(5) reductase (CYB5R) activities in erythrocytes were low (A missense variant (B4:137967506) and a c.232-1G>C splice acceptor variant (B4:137970815) in CYB5R3, respectively, which were absent in 193 unaffected additional cats. The p.Gly209Ser missense variant likely disrupts a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-binding domain, while the splicing error occurs at the acceptor site for exon 4, which likely affects downstream translation of the protein. The 2 novel CYB5R3 variants were associated with methemoglobinemia using clinical, biochemical, genomics, and in silico protein studies. The variant prevalence is unknown in the cat population.
  • Mustonen, Tuuli; Schmidt, Eeva-Kaisa; Valori, Miko; Tienari, Pentti J.; Atula, Sari; Kiuru-Enari, Sari (2018)
    Finnish gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is an autosomal dominantly inherited systemic disorder with ophthalmologic, neurologic and dermatologic symptoms. Only the gelsolin (GSN) c.640G>A variant has been found in the Finnish patients thus far. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Finnish patients have a common ancestor or whether multiple mutation events have occurred at c.640G, which is a known mutational hot spot. A total of 79 Finnish AGel amyloidosis families including 707 patients were first discovered by means of patient interviews, genealogic studies and civil and parish registers. From each family 1-2 index patients were chosen. Blood samples were available from 71 index patients representing 64 families. After quality control, SNP array genotype data were available from 68 patients from 62 nuclear families. All the index patients had the same c.640G>A variant (rs121909715). Genotyping was performed using the Illumina CoreExome SNP array. The homozygosity haplotype method was used to analyse shared haplotypes. Haplotype analysis identified a shared haplotype, common to all studied patients. This shared haplotype included 17 markers and was 361 kb in length (GRCh37 coordinates 9:124003326–124364349) and this level of haplotype sharing was found to occur highly unlikely by chance. This GSN haplotype ranked as the largest shared haplotype in the 68 patients in a genome-wide analysis of haplotype block lengths. These results provide strong evidence that although there is a known mutational hot spot at GSN c.640G, all of the studied 62 Finnish AGel amyloidosis families are genetically linked to a common ancestor.
  • Tanoli, ZiaurRehman; Alam, Zaid; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Ravikumar, Balaguru; Malyutina, Alina; Jaiswal, Alok; Tang, Jing; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2018)
    Drug Target Commons (DTC) is a web platform (database with user interface) for community-driven bioactivity data integration and standardization for comprehensive mapping, reuse and analysis of compound-target interaction profiles. End users can search, upload, edit, annotate and export expert-curated bioactivity data for further analysis, using an application programmable interface, database dump or tab-delimited text download options. To guide chemical biology and drug-repurposing applications, DTC version 2.0 includes updated clinical development information for the compounds and target gene-disease associations, as well as cancer-type indications for mutant protein targets, which are critical for precision oncology developments.
  • Heliö, Krista; Kangas-Kontio, Tiia; Weckström, Sini; Vanninen, Sari U. M.; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Myllykangas, Samuel; Heliö, Tiina M.; Koskenvuo, Juha W. (2020)
    Background Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition characterized by dilatation and systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle in the absence of severe coronary artery disease or abnormal loading conditions. Mutations in the titin (TTN) and lamin A/C (LMNA) genes are the two most significant contributors in familial DCM. Previously mutations in the desmoplakin (DSP) gene have been associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and more recently with DCM. Methods We describe the cardiac phenotype related to a DSP mutation which was identified in ten unrelated Finnish index patients using next-generation sequencing. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the presence of this DSP variant in the probands' relatives. Medical records were obtained, and clinical evaluation was performed. Results We identified DSP c.6310delA, p.(Thr2104Glnfs*12) variant in 17 individuals of which 11 (65%) fulfilled the DCM diagnostic criteria. This pathogenic variant presented with left ventricular dilatation, dysfunction and major ventricular arrhythmias. Two patients showed late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and myocardial edema on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that may suggest inflammatory process at myocardium. Conclusions The patients diagnosed with DCM showed an arrhythmogenic phenotype as well as SCD at young age supporting the recently proposed concept of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. This study also demonstrates relatively low penetrance of truncating DSP variant in the probands' family members by the age of 40. Further studies are needed to elucidate the possible relations between myocardial inflammation and pathogenic DSP variants.
  • Mancini, Alessandra; Howard, Sasha R.; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Barnes, Michael R.; David, Alessia; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Heger, Sabine; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Guasti, Leonardo; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Dunkel, Leo (2019)
    The initiation of puberty is orchestrated by an augmentation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from a few thousand hypothalamic neurons. Recent findings have indicated that the neuroendocrine control of puberty may be regulated by a hierarchically organized network of transcriptional factors acting upstream of GnRH. These include enhanced at puberty 1 (EAP1), which contributes to the initiation of female puberty through transactivation of the GnRH promoter. However, no EAP1 mutations have been found in humans with disorders of pubertal timing. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 67 probands and 93 relatives from a large cohort of familial self-limited delayed puberty (DP). Variants were analyzed for rare, potentially pathogenic variants enriched in case versus controls and relevant to the biological control of puberty. We identified one in-frame deletion (Ala221del) and one rare missense variant (Asn770His) in EAP1 in two unrelated families; these variants were highly conserved and potentially pathogenic. Expression studies revealed Eap1 mRNA abundance in peri-pubertal mouse hypothalamus. EAP1 binding to the GnRH1 promoter increased in monkey hypothalamus at the onset of puberty as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Using a luciferase reporter assay, EAP1 mutants showed a reduced ability to trans-activate the GnRH promoter compared to wild-type EAP1, due to reduced protein levels caused by the Ala221del mutation and subcellular mislocation caused by the Asn770His mutation, as revealed by western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified the first EAP1 mutations leading to reduced GnRH transcriptional activity resulting in a phenotype of self-limited DP.