Browsing by Subject "MYCOPLASMA-FERMENTANS"

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  • Parri, Elina; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; van Adrichem, Arjan J.; Kaustio, Meri; Wennerberg, Krister (2020)
    STAT3 mediates signalling downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors where it acts as a transcription factor for its target genes, including oncogenes and cell survival regulating genes. STAT3 has been found to be persistently activated in many types of cancers, primarily through its tyrosine phosphorylation (Y705). Here, we show that constitutive STAT3 activation protects cells from cytotoxic drug responses of several drug classes. To find novel and potentially targetable STAT3 regulators we performed a kinase and phosphatase siRNA screen with cells expressing either a hyperactive STAT3 mutant or IL6-induced wild type STAT3. The screen identified cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase (CDC7), casein kinase 2, alpha 1 (CSNK2), discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 (DDR2), cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 2-alpha (PI4KII), C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) and receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase H (PTPRH) as potential STAT3 regulators. Using small molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins, we confirmed dose and time dependent inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription, suggesting that inhibition of these kinases may provide strategies for dampening STAT3 activity in cancers.
  • Parri, E; Kuusanmaki, H; Bulanova, D; Mustjoki, S; Wennerberg, K (2021)
    Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are rare but very aggressive types of cancers. With 3 currently available treatments, they have a very poor prognosis and, as such, are an example of group of cancers in which the development of effective precision therapies is needed. Using both short- and long-term drug sensitivity testing, we explored novel ways to target NK-cell neoplasms by combining the clinically approved JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib with other targeted agents. We profiled 7 malignant NK-cell lines in drug sensitivity screens and identified that these exhibit differential drug sensitivities based on their genetic background. In short-term assays, various classes of drugs combined with ruxolitinib seemed highly potent. Strikingly, resistance to most of these combinations emerged rapidly when explored in long-term assays. However, 4 combinations were identified that selectively eradicated the cancer cells and did not allow for development of resistance: ruxolitinib combined with the mouse double-minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor idasanutlin in STAT3-mutant, TPS3 wild-type cell lines; ruxolitinib combined with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in TP53-mutant cell lines; and ruxolitinib combined with either the glucocorticoid dexamethasone or the myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) inhibitor S63845 but both without a clear link to underlying genetic features. In conclusion, using a new drug sensitivity screening approach, we identified drug combinations that selectively target mature NK-cell neoplasms and do not allow for development of resistance, some of which can be applied in a genetically stratified manner.