Browsing by Subject "Maataloustieteiden maisteriohjelma"

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  • Freudenthal, Ines (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The objective of the thesis is to review and characterize (i) typical agroforestry systems in the temperate zone, (ii) levels of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agroforestry and control plots, and (iii) identify the conditions under which agroforestry farming is most likely to enhance SOC. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of agroforestry farming systems on SOC stocks at soil depths of 0 – 20, 0 – 40 and 0 – 100 cm. Data was collected from 15 published studies and all sites are located in temperate climates. Studies had to report at least measurements on SOC concentration or stock for an agroforestry plot and a control plot (arable land, grassland, forest). Investigated treatment variables were soil depth, agroforestry system type, soil type, tree species and age. The results have shown significantly higher SOC stocks under agroforestry in comparison to controls in all three soil depth datasets. The largest amount of SOC in agroforestry was found in the first 20 cm of topsoil and at a soil depth of 60 – 100 cm. There were no significant differences found between alley cropping, silvopasture and shelterbelt systems. The most popular tree species in temperate agroforestry were Populus spp., M.domestica, Juglans regia and Picea. But no significant differences in C sequestration could be observed between tree species across all datasets. The assumption that systems with older trees have higher stocks of SOC could not be confirmed. Most common soil types of temperate agroforestry systems were Luvisol, Fluvisol and Chernozem. The meta-analysis did not verify results of other studies, which have shown that clay contents in the soil promote C sequestration. The wide variability and diversity of agroforestry systems has shown to be problematic in conducting a meta-analysis, indicated by a high heterogeneity. Furthermore, different types of study designs, lack of standardized sampling procedures and explanatory variables may have influenced the results. However, the study showed that agroforestry can be a promising carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation option, also for the temperate climate zone.
  • Varis, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Suomessa on tarvetta uusille kotimaisille valkuaislähteille. Öljyntuotannosta ylijäävä camelinapuriste vastaa aminohappokoostumukseltaan melko hyvin lypsykarjan ruokinnassa yleisesti käytettyä ryp-siä, joten se voisi sopia hyvin valkuaisrehuksi. Camelina ei tarvitse paljon ravinteita ja sitä pystytään kasvattamaan monenlaisissa ilmasto-oloissa, koska se kestää hyvin vaikeita ympäristöoloja, kuten kuivuutta, sekä tauteja ja tuholaisia. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia camelinan soveltuvuutta valkuaisrehuksi lypsylehmillä. Tutkimus koostui kahdesta osakokeesta, joissa mitattiin ohutsuoleen virtaavan käyttökelpoisen valkuaisen määrää in vitro. Osakokeessa 1 verrattiin kahta eri camelinalajiketta rypsiin ja osakokeen 2 koe-dieetti sisälsi camelinaa nousevina tasoina siten, että camelinavalkuainen korvasi rypsivalkuaista 0, 1/3, 2/3 ja 3/3. Hypoteesi oli, että camelina voi korvata rypsin täysin ilman ohutsuoleen virtaavan käyttökelpoisen valkuaisen määrän vähenemistä. Tutkimuksessa koerehuista analysoitiin perusanalyysien lisäksi aminohappokoostumus ja Cornellin typpifraktiot. Typpifraktioiden perusteella camelinalla ja rypsillä on samankaltainen hajoavuuspoten-tiaali pötsissä. Ohutsuoleen virtaavan käyttökelpoisen valkuaisen määrää mitattiin laboratoriossa Bioprocess control’in Gas Endeavor in vitro –laitteella inkuboimalla rehuja naudan pötsinesteessä. Osakokeiden tulokset olivat keskenään ristiriitaisia. Osakoe 1:n mukaan ohutsuoleen virtaavan käyt-tökelpoisen valkuaisen määrässä ei ollut merkittäviä eroja valkuaisrehujen välillä. Osakoe 2:ssa ohutsuoleen virtaavan käyttökelpoisen valkuaisen määrä yllättäen väheni camelinan annostasoa nostettaessa. Tässä tutkimuksessa hypoteesi ei toteutunut kaikkien tulosten osalta, mutta sekä osakoe 1:n että typpifraktioiden mukaan camelinan pitäisi soveltua rypsin korvaajaksi valkuaisrehu-na. On epäselvää, miksi osakoe 2:ssa tämä ei toteutunut. Tulevaisuudessa tarvitaan lisää tutkimuk-sia camelinan soveltuvuudesta valkuaisrehuksi, ja in vitro -menetelmä on hyvä tutkimuskeino ennen in vivo -kokeita.
  • Määttänen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Agroforestry, a widespread land-use in tropics and especially in tropical drylands, is gaining increasing attention due its carbon sequestration and storage potential. Majority of African countries acknowledge agroforestry as a national climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy. Despite the large extent of African drylands and the commonness and importance of agroforestry systems to dryland livelihoods, these systems are scarcely studied and research on dryland African agroforestry carbon stocks are few. The aim of the study was to compare carbon stocks of three land-uses: Vitellaria paradoxa dominated parkland (PL), improved agroforestry system (IA) and, as a control, abandoned land (AL), to study carbon allocation between and within the land-uses and to examine the variability of biomass estimates of different allometric equations used in carbon inventory in West African Sahel. Study was conducted in two villages in Yorosso, Southern Mali. Carbon stocks accounted were woody above- and belowground biomass, litter and top-soil organic carbon. Allometric equations and root-to-shoot ratios were used for woody biomass measurement. Comparison of biomass estimations of different allometric equations and root-to-shoot-ratios was conducted by using multiple equations for the dataset. Total system carbon stocks were 24.7 MgC haˉ¹, 29.9 MgC haˉ¹ and 42.2 MgC haˉ¹, for PL, AL and IA, respectively, with statistically significant difference between PL and IA. Top-soil organic carbon (SOC) was important carbon pool, accounting 34.8 % of total system carbon in PL and IA, and 49.6 % in AL. There were no statistically significant differences on the SOC/biomass C ratios between the land-uses. PL had lower SOC stocks than IA or AL, difference being statistically significant. The reason for lower SOC stock of PL could not be explained in this study. IA had larger woody biomass carbon stocks (27.0 MgC haˉ¹) than PL (15.5 MgC haˉ¹ ) and AL (14.4 MgC haˉ¹), but the difference was not statistically significant due to the similar density of large mature trees in all of the land-uses and partly due to the large woody biomass variation within the land-uses. In all of the land-uses, most of biomass carbon was stored in large mature trees and in two species: V. paradoxa and Parkia biglobosa. Large woody individuals had major impact on the land-use level carbon stocks. For carbon conservation, these individuals should be preserved and spared even during land-use change. Despite relatively large density, young trees and shrubs stored diminutive amount of carbon compared to mature trees. As the currently young planted trees in IA will grow and mature in the future, the woody biomass carbon stocks of the system will increase significantly. Lack of regeneration observed in PL threatens the sustainability of the system and its carbon stocks. Future carbon storage potential of AL depends on the regeneration potential of large tree species. Comparison of different allometric equations for tree biomass estimation revealed substantial variation. The choice of allometric equation used affects the obtained results, hampering the comparison of studies using different equations. Commonly used root-to-shoot ratios vary on their estimations, and most probably by underestimating root biomass. There is a clear need for specialised and standard carbon inventory methods for drylands and agroforestry systems.
  • McPartlin, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Cellular agriculture is a novel food production technology that utilizes tissue engineering techniques to culture muscle cells to make cultured meat, or microbes and fermenting to create proteins such as casein, albumin and collagen which can be processed to products similar to milk and egg white for example. This thesis aims to explore the challenges that cellular agriculture faces in terms of policy, politics and the society mainly in a Finnish context, but also observing EU regulations. These challenges were investigated by interviewing altogether 15 representatives of stakeholder groups, which are political parties, government administration, organizations of policy executioners, NGO’s, food-tech companies, -funds and research centres. The data from the interviews was transcribed and processed in Atlas.ti-software using the analysis of qualitative content -method. The processed data was then analysed using the analysis of a specialist interview -method. The study revealed that specialists agree that cellular agriculture products will follow EU Novel Food regulations, but that cellular agriculture might have to overcome some regulation-related challenges. Challenges might also arise from markets, consumers and competing with conventionally produced food. Some believed cellular agriculture to have a negative impact on the Finnish society in the form of eroding rural livelihoods, and that the production will be in the hands of large corporations. Many stated that they do not believe cellular agriculture will surpass conventional agriculture, but that it will become just another food innovation. Some believed cellular agriculture offers great possibilities in the form of more sustainable food production. Many of the statements of the interviewees reflected current events already underway in the cellular agriculture and alternative protein field. The challenges cellular agriculture will face are multifaceted, and more information is still needed, especially on the societal effects of cellular agriculture.
  • Valdebenito Alamar, Nerea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Despite their immobile nature, their ability for adaptation allows plants to face harmful conditions from the environment to successfully survive and reproduce. Plant cells sense and integrate signals from the environment and activate response mechanisms. Participants in these mechanisms are the receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and a subgroup of RLKs, the cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs). Members of this family have been associated with functions related to environmental stress responses in plants. CRK2 is one interesting member of the CRK clade of RLKs. While roles of CRK2 in the response to biotic and abiotic stimuli have been recently described, many aspects of the diverse functions of CRK2 remain elusive. The reduced size of the crk2 mutant suggests that developmental processes are affected by the absence of the protein. One of the objectives of this work was to analyse potential reasons for the smaller size of crk2. The difference in plant size could be due to a reduced number of cells. Results from the analysis of young cotyledons showed that the smaller plant size is not due to a reduced cell number in leaves when compared to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Another way to understand the processes in which a protein is involved is to target possible interaction partners. Therefore, genotyping and analysis of growth phenotypes of T-DNA insertion mutant lines for candidate interaction partners for CRK2 was performed. The results revealed smaller phenotype for a nitrate transporter (NRT1.7) mutant in fresh weight and rosette area whereas for a protein kinase (QSK1) mutant, higher fresh weight but reduced rosette area was observed compared to Col-0. Generation of constructs for fusion protein expression and purification revealed the possibility of expressing tagged cytoplasmic regions of these proteins for further analysis of protein-protein interaction through kinase assays due to the kinase activity of CRK2. Generation of fluorescent-tagged proteins from the candidate interaction partners allowed for localization studies via confocal microscopy to determine the co-localization to the plasma membrane of these proteins with CRK2, which is located to plasma membrane under standard growth conditions. The co-localization results suggest that the proteins NRT1.7 and QSK1 colocalize with CRK2, which is a step forward in the verification of their possible interaction in planta. The smaller size of the nrt1.7 and qsk1 mutants indicates that the lack of these proteins affects plant development.
  • Qin, Kaiyue Jr (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Strawberries (Fragaria sp.) are perennial plants that belong to Rosaceae family. According to flowering habit, strawberries are classified as seasonal flowering and perpetual flowering strawberries. Environmental factors regulate flowering in plants. Among them, photoperiod and temperature are two important cues to affect flowering in strawberries. Besides, FT is a general flowering activator in many plant species. This thesis explored the flowering habits and FT expression level of two diploid strawberries F. bucharica and F. nilgerrensis under short and long day at cool temperature at 11 °C. The results were compared with F. vesca which has been studied earlier. After 2, 4 and 6 weeks of cool temperature (11 °C) treatment, all F. vesca and the majority of F. bucharica flowered regardless of photoperiod. As for F. nilgerrensis, there was no floral induction under SD and 20 % flowering rate after 6 weeks of LD treatment. After 4 weeks of the treatment, the expression of FT was down-regulated in F. vesca and F. bucharica compared with control groups under long day at 20 °C. In conclusion, the cool temperature at 11 °C induced flowering both in F. vesca and F. bucharica. The photoperiod affected flowering in F. vesca, while not in F. bucharica. As for F. nilgerrensis, the treatments were not strongly inductive for flowering. It may need more time for floral induction. The FT1 expression was down regulated after 4-week cool temperature treatments in F. vesca and F. bucharica, which was negatively correlated with flower induction. The photoperiod and temperature significantly affect branch crown formation in F. nilgerrensis, while the temperature had significant effects on runner formation and leaf formation in these three species.
  • Zhao, Chuanhui (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The research of this thesis was focused on anaerobic digestion of cow manure mixed with different types of biowaste, especially those material that are available in Finland. The research was conducted by search, collection, and analysis of different data in literature. Topic of the thesis was predetermined by the Co-Creation Lab project of Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), which was seeking solution to achieve carbon neutral cow milk production. The solution was co-approached by three participants conducting thesis from technological, economical, and legislative points of view, in which I was responsible for writing mainly the technological part, and general findings in economic efficiency and legislative terms by the other two co-creators were also included in this thesis. The research was mainly related with the whole cycle of biogas production, including basics about anaerobic digestion (AD), applications of the biogas and digestate as a product and by-product of AD. Substrates for AD were researched with a focus to find the best combination of cow manure (CM) and biowaste in regard with methane yield outcome, especially a mixture of CM and silage waste that suits the cow farming situation in Finland. Methane yields for mono-digestion of various types of biowaste and co-digestion of CM with different biomass were collected and analyzed. Premises for biogas plant establishment were researched briefly, including facility composition, and consideration of feasibility and raw material availability. CM with grass containing 75% timothy and 25% meadow fescue grass at 70%:30% mixing ratio could be the best combination of CM: grass co-digestion, followed by 0.5:0.5 mixed CM and perennial ryegrass. Furthermore, CM mixed with food waste at 52:48% ratio could be the best combination among co-digestion of CM with biowaste other than grass, followed by CM and food waste mixed with 68%:32% ratio, and CM with oat straw mixed at 1:2 ratio could be a considerable combination of CM and crop waste.
  • Huhdanmäki, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    CRISPR-Cas9 is one variant of newly emerging technologies utilizing targeted mutagenesis based on Cas family proteins and guide RNA that enable binding and modifying selected target sequence. The aim of the master’s thesis was to compare different methods of CRISPR-Cas9 induced gene editing in the genus Nicotiana and other secondary protocols necessary to identify successful mutations. PDS1 and PDS2 genes coding phytoene desaturase in plants were selected as target genes as mutant genotype produce visually identifiable photobleaching phenotype. CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complex mediated transformation uses separately produced Cas9 protein and guide RNA that when combined perform transient gene editing in cell. This method was planned to be used but Cas9 protein was challenging to produce in soluble form and final transformation was not achieved. This study suggests that acquiring ready-to-use Cas9 protein might be preferable choice when targeting only few transformations with CRISPR-Cas9 RNP-complex. Agrotransformation is well established method for genus Nicotiana and using Single Transcriptional Unit CRISPR-Cas9 system it is straightforward procedure from plasmid design to transformation. Successfully transformed plants were redeemed from transient agroinfiltration and stable agrotransformation experiments. Off-target mutations are possible and selective outbreeding may be needed. This method lacks the several advantages of CRISPR-Cas9 RNP-complex such as instant gene editing in cell, avoiding RNA interference and transformation over species boundaries, but is simple and functional in genus Nicotiana. Successful mutations were detected using commercial T7E1 and with natural CEL I endonuclease from celery extract. Celery extract can be used as cost-effective alternative to T7E1 for verifying or replicating previously confirmed results.
  • Mäkinen, Arttu Tapio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Crop monitoring in commercial indoor farming is a commonly used method in assessing the general productivity of the cultivated plants. This assessment practice is typically conducted manually by greenhouse workers and is sometimes supplemented by certain hand-held or stationary devices. An interesting example of novel device-assisted crop monitoring technologies utilizes digital imaging devices and computer-driven image analysis algorithms that have been prominently employed within the field of plant phenotyping. In the context of botanical studies, they have been used in e.g. characterizing various complex interactions between the genotypes of important food crops and their agronomic traits in specific prevailing environmental conditions. Additionally, image-based data acquisition technologies also present very interesting prospects for precision agriculture management practices. They could be harnessed to scan entire greenhouse compartments continuously and acquire massive amounts of data on multiple morphological and physiological aspects of crop growth and development in a non-destructive fashion. The acquired data could be implemented into mathematical greenhouse control models and utilized in a plethora of useful applications, including e.g. estimating and predicting biomass production and yield, detecting and localizing potential abiotic/biotic stress symptoms at an early stage, and ultimately enhancing overall crop production efficiency. In this thesis, these imaging technologies were explored in practice by designing and constructing a growth chamber embedded with automatic climate control and a low-cost multispectral imaging subsystem. The final assembly was tested by conducting a simple experiment involving drought-stressed sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. ‘Genovese’) to determine how early drought-stress related symptoms could be detected purely from multispectral images. While the system carried out the tasks of automated climate control and continuous image capture adequately, the implemented approach in drought-stress detection was deemed unsuccessful. Significant differences between drought-stressed plants and their respective controls were not observed until visible symptoms were present. This was assumed to be due to incompatibility of the camera module’s spectral sensitivity in detecting changes in water content in plant tissue.
  • Sarvela, Konsta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis was to design, build and test a system, which is capable of measuring in real time simple quantities influencing on tire-soil contact of agricultural tractors mobility. The measuring equipment is based on acceleration and distance sensors connected to the Arduino Uno microcontroller. The tractor’s CAN bus was logged and the data was saved using a CAN bus card connected to a Raspberry Pi minicomputer. The sensors were calibrated, and their sensitivity checked before performing the experiments while driving in the field. Accelerometers were placed on top of the rear axle of the tractor at both ends in housings printed for them and distance sensors were mounted behind the rear axle. All sensors were logged by using Raspberry's Raspbian operating system with a python program. The Raspberry was chosen as a computer because of its demanding low space, low cost, and versatility of interfaces. The properties of the field were monitored by monthly penetrometer measurements as well as SoilScout sensors embedded in the ground, which indicated the moisture and temperature of the ground at that depth in real time. The purpose of this was to find out the changes in the field during the growing season, which would also affect the tractor's mobility. The measurement were carried out successfully and the result were considered to be reliable and provide many other opportunities for the future. The results clearly indicated the factors influencing the tractor’s mobility and the different stages of the tillage could be recognized. Future challenges remain the filtering of large amounts of data and the application of measuring equipment in further research. The measurement equipment developed in the work is well suited for its purpose in terms of measurement accuracy and economical affordability. In the future, better accuracy could be achieved with more accurate measuring devices as well as data obtained from this work.
  • Qiu, Yachen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an important vegetable, which provides major nutritional benefits. In Finland, basal rot caused by Fusarium fungal species (FBR) has become the most destructive disease of onion in recent years. It causes damping off and stunted growth on onion seedlings and root death and abscission and bulb rot on mature onions. The average onion crop loss caused by basal rot has been up to 10% in conventional farming and as high as 30% in organic farming. In this study, a seedling assay was conducted to test the virulence of different Fusarium isolates on a commercial onion cultivar. The study goals were, primarily, to find out which of the Fusarium isolates, originating from onion and crop rotation plants grown in Finland, are pathogenic, and secondly, to compare the virulence of different isolates. Altogether 115 Fusarium isolates were tested for virulence on onion seedlings in a greenhouse. Fifty-five of the tested isolates of F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. redolens were more or less virulent. 19.4% of F. oxysporum isolates, 35.3% of F. proliferatum isolates and 18.2% of F. redolens isolates showed high virulence. Among the aggressive pathogens isolated from onion samples, F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae is still the dominant onion pathogen, F. proliferatum is a new pathogen on onion in Finland, and relatively more aggressive than F. oxysporum. The F. solani and F. tricinctum isolates tested did not have any detrimental effects on the onion seedling health or growth. In order to control FBR in Finland, avoiding planting onion in the infested soils, growing onions from local seedlings to avoid new contamination and storing onions at cold temperatures are recommended.
  • Saha, Sani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Immunodeficiency in neonatal piglet is one of the major causes of pre-weaning mortality. Colostrum supply cytokines to newborn piglets, which play an important role in formation of their immune mechanism. This study aims to identify the relationship between sow’s blood and colostrum cytokines, and effect of resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) in sow’s blood and colostrum cytokines concentration. RAC is a plant extract of coniferous tree, and it is composed of resin acids and fatty acids which exert immunomodulatory function. Two experiments were conducted in two different farms where RAC was supplemented in the diet of late gestation sows, starting from one week before of expected farrowing date till farrowing. Multiplex immunoassay was used to determine the interferon alpha (IFN-α), interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 12p40 (IL-12p40) cytokines concentration in blood and colostrum of sow collected within 2 hours of the birth of first piglets. There were significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between sow’s blood and colostrum cytokines concentration. RAC-fed sows had significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of IL-1 and showed positive tendency (p = 0.1) to increase TNF-α cytokine level in blood. Colostrum level of IFN- ɣ, IL-1 and IL-12p40 had also positive tendency (p = 0.1) to rise in RAC supplemented sow. On this basis, it is proposed that application of RAC in late gestation sow diet enhance the cytokine production in sow’s blood, and blood cytokines levels are positively correlated with colostrum cytokines.
  • Norrback, Josefin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Gastrointestinal parasites (GIP) and resistance against anthelmintics are and will be one of the biggest challenges for the sheep husbandry. Research within this area is very important today and it is important to figure out new methods to identify individuals with high burden of parasites and to treat just these individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of GIP on activity patterns and weight gain in first season grazing lambs. A sub-study accompanied with the aim was to see if the manually made behavioural observations supported data from the sensors. The study took place at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) during the summer of 2019. The study was divided into two experimental periods. In the first experimental period 30 ewes and their 60 twins were used. Of those, 58 lambs continued to the second experimental period. Two groups were dewormed with ivermectin (high group) and two groups were untreated (low group). All lambs were fitted with sensors, and the data was downloaded once a week, at the same time with the weighting of animals. Individual faecal samples were collected four times. The pasture where the lambs grazed was a first-year pasture. Sward height was measured, and herbage samples were collected three times during the experiment. Herbage samples were analysed for nutritional and mineral content. The manual behavioural observations were made two days a week during five weeks. The high group had higher weight (28.9 kg) in the beginning of the experiment, compared with the low group (28.1 kg). On the contrary, the high group had lower weight (42.7 kg), compared with the low group (44.8 kg) at the end of the experiment. According to data from the sensors there were differences in lying time and motion index (MI) during the 7-10 first days after weaning. The low group laid down more, compared with the high group. The low group had higher MI compared with the high group. During the whole experiment there were no differences in lying time, lying bouts or MI. The manual behavioural observations showed that “standing still” had significantly more registrations for the high group compared to the low group. It is possible to see differences in behaviour with sensors at an early stage of parasitic infection, even with low levels of parasites. This means, that there is a potential to use automatic behaviour observations as a diagnostics tool during infection of GIP.
  • von Konow, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The feeding behavior of beef cattle is complex and varies depending on different factors such as the nutritive value of the feed, the individual and the environment. By optimizing and improving the feed efficiency, the economics of the production increases. Knowledge of feed intake and feeding behavior can be used to optimize the production and the health and well-being of the animals. The aim of this study was to determine how the cut of grass silage affects the feeding behaviour of bulls and thereby how to optimize the use of silage for animal growth. Simmental bulls got three different silage cuts. The first cut was taken on 25th June (ES1), the second cut on 11th August (ES2) and the third cut on 3rd October (ES3). The feeding was given as total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. Each TMR group had 15 bulls (TES1, TES2, TES3). Each TMR group had a diet based on grass silage (550 g/kg DM), the only difference being if the silage was of the first, second or third cut. That way the nutritive value differed among the TMR. Individual information about duration, when, and how much the bulls ate was recorded by the Growsafesystem. The average for the bulls in the feeding groups was calculated based on the individual data. This Master´s thesis researched feed intake, feeding frequency, time for head down, time for feed intake and feed intake rate during one month when the body weight of the bulls was on average 546 kg in the beginning and 607 kg at the end of the study. The dry matter for the three cuts was 201 g/kg for ES1, 298 g/kg for ES2 and 354 g/kg for ES3. D-value was 719, 685 and 739 g/kg DM, respectively. The bulls that ate ES3 had higher dry matter intake (12,1 kg DM/d) and eating rate (94,9 g DM/min) than the two other groups. The bulls that ate ES1 and ES2 had the same feed utilization, which was better than the feed utuilization of the bulls that were given ES3. Feeding frequency was about 15 times per day for all groups. The second cut had the lowest digestibility and the bulls eating the second cut had the longest feed intake time. The bulls that ate the third cut had the highest dry matter intake, but the lowest feed utilization. The study indicates that the D-value of the grass silage used in TMR has a clear impact on dry matter intake of the TMR and eating time and eating rate of the animal.
  • Pellinen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Harvesting pure red clover as silage gives new possibilities to optimize forage feeding of cattle for different animal groups and compromises between plants during cultivating, harvesting, wilting or ensiling are not needed as with mixed swards. This pilot scale preservation study was made as part of Opti-Palko project and the aim was to resolve best practices to ensile pure red clover. Si-lages was made from second harvest pure stands of Selma red-clover and Nuutti timothy and 50% / 50% mixture of those. The crops were ensiled immediately after harvesting and after wilting in dryer. There were five additive treatments comprising of three different acid-based products (formic acid based AIV 2 Plus Na (AIV2), AIV Via (VIA) which includes high proportion of propionic acid, un-corrosive acid mixture buffered with sodium formate (AIVB)) and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria inoculant Josilac Combi (LAB) and control (KON). Control silages were untreated. Silages were ensilaged in vacuum bags which were opened after a storage period of 12 weeks. After opening chemical composition, microbial quality and aerobic stability were analyzed. The effect of preservatives, dry matter content (DM) (low DM: 114-135 g / kg, high DM ka: 252-305 g / kg) and the proportion of red clover (100-50-0 %) on silage quality and aerobic stability was studied. Sta-tistically significant results between treatments were observed. Wilting increased the quality of silages and well-fermented pure red clover silages were achieved when acid-based additives were used. For example, the concentration of volatile fatty acids was significantly lower than in KON and LAB treatments. In low DM KON and LAB silages very high in acetic acid which didn’t improve aerobic stability in this study but resulted in aerobic unstable silages after around 60 hours. With acid-based additive treated red clover silages, the ratio of ammonia N to total N increased with increasing DM content, which was opposite when compared to other plant materials. This might be due to polyphenoloxidase enzyme (PPO) in red clover, which inhibits the degradation of pro-tein. This study resulted that using silage preservatives is necessary in low DM silages. pH and the content of acetic acid increased with portion of red clover, but lactic acid, propionic acid and etha-nol decreased statistically significantly. AIVB treated silages resulted with same level of quality than other acid-based additive treaded red clover silages, even it was highly buffered to be non-corrosive. The results of this study are useful when choosing preservatives for red clover and gives a new perspective for harvesting silage from pure stands.
  • Salakka, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of the experiment was to study how different additives effect on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of maize silage. Three additives and two maturity stages were used in the labo-ratory scale experiment. Maize silage preserved with different additives was compared to control with no additives. The maize (Pioneer, P7326) used in the study was cultivated at the research farm of the Univer-sity of Helsinki in Viikki on growing season 2018. First silages were made on 21st of August 2018 and after 50 days the second silages were made on 10th of October 2018 92 and 142 days after sowing. The treatments were 1) control 2) formic acid 3) mixture of formic acid, sodium formate, propionic acid and sorbic acid 4) mixture of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Chemical com-positon and buffering capacity of the pre-ensiling maize were determined. Fermentation quality of the silages was also determined. In addition aerobic stability of silages was determined by monitoring the temperature change of silages for 12 days with data loggers. Composition of the maize varied by the maturity stage. Dry matter content in the first maturity stage was 211 g/kg and in the second it was 327 g/kg. Content of water soluble carbohydrates (su-gars) was higher in the first maturity stage. Starch content increased in the second maturity stage considerably. Feed preservation succeeded mainly well and pH of silages in both maturity stages were below four. Sugar content of silages treated with formic acid and mixture of acids was very high in the first maturity stage. Lactic acid content of the control and Na-benzoate and K-sorbate silages was higher than other treatments. Na-benzoate and K-sorbate silage in late maturity stage had noticeably higher acetic acid content. In the silages, there were mainly low content of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and butyric acid was not observed. The silages contained lactic acid as well as acetic acid and only low amount of propionic acid. Silages were aerobically stable except silages of two formic acid silos in the first maturity stage and control silos in the second maturity stage. Temperature started to rise in formic acid silages after 10 days and in control silages after five days from exposure to air. Other silages were aerobically stable during the testing period. The maturity stage affected maize composition and thus ensiling characteristics. Composition differences of maize in different maturity stages cause different challenges in terms of preservation. Different preservation treatments affected the intensity of lactic acid fermentation and silage sugar content and the differences were higher in the first maturity stage. Intensity differences of fermenta-tion and differences in acetic acid content may affect aerobic stability. The use of additives tended to improve aerobic stability of the silages at the late stage of maturity.
  • Lipping, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Kaivannaisfosfori on merkittävin fosfaattilannoitteiden lähde maailman maataloudessa. Fosforia on kuitenkin rajallinen määrä maapallolla ja kaivannaisfosforin varannot uhkaavat ehtyä 50-500 vuoden aikana. Maailman maatalous joutuu sopeutumaan tulevaisuudessa kaivannaisfosforin vähenemiseen, jolloin fosforin talteen saaminen erilaisin kierrätysmenetelmin tulee olemaan merkittävä kiertotalouden osa. Kierrätyslannoitteiden mahdollisuuksia on yleisesti tutkittu viime aikoina paljon, mutta niiden vaikutusta kauran fosforin ottoon on tutkittu melko vähän. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkastelun kohteena oli kauran (Avena sativa. L Obelix) fosforin otto vuosina 2017 ja 2018 Uudellamaalla sijaitsevalla koelohkolla. Tutkittavina kierrätyslannoitteina olivat lihaluujauho, matokomposti, mädätejäännös ja ammoniumsulfaatti. Kontrollina tutkimuksessa olivat väkilannoiteruutu sekä lannoittamaton ruutu. Koepellon lannoitushistoria oli suomalaisittain tyypillinen ja pellon fosforitaso oli tutkimuksen alkuvaiheessa luokiteltu hyväksi tai korkeaksi. Vuoden 2017 kasvukausi oli pitkäaikaiseen keskiarvoon (1981-2010) nähden kylmä ja sateinen, kun taas vuosi 2018 oli erityisen lämmin ja kuiva. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella näillä kierrätyslannoitteilla ei ollut merkitsevää eroa kauran fosforin ottoon kumpanakaan vuonna verrattuna väkilannoitteeseen tai lannoittamattomaan käsittelyyn. Merkitsevä ero näkyi kuitenkin vuoden 2017 fosforin otossa lihaluujauhon ja mädätejäännöksen välillä (p=0,0159 vertailussa lannoittamattoman käsittelyn ja p=0,0206 vertailussa väkilannoitekäsittelyn kanssa). Maaperän fosforitaseissa ei havaittu merkitseviä eroja käsittelyiden välillä. Kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyiden välillä havaittiin merkitsevä ero niiden vaikutuksessa maaperän pH-arvoon (p=0,045 vertailussa lannoittamattoman ruudun ja p=0,036 vertailussa väkilannoitekäsittelyn kanssa) vuonna 2018. Tukeyn HSD-testissä ei kuitenkaan tapahtunut jakaantumista eri alajoukkoihin. Koepellon ennestään hyvä ravinnetilanne on voinut vaikuttaa kokeessa tasaamalla eroja eri käsittelyiden välillä.
  • Pietikäinen, Laura; Pietikäinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Fragaria x ananassa is a widely appreciated berry with its production growing all around the world. Thus, there will be a huge demand for strawberry breeding in the future especially since the climate change is casting an extra shadow upon the growing conditions which is also why there is a need for better understanding of different cultivar types. There are everbearing and seasonally flowering cultivars of both Fragaria x ananassa and Fragaria vesca. The seasonally flowering types such as ʻHapilʼ flower once during the growing season whereas everbearing types such as ʻCalypsoʼ flower for a longer period. The gene behind the change in the flowering habit has been tracked to the photoperiodic pathway of F. vesca although the gene behind the trait in F x ananassa remains unknown. The aim of this project was to compare flowering and vegetative responses of in vitro propagated everbearing F x ananassa cultivar ʻCalypsoʼ and seasonally flowering ʻHapilʼ in long and short day photoperiodic conditions in order to find out differences between everbearing and seasonally flowering cultivars. This was done by collecting data from phenotype observations linked to the vegetative and generative stages of the development of strawberries. The phenotype data was then combined with gene expression data of FaSOC1, FaTFL1, FaGA20ox4 and FaAP1 which are genes known to work on the photoperiodic pathway that regulates the switch between the vegetative and generative development of both F x ananassa and F. vesca. In addition, the expression of an everbearing phenotype associated gene FaFT2 was analysed. This study was a part of a larger project aimed to find out the genetic basis for the everbearing habit of F x ananassa. Part of the ʻCalypsoʼ plants were induced to flower already during the acclimatization period and the rest at the very beginning of the treatment period which then caused differential flowering times between the ʻCalypsoʼ groups. Short day grown ʻHapilʼ was induced to flower between weeks three and six whereas long day grown ʻHapilsʼ remained vegetative. Phenotypic observations were also backed up by the expression of FaTFL1 and FaAP1. Instead the FaSOC1 expression was repressed in short day conditions more than in the long days regardless of the cultivar type. ‘Calypsos’ were capable of producing runners regardless of photoperiod or flower induction. Consequently the runner production seemed to be regulated by factors outside of the photoperiodic pathway. However, the expression of runnering associated FaGA20ox4 was low and variable due to the sampling strategy. Interestingly most of the axillary meristems of short day grown ‘Hapils’ remained dormant for an unknown reason. Expression of FaFT2 was low on the apical meristems and further support for the role of the gene in everbearing phenotype was not found.
  • Ghimire, Sadikshya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Fusarium proliferatum has recently become a major threat to onion, which is an important food crop for food security and has a significant role in the agricultural sector. This fungus is found causing rots and producing mycotoxin fumonisin that, if ingested, can cause carcinogenic effects in humans and fatal diseases in animals. F. proliferatum has been identified as a pathogen causing rots and wilts in many plants in several countries, and recently some isolates of this pathogen were also found in Finland causing basal rot in onion. Though F. proliferatum has wide adaptability and pathogenicity, there are research gaps on this newly emerging pathogen, which is mostly limited to some specific hosts such as maize. There is a lack of knowledge of its infection mechanisms and mycotoxin production dynamics in onion. This experimental work was conducted at the University of Helsinki, Finland, to study the nature of pathogenicity and toxin gene expression of F. proliferatum in laboratory conditions as a function of time. Spore suspensions of three isolates of F. proliferatum, Fpr047, Fpr049, and Fpr919, were prepared and used as inoculums that were injected into healthy organically grown onions, which were then stored in dark for five weeks. Control bulbs were inoculated with sterile water. Pathogen virulence, based on symptom development, and fungal colonization in the onion tissues were determined at five different time points and the toxin gene expression was determined at three time points. Colonization levels were determined by real-time PCR using primers binding to the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of F. proliferatum. A part of the IGS region of the three isolates was sequenced to study the diversity between the isolates. All the tested isolates were found to be virulent, and they colonized the onions after one week from inoculation. However, the isolate Fpr919 appeared different from the other two in terms of symptom severity. It was more aggressive than the other two, causing disease symptoms earlier and causing more severe rot symptoms in the infected bulbs. It also had nucleotide sequence variations in the IGS region in comparison with the other two isolates, suggesting genetic diversity. No significant differences were observed between the isolates in the fungal colonization levels. Expression of FUM1 gene and a putative virulence gene SIX2-1 was detected by RT-RT-PCR in most of the infected tissue samples. The results obtained signify that F. proliferatum is a pathogen with the potential of producing fumonisin toxin in onion, suggesting the need for further molecular study on this fungus to control the disease and prevent mycotoxin contamination in plant products.
  • Salovaara, Anna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Jääsalaattia (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) tuotetaan ympärivuotisesti kasvihuoneessa ja se on kuluttajien keskuudessa suosittu lehtivihannes. Jääsalaatti kerää monien muiden lehtivihannesten tapaan nitraattia ja sen nitraattipitoisuudet voivat nousta melko suuriksikin. Jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen vaikuttavat useat eri tekijät, kuten laji, lajike, lannoitustaso ja valon intensiteetti. Tehokkailla nitraattipitoisuuden hallintakeinoilla voidaan parantaa tuottajan mahdollisuuksia vaikuttaa sadon laatuun. Valtaosa ravinnon mukana saatavasta nitraatista on peräisin lehtivihanneksista. Euroopan unioni on asettanut katteen alla kasvatetun salaatin nitraattipitoisuudelle talvi- ja kesäkauden raja-arvot. Nitraatti on ihmisen terveydelle haitallinen yhdiste, sillä osa siitä muuttuu elimistössä nitriitiksi, mikä kasvattaa etenkin pienten lasten methemoglobinemian riskiä. Glysiinibetaiini on osmolyytti ja solun metabolian kanssa yhteensopiva yhdiste. Monet viljelykasvit syntetisoivat glysiinibetaiinia vasteena abioottisille stresseille ja se parantaa kasvien stressinkestävyyttä myös eksogeenisesti annettuna. Glysiinibetaiinia saadaan ravinnon mukana esimerkiksi viljatuotteissa ja se on ihmisille turvallinen yhdiste, jota voidaan käyttää myös ravintolisänä. Glysiinibetaiinia eristetään muun muassa sokerijuurikkaan melassista ja sitä voidaan käyttää orgaanisena lannoitteena tai kasvunedistäjänä kasvintuotannossa. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää glysiinibetaiinin käyttömahdollisuuksia jääsalaatin tuotannon edistäjänä. Kasvihuonekokeessa seitsemän vuorokautta kestänyt glysiinibetaiinikäsittely aloitettiin jääsalaattien ollessa 29 vuorokauden ikäisiä. Glysiinibetaiinikäsittelyjen pitoisuudet olivat 0, 1, 7,5 ja 15 mM. Jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuus, glysiinibetaiinipitoisuus sekä tuore- ja kuivamassa määritettiin 24, 29, 36, 41 ja 49 vuorokauden ikäisistä kasveista. Tutkimus toteutettiin kiertovesiviljelyjärjestelmässä ja glysiinibetaiinikäsittely annettiin ravinneliuoksessa. Jääsalaatit ottivat eksogeenisesti annettua glysiinibetaiinia. Glysiinibetaiinikäsittely pienensi jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuutta seitsemän vuorokauden käsittelyn jälkeen merkitsevästi kontrolliin verrattuna ja alenema oli suoraan verrannollinen käsittelyn pitoisuuteen. Lisäksi glysiinibetaiinikäsittely pienensi jääsalaatin tuorepainoa ja suurensi kuiva-ainepitoisuutta. Määrityksissä myös jääsalaatin glysiinibetaiinipitoisuuden havaittiin olevan suoraan verrannollinen käsittelyn pitoisuuteen.