Browsing by Subject "Magistgerprogrammet i logopedi"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 46
  • Holappa, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective. Speech sound errors are the most common speech disorders in children that, without proper treatment, can have far-reaching effects on an individual’s quality of life. Due to limited speech therapy resources, speech sound disorders are often left without adequate treatment. In Finland, efforts have been made to reduce the geographical inequality in the availability of rehabilitation services through various time-independent teletherapy solutions. For example, the mission of Äännekoulu is to help Finnish municipalities prioritize their limited resources and enable every child to have access to speech therapy services, regardless of their place of residence. There are only few studies focusing on the use of teletherapy practicies in the treatment of speech sound disorders in Finnish-speaking children. The aim of this study was to examine whether Äännekoulu’s online therapy is an effective way to rehabilitate children's /r/-errors and to describe possible factors influencing rehabilitation results. Methods. The data used in the study consisted of demographic information and speech therapist’s notes and records on children under 10 years of age (n = 109) who participated in a three-month training period at Äännekoulu’s online therapy aiming to rehabilitate existing /r/-errors in their speech during March 2019 - April 2020. The notes and records were collected from the patient database Diarium. Participation in the study was voluntary. The collected data were categorized and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test. Results and conclusions. More than half of the children learned to produce alveolar trill /r/ at least in isolation during a training period at Äännekoulu’s online therapy. On average children learned to produce the tongue trill on the sixth contact with the speech therapist. Most of the children learned to produce tongue trill through the dn dn dn -exercise. There was no significant difference between sexes in learning to produce the alveolar trill. The quality and the type of the speech sound error, age, sex or the children’s skill level in the beginning of the training period did not affect the rehabilitation of /r/-error. The number of contacts with the speech therapist strongly correlated with the results achieved in teletherapy. Äännekoulu’s online therapy seems to be an effective way to treat children’s /r/-errors. Learning to produce the alveolar trill correctly is significantly affected by active collaboration with the speech therapist. Further research is needed to identify the factors influencing the rehabilitation of the /r/-errors. Future research should also concentrate on the at home practice needed to treat speech sound errors in teletherapy.
  • Harmaja, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Assessing children’s early communication skills is important for preventing possible later language difficulties. The Finnish version of Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales, Developmental Profile (FinCSBS) is a screening tool in which parents assess their 6-24 months old child’s development in social communication, understanding and speech. Earlier studies have found connections between early communication skills and later language development. However, these language tests have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the usability of FinCSBS for assessing 2-year-old children and the possible associations of their early communication skills with receptive and expressive language, naming and the use of inflectional forms at 3,5 years of age. This study sample is part of the validation study of the short form version of the MacArthur Communication Inventories Finnish version (Sanaseula study). Participants (N=50) were typically developed children from monolingual Finnish families. Parents filled out the FinCSBS checklist when their children were 2 years old. The same children were assessed again at 3,5 years of age with different tests (Reynell Developmental Language Scales III, Boston Naming Test and Finnish Morfological Test). Associations between early communications skills and later language skills were studied by using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and logistical regression analysis. The stability of skills was examined by comparing whether there were differencies in later language skills between those who had succeeded poorly, typically or well earlier in FinCSBS. There were no correlations between the total scores of FinCSBS at 2 years of age and language skills year and a half later. However, this study shows a trend that the level of competence is a rather stable quality so that weak early communications skills will manifest later on as weak language skills. In this study, early understanding did correlate with a later ability to use inflectional forms. It is recommended to use FinCSBS with typically developing children earlier than at 2 years of age when the prelinguistic period is ending and most children will get high scores in the assessment.
  • Toivanen, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to describe, in a single and consecutive way, self-repairs of bilingual children in a play situation and to investigate their possible differences between groups. The aim was to increase information on how and what kind of corrections children at different levels of language do, and how the level of language management affects the quality of self-corrections in Finnish. The research questions were what kind of corrections children make, how they start self-repairing and where the repairs are directed. It was also examined whether the groups differed and, if so, how. Methods. A total of 30 were supported, of whom 15 were monolingual and 15 consecutive bilingual children. The L2 language of all children was Finnish and the linguistic development of all the researchers was typical. The study methods were observation and analysis of literates. The data was analyzed both qualitatively and statistically. Elan annotation programme and SPSS statistics programme were used to analyze the data. Results and reflection. Monolingual children produced more self-repairs than bilingual children. Compared to the total number, the share of self-corrections for bilingual children was slightly higher than that of monolingual children. Both monolingual and bilingual children did the most self-repairs by searching for the next word. In the group of monolingual children, the biggest remedy was speech interruptions, while for bilinguals the largest group were different sounds. Self-repairs by both groups most often targeted the sledge hams. The results are partly in line with previous research data. However, previous studies have found that novice bilingual children prefer repetition in their self-repairs. In this study, on the other hand, monolingual children took more initiatives by repeating bilingual control.
  • Firon, Csilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella uudenlaisen afasian kuntoutukseen suunnatun kuorolauluintervention subjektiivisesti koettua hyötyä. Interventio oli osa Helsingin yliopiston Kognitiivisen aivotutkimuksen yksikön Laulun sanoin -hanketta ja se koostui kuorolaulusta, ryhmämuotoisesta MIT (melodinen intonaatioterapia) -kuntoutuksesta sekä laulun harjoittelusta tablettitietokoneella. Interventioon osallistui afasiaa sairastavia henkilöitä sekä heidän läheisiään. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on havaittu, että musiikilla ja laululla voi olla kuntoutuksellisia vaikutuksia muun muassa kielellisiin toimintoihin. Afasian kuntoutuksessa on eniten tutkittu MIT-menetelmää, mutta myös uusia musiikkia sisältäviä kuntoutusmuotoja kehitetään aktiivisesti. Subjektiivisesti koettua kuntoutuksesta saatua hyötyä ei ole afasian osalta erityisesti tutkittu, vaikka oman kokemuksen tiedetään vaikuttavan kuntoutuk- sen lopputulokseen. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, minkälainen subjektiivinen arvio afaattisilla henkilöillä ja heidän läheisillään oli interventiosta. Lisäksi tarkastellaan, oliko afasian vaikeusasteella, harjoittelumäärällä tai demografisilla tai kliinisillä taustatiedoilla yhteyttä koettuun hyötyyn sekä erosivatko afaattisten henkilöiden ja läheisten kokemukset toisistaan. Menetelmät. Aineiston muodosti osallistujien intervention jälkeen täyttämät kyselylomakkeet subjektiivisista kokemuksista, interventiojakson aikana toteutuneet harjoittelumäärät sekä osallistujien demografiset ja kliiniset taustatiedot. Kyselylomakkeeseen vastasi 23 afaattista henkilöä sekä 11 läheistä. Aineistoa analysoitiin tilastollisesti Friedmanin testillä, Mann–Whitney U-testillä, Spearmanin järjestyskorrelaatioanalyysilla, Wilcoxonin merkittyjen sijalukujen testillä sekä yhden otoksen t-testillä. Avointen kysymysten vastauksia analysoitiin tyypittelemällä vastauksia teemoittain ja laskemalla esiintymisfrekvenssejä. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Afaattiset henkilöt kokivat intervention hyödylliseksi ja myös läheiset kokivat, että interventio oli afaattisille henkilöille hyödyllinen. Afaattisten henkilöiden ja läheisten kokemukset intervention hyödyllisyydestä eivät eronneet toisistaan, eikä harjoittelumäärän, kliinisten tai musiikillisten taustatietojen ja koetun hyödyn välillä havaittu tilastollisesti merkitsevää yhteyttä. Erityisesti mielialan kohoaminen, uusiin ihmisiin tutustuminen ja vertaistuen saaminen nousivat esiin kvalitatiivisissa vastauksissa. Näiden tulosten perusteella voidaan ehdottaa, että ryhmämuotoinen kuoro- laulukuntoutus, jossa on MIT:n elementtejä, vaikuttaa positiivisesti afaattisten henkilöiden mielialaan, sekä heidän itse arvioimana että läheisten arvioimana. Interventiosta voi jatkotutkimuksen avulla ke-hittää afasian ryhmämuotoisen laulukuntoutusmuodon.
  • Jussila, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder that occurs after language acquisition and is most commonly caused by stroke. Research on novel word acquisition can contribute to the development of aphasia rehabilitation because it helps understand the relearning of words lost due to aphasia. Novel word acquisition has been researched mainly in chronic aphasia, in which learning is possible but shows large individual variation. There is initial evidence that novel word learning is also possible in non-chronic aphasia. Aims. The objective of this thesis is to study recovery and novel word learning in the subacute and chronic stages of aphasia. The thesis will also look into possible connections between learning in subacute aphasia and learning in chronic aphasia. These connections have not been previously explored. Methods. The multiple case study included four aphasic participants who were examined 0–3 months after stroke and again 12 months after stroke. The examination consisted of cognitive-linguistic background tests, questionnaires and a computer-based novel word learning task. In the latter, the participant was tasked with learning the associations between given pseudo-words and images through feedback and repetition. Research data was analyzed case by case. Results and conclusions. Recovery and novel word learning in subacute and chronic aphasia varied among the participants. In both stages, some participants learned new vocabulary and were able to transfer it into their long-term memory. The changes in novel word learning from subacute to chronic aphasia also varied among the subjects. These changes were not systematically connected with the severity of the participants’ aphasia, their baseline learning ability or an alleviation of cognitive-linguistic symptoms. Learning ability in subacute aphasia does therefore not always appear to predict learning ability in chronic aphasia, but novel word learning is possible in both subacute and chronic aphasia. Aphasia recovery shows considerable individual variation.
  • Lahti, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological developmental disorder that involves challenges in social interaction and restricted/repetitive behaviors. Since generalization and maintenance of acquired skills is essential in the rehabilitation of ASD, it is important to integrate interventions into the home environment by parental guidance. There has been some research on the rehabilitation of children with ASD in Finland, but no research has been conducted on the guidance of parents from the perspective of speech therapist. The purpose of this study is to find out the views of parental guidance from speech therapists who rehabilitate children with ASD. Interviews with speech therapists will clarify the ways in which parents of children with ASD are guided through speech therapy and the challenges and contributing factors in parental guidance. Methods.The research method was a semi-structured interview. Five speech pathologists with experience in the rehabilitation of ASD were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analyzed by content analysis. Results and conclusion. Parental guidance of children with ASD was divided into information sharing, interaction & discussion and direct guidance. The challenges were parental strain, parent attitude and in some cases multiculturalism. Contributing factors appeared in training practices and home conditions. Challenges and benefits were influenced by the individuality of families. Speech therapists hoped for more opportunities to arrange separate parental guidance sessions so that they would be able to discuss deeper about the methods and family situation without the child’s presence. Speech therapists considered parental guidance important in the rehabilitation of children with ASD because, with the guidance of parents it helped to increase skills in everyday life and guaranteed training intensity. As parental strain was identified as a challenge in this study, it would be important to explore how they could be more effectively supported during rehabilitation. In addition, it could be explored whether separate parental guidance sessions should be increased or whether the number of parental guidance sessions has been adapted through the development of new working practices.
  • Karhu, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Prematurely born (<37 gestational weeks) children are at increased risk for difficulties in language development and literacy skills, including pre-reading skills, reading and writing. Previous studies investigating full-term populations suggest that language skills are strongly correlated with reading acquisition. This connection is not widely studied in preterm sample and the findings of previous investigations have incongruity. The aim of this study is to examine the language development and literacy skills of children born extremely preterm (ELGA, born <28 gestational weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight <1000 grams) at seven years of age. This thesis also investigates the possible association between language abilities and literacy skills in the sample of preterm children and a full-term born comparison group (born >37 gestational weeks). This study is part of the multidisciplinary cohort study of prematurely born children called PIPARI (the Development and Functioning of Very Low Birth Weight Infants from Infancy to School Age). Methods. The sample of this Master´s thesis includes 63 ELGA/ELBW children and 107 full-term born children who participated in the PIPARI study and were living in monolingual Finnish-speaking families. The language skills were assessed using the Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire (subdomains Comprehension, Expressive language skills, Verbal Communication) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Pre-reading and reading skills were measured with the Jyväskylä First Steps study test material (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, rapid automized naming, single word reading, single word writing) and with the Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire (subdomains Reading and writing, General learning). Results and conclusion. The language and literacy skills at seven years of age were statistically significantly weaker in children born ELGA/ELBW when compared to the full-term controls. The Five to Fifteen questionnaire subdomain Verbal communication was the only skill that did not differ significantly between the groups. There was a clear and significant association between language and literacy skills with both preterm and full-term groups. In the preterm group the connection between language and literacy skills were stronger and appeared wider among the different language components. The results of this study support the previous findings that preterm children have an elevated risk for difficulties in language and literacy skills. In addition, this study provides further evidence for the associations between language abilities and literacy skills in school age in children born ELGA/ELBW. It is important that preterm children get the appropriate developmental follow-ups and support still at school age.
  • Kriikkula, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. There is an increasing number of multilingual children in the workloads of Finnish speech language pathologists. Yet there is little research on the typical and untypical language development of multilingual children. PAULA small group intervention has been developed to support the language development of multilingual children in a daycare setting. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the small group language intervention affects the Finnish language development of multilingual children and how background factors, such as the exposure to the Finnish language, affect the development of the study and control groups. Method. Subjects included 60 typically developing multilingual children, 34 in the study group and 26 in the control group. Subjects were 4 years old at the beginning of the study and the assessment was repeated 3 times within a year. Finnish language was measured with a vocabulary score calculated from Fonologiatesti (Kunnari, Savinainen-Makkonen & Saaristo-Helin 2012) and with a form filled out by the daycare staff. The data was analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 26. The difference between the study and control groups was analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA, Friedman test, and Mann–Whitney U test. The effect of background factors on the vocabulary scores was analyzed with linear regression, and the effect of background factors on the assessment by the daycare staff was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation coefficient and Kruskal–Wallis test. In addition, the background factors affecting the vocabulary score at the start of the study were analyzed with linear regression. Results and conclusion. The vocabulary scores of the intervention group improved more during the intervention compared to the control group, but the effect wasn’t observed in the follow-up measurement. PAULA small group intervention can support the lexical development of multilingual children, but more research is needed to confirm the findings. Being in the study group was positively associated with the change in vocabulary scores while the months spent in a Finnish language daycare were negatively associated. The months spent in daycare and the exposure to Finnish were positively associated with the vocabulary score at the beginning of the study. The children who at the beginning of the study had spent longer in daycare and had more exposure to Finnish are likely to have bigger vocabularies at the start and therefore improve less during the intervention. The children who had the least exposure to Finnish improved the most during the intervention. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the daycare assessments. In the study group exposure to Finnish was positively associated with the change in the daycare assessments. In the control group, no background factors had a significant connection to the daycare assessments.
  • Airaksinen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In recent years the number of people from foreign backgrounds in Finland has increased considerably. Consequently, more and more children who are learning Finnish as their second language are met in Finnish day-care centers and schools. In order to attain adequate language proficiency before school-age, early support for sequential multilingual children’s L2 acquisition has been considered important. There have been some promising results from research concerning small-group interventions that have aimed to promote the L2 acquisition of children below school age. Nevertheless, further research is needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a small-group intervention on the expressive vocabulary development of children learning Finnish as their second language. Both single word naming skills and lexical diversity were examined. Lexical diversity was examined separately for the whole lexicon and for verbs. This study used the data from the PAULA research project. The sample of this study consisted of 32 sequential multilingual 4-year-old children. Half of the children (n=16) belonged to a study group and the other half (n=16) to a control group. The children’s Finnish language skills were assessed three times within a year (at pre- and post-intervention and at follow-up). Between the pre- and post-intervention assessments the study group participated in a small-group intervention (PAULA-intervention) for six months. The control group attended Finnish daycare but did not receive the intervention. The follow-up assessment was performed four months post-intervention. The ability to name single words was assessed in a picture naming task and in two short play situations with an examiner. Lexical diversity was examined by calculating the number of different words and Guiraud’s indexes in spontaneous speech data consisting of a play situation and a story-telling task. The differences between the study and control groups’ vocabulary development were analyzed by using repeated-measures variance analysis. The results showed that the children’s ability to name single words and their lexical diversity in spontaneous speech increased in both groups during the follow-up period. However, a statistically significant difference between groups appeared only for single word naming; vocabulary growth was faster in the study group between pre- and post-intervention assessments. Together with earlier studies from the PAULA research project, this study gives preliminary evidence about the efficacy of the PAULA-intervention. Although the inter-group differences have been relatively small, the results encourage continued implementation of the PAULA-intervention or other small-group interventions in day-care centers to enhance sequential multilingual children’s second language acquisition.
  • Holopainen, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aphasia is a linguistic-cognitive disorder that impedes the understanding and production of speech and is often accompanied by disorders in non-linguistic cognitive functioning, such as working memory (WM). WM has a key role in supporting on-going linguistic processing. Earlier research shows that the impairments caused by aphasia can be alleviated with speech therapy but it is still unclear which amount of therapy is most effective, at which stage of the illness and with which intensity. Some research suggests that greater amount of therapy within a shorter time span yields greater outcome. However, research findings on the matter are difficult to synthesize as the definition of ‘intensity’ varies across studies. Language Enrichment Therapy (LET) is a systemic and developmental therapy programme for aphasia rehabilitation. LET aims to restore linguistic-cognitive functioning. LET also enables rehabilitation of working memory with “brain-jogging”. As there is hardly any prior research on the LET system, the aim of this thesis is to investigate its effectiveness as an intensive aphasia therapy programme and the role of working memory in rehabilitation and, further, to identify possible background factors predicting rehabilitation outcome. The data for this thesis was collected for a research project between 1987 and 2010. The data consists of 24 persons with aphasia (PWA) who suffered a first-time stroke and whose time post-onset at baseline was 2 to 8 months. Linguistic functioning was assessed six times within the research frame with Tsvetkova’s Speech Dynamics Test, Western Aphasia Battery and the Token test. The data was analysed statistically using Friedman’s test to analyse the change in understanding and producing speech, linear regression to analyse possible factors predicting outcome and linear correlation to analyse the connection between working memory and rehabilitation outcome. The findings show that intensive rehabilitation with the LET system improves the understanding and production of speech with PWA. LET is the most effective in ameliorating speech understanding for those PWA with greater impairment and lesser time post-onset. No factors predicting the outcome of speech production were found which might be due to the developmental nature of the LET system in which rehabilitation of understanding always precedes that of production. WM had no predictive value for rehabilitation outcome. These findings must be interpreted with caution but can still be used for clinical decision making.
  • Paasila, Bettina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tavoitteet. Tämän pro-gradu tutkielman tarkoituksena oli luoda katsaus siihen, millaisia kuntoutusasetelmia- ja harjoitteita on käytetty sosiaalisen kognition kuntoutuksessa virtuaalitodellisuudessa ja voiko virtuaalitodellisuus tuoda lisäarvoa kuntoutukseen. Tavoitteena oli selvittää virtuaalitodellisuudessa tehtävien kuntoutusharjoitteiden vaikuttavuutta sosiaaliseen kognitioon henkilöillä, joilla on autismikirjon häiriö ja kuinka vaikuttavuutta on mitattu. Lisäksi pyrittiin selvittämään yleistyvätkö nämä tulokset interventioiden ulkopuolelle. Menetelmät. Tutkimus toteutettiin integroivana kirjallisuuskatsauksena, jonka aineisto on koostettu tieteellisistä artikkeleista. Artikkelit ovat valikoituneet hakulausekkeen perusteella. Hakulausekkeeni ovat: (virtual* OR augmented* OR mixed* vr OR hmd* OR headset OR “head mounted” OR head-mounted* OR helmet OR glasses OR goggles OR ve OR immersive OR im-mersion OR 3d OR head-worn OR “head worn”) AND (autism* OR autism spectrum disorder* OR high functioning au-tism* OR HFA* OR Asperger* OR pervasive disorder*) AND (intervention* OR rehab* OR rehabilitation* OR therap*) AND (“social gaze” OR “social cognition” OR communic* OR social* OR gaze*) Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Aineiston perusteella voidaan todeta, että virtuaalitodellisuudella voidaan menestyksekkäästi toteuttaa sosiaalisen kognition kuntoutusta henkilöillä, joilla on autismikirjon häiriö, tietyin reunaehdoin. Aineiston perusteella kuntoutuksessa saavutettiin paras vaikuttavuus, kun kuntoutusharjoitteena oli suora vuorovaikutusharjoitus, kun otoksena kuntoutettavia, joilla mitattu ÄO oli >70. Lisäksi nähtiin kuntoutuksen tulosten yleistymistä niissä tutkimuksissa, joissa kontrolli oli järjestetty. Virtuaalitodellisuudella voidaan tuoda lisäarvoa kuntoutukseen, sillä laitteet voidaan viedä kuntoutujan arkeen ja näin mahdollisesti taata kuntoutuksen systemaattisuus ja riittävä intensiteetti sekä säästää terapiaresursseja.
  • Pilli, Reea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. There is evidence on deficits in production and/or perception of word stress or its acoustic correlates in hearing impaired children. Previous research has shown that there might be beneficial effects of music and singing to perception of word stress or its acoustic correlates in hearing impaired children. Because good perception of word stress is linked to good language abilities, better perception of word stress may support language development in hearing-impaired children. Seemingly, there is no previous research on the development of production of word stress during music intervention in hearing impaired children. There is also a lack of studies comparing hearing impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing-impaired children with hearing aids (HA) in their development of production and perception of word stress. The aim of this study was to examine how music intervention and singing at home are linked to the production and perception of word stress or its acoustic correlates in hearing-impaired children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI) and/or hearing aids (HA). This pilot study is a part of MULAPAPU research project which aims to study the effects of music and singing to perception and production of language in children aged from 0 to 7 years. Methods. The participating children (n=16) with bilateral CIs and/or HAs were aged from 2 to 7 years. They were grouped based on their hearing devices (children with bilateral CI and children with bilateral HAs or unilateral CI and contralateral HA). Other groups were made based on their signing at home (singers and non-singers). Non-word repetition-task invented in MULAPAPU research project was used to test the production of word stress. The perception of word stress and its acoustic correlates (pitch, intensity, duration) were assessed with previously used non-word /tata/-task. The children were tested before music intervention (T1) and after music intervention (T2). Results and conclusions. Only children with CIs improved in their production of word stress during music intervention. Overall, age was linked to the production of word stress but not the perception of word stress. Closer analysis showed a significant link between age and the development of production of word stress in hearing impaired children with HAs. Higher age was also linked to better development of perception of duration in children with CIs, and poorer development of perception of word stress in children with HAs. There were no significant differences between singers and non-singers in development of the production or the perception of word stress. However, more singers than non-singers improved their performance during music intervention. It seems that singing, and music intervention could be a valuable asset on rehabilitation of hearing-impaired children.
  • Palola, Jemina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims of the study. Aphasia can be studied from the aspect of functional communication, in which case the focus is on how a person with aphasia is able to use language in their everyday environment. One way to study the functional communication of people with aphasia is to analyse discourse, as word-finding difficulties, which are common in aphasia, can affect discourse. Discourse can also be studied to determine whether the effects of an intervention are generalized to the level of functional communication. The aim of this thesis is to study the discourse of people with chronic aphasia, elicited using interview questions, in different phases of an intervention consisting of rTMS treatment (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and Intensive Language Action Therapy (ILAT). The discourse features which are analysed include lexical diversity (verbs and nouns) and informativeness (correct information units). The results of the discourse analysis are compared to the results of linguistic tests (Boston Naming Test for nouns and Action Naming Test for verbs). Methods. The data consisted of the discourse of three participants. The discourse was elicited using interview questions. All the participants had chronic fluent aphasia. They participated in the University of Helsinki research project “Treatment-Induced Speech and Language Improvement and Neuroplasticity after Stroke”, during which they received both rTMS treatment and ILAT therapy. They were examined four times during the intervention: at baseline, after rTMS treatment period, after combined rTMS and ILAT period, and at follow-up (3 months after the intervention). The discourse samples were analysed using discourse analysis. The chosen measurements were measures of lexical diversity, i. e. verbs and nouns, and measures of information units. The results were analysed visually. In addition, group effect sizes were calculated. Regression lines were used to compare the results of the discourse analysis to the results of linguistic tests. Results and discussion. No clear changes were detected in lexical diversity and informativeness of the discourse of people with chronic aphasia during rTMS and ILAT. Thus, the intervention did not have effect on functional communication at group level. However, there was much variation between the participants as well as between the results of different measures. The efficiency of informativeness increased for all the participants and it also had the largest group effect size. There was a stronger correlation between the use of nouns in discourse and the results of Boston Naming Test than between the use of verbs in discourse and the results of Action Naming Test
  • Vuokko, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. Interprofessional collaboration has become increasingly important in health and social care. Collaboration with professionals in other fields is also part of the work of many speech therapists and the method has been found to benefit the work in many ways. The number of studies on interprofessional collaboration is also increasing, although the perspective of speech therapists is rarely considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences speech and language therapists and their team members of other professions have on interprofessional collaboration. The participants were primary health care employees working in two municipalities of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The interviewees were also asked about their views on the benefits and challenges of cooperation. In addition, it was investigated what skills the study period provided for the interviewees’ interprofessional work, as well as what qualities close cooperation requires from the employee. Methods. The study was conducted in February and March 2020 in two separate group interviews involving a total of six speech therapists, three psychologists, three occupational therapists and one nurse. The interviews were videotaped and transcribed into text files. The data was analysed by means of inductive content analysis, and the results were reviewed in the light of previous research and literature. Results and conclusions. The work of the speech therapists interviewed involved a variety of multidisciplinary practices, and the speech therapists collaborated with professionals in many other fields. The closest co-operation was in the employees' own offices, where professionals from different fields, among other things, consulted each other and met customers together. Interprofessional collaboration was thought to benefit the work in many ways, while the disadvantages were perceived to be minor. Interviewees felt that little attention was paid to interprofessional cooperation during their studies. Many felt that it would have been useful to get to know the job descriptions of future partners in particular during their studies. Based on the results of this study, speech therapists in primary health care seem to appreciate the opportunity for interprofessional collaboration. Cooperation seems to benefit their work as well as reduce work-related stress. For example, challenges in schedules, information flow, and workplace space solutions seem to make it difficult for workers to collaborate. Studies in speech therapy appear to provide rather limited skills for multidisciplinary work on the basis of this study. As cooperation with workers in other fields is usually part of the job description of speech therapists, the inclusion of multidisciplinarity more closely as part of speech therapy studies would be justified.
  • Huovinen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. In previous studies a link between nonword repetition skills and children’s language skills such as phonological knowledge and reading skills. Musical activity has been found to improve children’s cognitive development and language skills. Nonword repetition and nonword span have been widely used as a measure of phonological skills and working memory. The aim of the study was to find out whether there is a connection between singing at home and phonological skills or working memory in children with hearing impairment. The second aim of the study was to find out whether there is a correlation of performance in these two tasks and is there a decrease in parental singing as the child grows older. Methods. The study was conducted as a multiple case study. The participants were recruited from CIsumusa, a speech-music playschool for hearing-impaired children. The participants were nine Finnish-speaking hearing-impaired children aged 1–6 years who used either cochlear implants or hearing aids or both. The data was comprised of nonword repetition and nonword span tasks completed by the children. The parents of the participants filled some questionnaires about musical activity of the family which were also analyzed in the study. The children were divided into four groups for further paired analysis: 1) the children whose parents sing to them daily, 2) those whose parents sing to them less frequently than daily, 3) the children who sing daily, 4) the children who sing less frequently than daily. Nonparametric methods (such as Mann Whitney U-test) were used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusions. No statistically significant differences were found between singing groups. A statistically significant correlation was found between performances in nonword repetition and nonword span tasks. It was found that the children over 4 years and 3 months old repeated the nonwords significantly more correctly by the number of syllables than the younger participants. It was also found that the children whose parents sing to them daily were on average 13,45 months younger than the children whose parents sing to them less frequently, even though the age difference was not statistically significant. Due to small number of subjects the results may be considered indicative, but based on them and previous research, singing should be used in speech therapy rehabilitation and home training.
  • Rantsi, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. This Master’s Thesis is part of the MULAPAPU (Miten MUsiikki-interventio ja LAulu PArantavat kuulovammaisten lasten Puhekieltä) research project and focuses on the first year pilot data. The aim of this Masters Thesis is to find out whether a music intervention of 6 or 10 weeks has an effect on how hearing-impaired children aged 2 to 6 years perform in a nonword repetition test, in repeating the number of syllables and word stresses correct as well as on their performance in the vocabulary use test. In addition, the aim is to examine whether music intervention has similar effects both on the performance in the nonword repetition test and in the vocabulary test and whether there is a correlation between them. Methods. The sample consisted of the results of 9 children using cochlear implant and/or hearing aid in the nonword repetition test and the Bo Ege vocabulary test. Four of the children participated in the music intervention in the autumn 2019 and five in the spring 2020. The effects of the intervention were analyzed by calculating percentages and averages which were presented in figures. The performance of both groups before and after the intervention was analyzed with one-sample t-test. Possible differences between the spring and autumn group on the effectiveness of the intervention were examined with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to examine whether music intervention has similar effects both on the performance in the nonword repetition test and in the vocabulary use test and whether there is a correlation between them. Results and conclusions. The research results show that the use of vocabulary was improved by the music intervention but no evidence was found that music intervention would improve repeating syllables or word stresses correct. No statistically significant difference was found in the performance of the autumn and spring group. When examining whether the music intervention has similar effects both on the performance in the nonword repetition test and in the vocabulary use test and whether there is a correlation between them, no significant correlation was identified. Due to the small number of the research subjects, further research is needed to draw reliable conclusions.
  • Parkkinen, Kaisla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Past research has shown that hearing impaired adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing psychosocial difficulties than their hearing peers. The research into the factors related to the psychosocial well-being of hearing-impaired adolescents has not yet come to an unambiguous conclusion. There are indications that the wellbeing of hard-of-hearing youths would be related to their communicative abilities and the functioning of their hearing among other things. This study examines self-perceived psychosocial difficulties and strengths of adolescents with hearing impairment and factors associated with these difficulties and strengths. These results also are being compared to results of psychosocial well-being obtained from Finnish adolescents. Methods. 12 11-17-year-old youths with hearing impairment filled in the Finnish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Fin) and a background questionnaire. Adolescents with other sensory deficits or disabilities were excluded from this study. Statistical analysis was performed to search for associations between psychosocial well-being and its related factors. Results and conclusions. The participants experienced more psychosocial difficulties than their Finnish peers. Emotional symptoms and peer problems were emphasized in the reports of participants. They also experienced more strengths in psychosocial well-being compared to their peers. In this study girls experienced more difficulties than boys. Participants experienced fewer difficulties in psychosocial wellbeing when their communicative abilities were good. These results can be used to improve and develop rehabilitation of hearing-impaired children and youths.
  • Ihalin, Meeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background and the aims of the study. Previous studies show that adult immigrants face chal-lenges especially in producing diphthongs and differences in Finnish speech sound lengths. However, to date there has been no evaluation method to assess immigrant’s pronunciation in Finnish. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Phonology test is applicable for assessing adult immigrant’s pronunciation of Finnish. This applicability was assessed by examining what the results of the Phonology test revealed about research subject’s pronun-ciation, how these results differed from the ones of a sentence test, which was developed for this study in particular, how well they recognised the words in the Phonology test. In addition, how and for whom the test could be applicable in future were also studied. Research subjects and methods. The study was carried out as a comperative multi-case stu-dy in which the data was examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. The data was obtai-ned as a part of a PhD dissertation at The University of the Arts Helsinki examining the effects of choir singing in adult immigrant’s Finnish language learning. The research data consisted of ten adult immigrant’s recordings and research forms of the Phonology test and sentence test. The data were statistically analysed with SPSS-program using a dependent sample t-test and the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results and conclusions. All research subjects received rather good scores in the Phonology test and there was not any significant deviation. The results of the Phonology test and the sentence test were quite similar in terms of the mean difference in speech sound length. The pronounciation challenges appeared in the Phonology test were also found in the sentence test and vice versa. The subjects were able to produce short speech sounds distincly shorter than long speech sounds in almost every word in the sentence test. Principally, the subjects recognised the words in the Phonology test well. Based on these results, the Phonology test was moderately applicable to assess adult immigrants’ pronunciation of Finnish.
  • Kaila, Elisabet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Semantic fluency task is often used as part of an assesment to investigate children’s lexical development. Semantic fluency task measures the ability to generate words within a certain category and within a restricted amount of time. In previous studies, children’s semantic fluency skills have increased as the child grows. In addition, word retrieval strategies have been found to enhance word recall in the semantic fluency task with school-aged children and adults. However, there is only little knowledge regarding the use of word retrieval strategies in the semantic fluency task with preschool aged children. So far, in previous studies word retrieval strategies in the task have not been investigated with children under the age of 4. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in 2 to 5 year old children’s performance in the semantic fluency task and whether children’s gender or their parent’s socioeconomic status had an impact on their performance. In addition, the children’s ability of using word retrieval strategies were explored and the relation between the use of word retrieval strategies and the number of correct words were evaluated. The study sample included 79 children. Children completed two semantic fluency tasks guided by their parents in an online questionnaire. During the tasks, the children generated words belonging to the semantic category of animals and clothes within a minute. The performance was evaluated on the basis of the number of correct words, errors and error types. Word retrieval strategies were studied by examining clusters, semantic subcategories and switches between subcategories. The results of this study showed that age had a strong relation to performance on fluency tasks as measured with a number of correct words, clusters, semantic subcategories and switches. The new result was that even 2 year old children could generate correct words for the task and utilize word retrieval strategies in the tasks. The children’s gender or parents’ socioeconomic status had no effect on performance in the semantic fluency tasks. Number of clusters, semantic subcategories and switches had a positive relation to the number of correct words which indicated that successful word retrieval required use of fluency strategies even with preschool aged children. However, due to the lack of previous research data, more research regarding children’s word retrieval strategies is necessary. This study is the first in which the children’s word fluency task was guided by their parents. Clinical practice and further studies could benefit from these results that such a research design would appear to be suitable for assessing children’s semantic fluency.
  • Rajala, Nea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Even though there have been more Finnish publications focusing on children’s narrative abilities, the knowledge around the topic is still minor. Also, the relationship between narrative abilities and other language development and later learning skills have not been studied in Finnish at all, while these skills have been associated to one another in international research. The aim of this study was to examine the narrative ability of a preschool-aged child. In addition to this, the relationship between narrative abilities and vocabulary was examined. Methods. This study used data from the LEINIKKI research project. The participants were 10 (five girls and five boys) healthy monolingual Finnish-speaking children aged between 3 years 7 months and 4 years. Children’s narrative abilities were assessed by the Cat Story. The stories were also analyzed using the story grammar rules by Stein and Glenn (1979). There were also other variables collected from the children’s stories; number of different words (type-variable), total number of words (token-variable) and the ratio between these two, type/token-ratio (TTR). Children’s vocabulary was assessed with vocabulary sections of Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence 3rd edition and LEINIKKI. The data was described and the results illustrated with descriptive statistics and visual descriptors. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationships between skills. Results and conclusions. The children named characters from the picture booklet and narrated events in them, but the stories were not accurate in conveying meaning of the content and the plots were not whole. Every child’s story did still have some story grammar elements in it. The productivity of these stories, evaluated by the type- and token-variable values, and the ratio between them (TTR), had medium to large differences between different children. The children’s ability to use story grammar was observed to be positively correlated with the receptive vocabulary and TTR was shown to be negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary. More research is needed around the development of Finnish children’s narrative abilities and the connection between this and other language development and later learning skills. Knowledge of typical development is important, as it is a prerequisite for recognizing anomalous features and treating them.