Browsing by Subject "Magnetic fields"

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  • Dalla, Silvia; Nolfo, G. A.; Bruno, A.; Giacalone, J.; Laitinen, Totti; Thomas, S.; Battarbee, Markus; Marsh, M. S. (2020)
    Context. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) with energy in the GeV range can propagate to Earth from their acceleration region near the Sun and produce ground level enhancements (GLEs). The traditional approach to interpreting and modelling GLE observations assumes particle propagation which is only parallel to the magnetic field lines of interplanetary space, that is, spatially 1D propagation. Recent measurements by PAMELA have characterised SEP properties at 1 AU for the ∼100 MeV–1 GeV range at high spectral resolution. Aims. We model the transport of GLE-energy solar protons using a 3D approach to assess the effect of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and drifts associated to the gradient and curvature of the Parker spiral. We derive 1 AU observables and compare the simulation results with data from PAMELA. Methods. We use a 3D test particle model including a HCS. Monoenergetic populations are studied first to obtain a qualitative picture of propagation patterns and numbers of crossings of the 1 AU sphere. Simulations for power law injection are used to derive intensity profiles and fluence spectra at 1 AU. A simulation for a specific event, GLE 71, is used for comparison purposes with PAMELA data. Results. Spatial patterns of 1 AU crossings and the average number of crossings per particle are strongly influenced by 3D effects, with significant differences between periods of A+ and A− polarities. The decay time constant of 1 AU intensity profiles varies depending on the position of the observer and it is not a simple function of the mean free path as in 1D models. Energy dependent leakage from the injection flux tube is particularly important for GLE energy particles, resulting in a rollover in the spectrum.
  • Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Pierrard, Viviane; Keppens, Rony; Pomoell, Jens (2017)
    An exospheric kinetic solar wind model is interfaced with an observation-driven single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Initially, a photospheric magnetogram serves as observational input in the fluid approach to extrapolate the heliospheric magnetic field. Then semi-empirical coronal models are used for estimating the plasma characteristics up to a heliocentric distance of 0.1 AU. From there on, a full MHD model that computes the three-dimensional time-dependent evolution of the solar wind macroscopic variables up to the orbit of Earth is used. After interfacing the density and velocity at the inner MHD boundary, we compare our results with those of a kinetic exospheric solar wind model based on the assumption of Maxwell and Kappa velocity distribution functions for protons and electrons, respectively, as well as with in situ observations at 1 AU. This provides insight into more physically detailed processes, such as coronal heating and solar wind acceleration, which naturally arise from including suprathermal electrons in the model. We are interested in the profile of the solar wind speed and density at 1 AU, in characterizing the slow and fast source regions of the wind, and in comparing MHD with exospheric models in similar conditions. We calculate the energetics of both models from low to high heliocentric distances.
  • Lumme, E.; Kazachenko, M. D.; Fisher, G. H.; Welsch, B. T.; Pomoell, J.; Kilpua, E.K.J. (2019)
    We study how the input-data cadence affects the photospheric energy and helicity injection estimates in eruptive NOAA Active Region 11158. We sample the novel 2.25-minute vector magnetogram and Dopplergram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft to create input datasets of variable cadences ranging from 2.25 minutes to 24 hours. We employ state-of-the-art data processing, velocity, and electric-field inversion methods for deriving estimates of the energy and helicity injections from these datasets. We find that the electric-field inversion methods that reproduce the observed magnetic-field evolution through the use of Faraday's law are more stable against variable cadence: the PDFI (PTD-Doppler-FLCT-Ideal, where PTD refers to Poloidal-Toroidal Decomposition, and FLCT to Fourier Local Correlation Tracking) electric-field inversion method produces consistent injection estimates for cadences from 2.25 minutes up to two hours, implying that the photospheric processes acting on time scales below two hours contribute little to the injections, or that they are below the sensitivity of the input data and the PDFI method. On other hand, the electric-field estimate derived from the output of DAVE4VM (Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms), which does not fulfill Faraday's law exactly, produces significant variations in the energy and helicity injection estimates in the 2.25 minutes - two hours cadence range. We also present a third, novel DAVE4VM-based electric-field estimate, which corrects the poor inductivity of the raw DAVE4VM estimate. This method is less sensitive to the changes of cadence, but it still faces significant issues for the lowest of considered cadences (two hours). We find several potential problems in both PDFI- and DAVE4VM-based injection estimates and conclude that the quality of both should be surveyed further in controlled environments.