Browsing by Subject "Malaria"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Siikamäki, Heli Marja-Sisko; Kivelä, Pia; Lyytikainen, Outi; Kantele, Anu (2013)
  • Cuadros, Juan; Ramirez, Alexandra Martin; Gonzalez, Iveth J.; Ding, Xavier C.; Tanoira, Ramón Pérez; Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Gomez-Herruz, Pena; Rubio, Jose Miguel (2017)
    Background: Microscopy and rapid diagnosis tests have a limited sensitivity in diagnosis of malaria by Plasmodium ovale. The LAMP kit (LoopAMP (R)) can be used in the field without special equipment and could have an important role in malaria control programmes in endemic areas and for malaria diagnosis in returned travellers. The performance of the Pan primer of the kit in detecting malaria by P. ovale was compared with the results of standard nPCR in samples of patients returning from P. ovale endemic areas. Methods: Plasmodium ovale positive samples (29, tested by PCR and/or microscopy) and malaria negative specimens (398, tested by microscopy and PCR) were collected in different hospitals of Europe from June 2014 to March 2016 and frozen at -20 degrees C. Boil and spin method was used to extract DNA from all samples and amplification was performed with LoopAMP (R) MALARIA kit (Eiken Chemical, Japan) in an automated turbidimeter (Eiken 500). The results of LAMP read by turbidimetry and with the naked eye were compared. Results: The kit showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.24% with positive and negative predictive values of 72.5 and 100%, respectively. Naked eyed readings were in accordance with turbidimetry readings (sensitivity, 92.5%, specificity, 98.96% and positive and negative predictive values, respectively, 90.24 and 99.22%). The limit of detection of LAMP assay for P. ovale was between 0.8 and 2 parasites/mu l. Conclusions: The Pan primer of the Malaria kit LoopAMP (R) can detect P. ovale at very low-levels and showed a predictive negative value of 100%. This tool can be useful in malaria control and elimination programmes and in returned travellers from P. ovale endemic areas. Naked eye readings are equivalent to automated turbidimeter readings in specimens obtained with EDTA.
  • Myntti, Tarja; Saisto, Terhi; Wartiovaara-Kautto, Ulla (2018)
  • Valve, Kirsi; Nieminen, Tea (2016)
    •Troop­pis­ten tau­tien epäi­ly vaa­tii usein oi­val­lus­ta, diag­nos­tiik­ka ja hoi­to eri­tyi­so­saa­mis­ta. •Ma­la­ria voi oi­reil­la vuo­sien ku­lut­tua maa­han­muu­tos­ta. Ras­kau­de­nai­kai­nen ane­mia voi joh­tua oi­reet­to­mas­ta, subk­lii­ni­ses­tä ma­la­rias­ta. •Kroo­ni­nen iho­haa­vau­ma voi ol­la iho­leish­ma­niaa­si, mut­ta tau­ti voi il­me­tä myös va­ka­va­na vis­ke­raa­li­se­na ­leish­ma­niaa­si­na. •Eo­si­no­fii­li­ta­so voi ol­la ko­hon­nut ku­dos­ma­to­tau­dis­sa, he­ma­tu­ria voi joh­tua skis­to­so­miaa­sis­ta ja kys­ta mak­sas­sa voi ol­la eki­no­kok­koo­si. •In­fek­tio­ris­ki riip­puu maa­han­muut­ta­jan läh­tö­maas­ta, kaut­ta­kul­ku­rei­teis­tä ja olo­suh­teis­ta en­nen Suo­meen saa­pu­mis­ta.
  • Koponen, Kalervo; Meri, Seppo (2018)
  • Holmberg, Ville; Onkamo, Paivi; Lahtela, Laura Elisa; Lahermo, Paivi; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Meri, Seppo (2012)
  • Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Lavikainen, Antti (2017)
  • Aho-Laukkanen, Elina; Holma, Pia; Kauranen, Jari; Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Simola, Lotta; Kauma, Heikki; Hörkkö, Sohvi (2021)
    Kun potilas on palannut tropiikista ja malariaepäily herää, diagnostiikan kultastandardina on veren sivelyvalmisteiden mikroskopointi. Laadukasta ja luotettavaa mikroskopointidiagnostiikkaa on taudin harvinaisuuden vuoksi kuitenkin vaikeaa tarjota päivystyksellisesti osassa suomalaisista sairaaloista. Laajalti käytössä olevan immunokromatografisen pikatestin herkkyys ei riitä luotettavasti sulkemaan pois malariaa. Siksi NordLab Oulussa otettiin käyttöön kaupallinen nukleiinihaponosoitustesti päivystykselliseen malariadiagnostiikkaan. Uuden testin käyttöönoton myötä pikatestin käytöstä ja NordLab Oulussa suoritetusta mikroskopoinnista luovuttiin. Esittelemme NordLab Oulun muuttunutta malariadiagnostiikkaa ja kaksi ensimmäistä nukleiinihaponosoitustestillä todettua malariapotilasta. Kahden vuoden käyttökokemuksen perusteella nukleiinihaponosoitustesti on osoittautunut herkäksi ja toimivaksi menetelmäksi malarian päivystysdiagnostiikassa.
  • Kenyan Bacteraemia Study Grp; Gilchrist, James J.; Uyoga, Sophie; Pirinen, Matti; Rautanen, Anna; Williams, Thomas N. (2020)
    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency state in humans. The clinical phenotype is variable and includes asymptomatic individuals, episodic hemolysis induced by oxidative stress, and chronic hemolysis. G6PD deficiency is common in malaria-endemic regions, an observation hypothesized to be due to balancing selection at the G6PD locus driven by malaria. G6PD deficiency increases risk of severe malarial anemia, a key determinant of invasive bacterial disease in malaria-endemic settings. The pneumococcus is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infection and death in African children. The effect of G6PD deficiency on risk of pneumococcal disease is undefined. We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency increases pneumococcal disease risk and that this effect is dependent upon malaria. Methods We performed a genetic case-control study of pneumococcal bacteremia in Kenyan children stratified across a period of falling malaria transmission between 1998 and 2010. Results Four hundred twenty-nine Kenyan children with pneumococcal bacteremia and 2677 control children were included in the study. Among control children, G6PD deficiency, secondary to the rs1050828 G>A mutation, was common, with 11.2% (n = 301 of 2677) being hemi- or homozygotes and 33.3% (n = 442 of 1329) of girls being heterozygotes. We found that G6PD deficiency increased the risk of pneumococcal bacteremia, but only during a period of high malaria transmission (P = 0.014; OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.19-4.57). We estimate that the population attributable fraction of G6PD deficiency on risk of pneumococcal bacteremia in areas under high malaria transmission is 0.129. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that G6PD deficiency increases risk of pneumococcal bacteremia in a manner dependent on malaria. At the population level, the impact of G6PD deficiency on invasive pneumococcal disease risk in malaria-endemic regions is substantial. Our study highlights the infection-associated morbidity and mortality conferred by G6PD deficiency in malaria-endemic settings and adds to our understanding of the potential indirect health benefits of improved malaria control.
  • Gilchrist, James J; Uyoga, Sophie; Pirinen, Matti; Rautanen, Anna; Mwarumba, Salim; Njuguna, Patricia; Mturi, Neema; Hill, Adrian V S; Scott, J. A G; Williams, Thomas N (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency state in humans. The clinical phenotype is variable and includes asymptomatic individuals, episodic hemolysis induced by oxidative stress, and chronic hemolysis. G6PD deficiency is common in malaria-endemic regions, an observation hypothesized to be due to balancing selection at the G6PD locus driven by malaria. G6PD deficiency increases risk of severe malarial anemia, a key determinant of invasive bacterial disease in malaria-endemic settings. The pneumococcus is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infection and death in African children. The effect of G6PD deficiency on risk of pneumococcal disease is undefined. We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency increases pneumococcal disease risk and that this effect is dependent upon malaria. Methods We performed a genetic case-control study of pneumococcal bacteremia in Kenyan children stratified across a period of falling malaria transmission between 1998 and 2010. Results Four hundred twenty-nine Kenyan children with pneumococcal bacteremia and 2677 control children were included in the study. Among control children, G6PD deficiency, secondary to the rs1050828 G>A mutation, was common, with 11.2% (n = 301 of 2677) being hemi- or homozygotes and 33.3% (n = 442 of 1329) of girls being heterozygotes. We found that G6PD deficiency increased the risk of pneumococcal bacteremia, but only during a period of high malaria transmission (P = 0.014; OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.19–4.57). We estimate that the population attributable fraction of G6PD deficiency on risk of pneumococcal bacteremia in areas under high malaria transmission is 0.129. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that G6PD deficiency increases risk of pneumococcal bacteremia in a manner dependent on malaria. At the population level, the impact of G6PD deficiency on invasive pneumococcal disease risk in malaria-endemic regions is substantial. Our study highlights the infection-associated morbidity and mortality conferred by G6PD deficiency in malaria-endemic settings and adds to our understanding of the potential indirect health benefits of improved malaria control.
  • Vilkman, Katri; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Laaveri, Tinja; Siikamäki, Heli Marja-Sisko; Kantele, Anu (2016)
    Background: The annual number of international tourist arrivals has recently exceeded one billion, yet surprisingly few studies have characterized travelers' behavior, illness, and risk factors in a prospective setting. Particularly scarce are surveys of data spanning travel, return, and follow-up of the same cohort. This study examines behavior and illness among travelers while abroad, after return home, and at follow-up. Patterns of behavior connected to type of travel and illness are characterized so as to identify risk factors and provide background data for pre-travel advice. Methods: Volunteers to this prospective cohort study were recruited at visits to a travel clinic prior to departure. Data on the subjects' health and behavior were collected by questionnaires before and after journeys and over a three-week follow-up. In addition, the subjects were asked to fill in health diaries while traveling. Results: The final study population consisted of 460 subjects, 79 % of whom reported illness during travel or on arrival: 69 % had travelers' diarrhea (TD), 17 % skin problems, 17 % fever, 12 % vomiting, 8 % respiratory tract infection, 4 % urinary tract infection, 2 % ear infection, 4 % gastrointestinal complaints other than TD or vomiting, and 4 % other symptoms. Of all subjects, 10 % consulted a doctor and 0.7 % were hospitalized; 18 % took antimicrobials, with TD as the most common indication (64 %). Ongoing symptoms were reported by 25 % of all travelers upon return home. During the three-week follow-up (return rate 51 %), 32 % of respondents developed new-onset symptoms, 20 % visited a doctor and 1.7 % were hospitalized. Factors predisposing to health problems were identified by multivariable analysis: certain regions (Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, and Eastern Africa), female gender, young age, and long travel duration. Conclusions: Despite proper preventive measures like vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and travel advice, the majority of our subjects fell ill during or after travel. As the symptoms mostly remained mild, health care services were seldom needed. Typical traveler profiles were identified, thereby providing a tool for pre-travel advice. The finding that one third reported new-onset illness during follow-up attests to the importance of advising clients on potential post-travel health problems already during pre-travel visits.