Browsing by Subject "Master's Programme in Education"

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  • Vähämäki, Reeta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals: Due to the Covid-19 situation, Finnish schools moved to distant education in spring of 2020. Interaction is a particularly important element in learning. Studies had shown that it affects the whole experience of learning for students and teachers. The quality of interaction also determines results and attitudes towards future learning. Distant learning has mainly been studied with adults and higher education. These studies showed that good interaction is an especially important element in distant learning. This could be formed through safe on-line environment and well-planned lessons. The purpose of this study is to find out how have students in Finnish schools experienced distant learning in the spring of 2020. Method. There were eight different interviews made for this thesis. There were nine different interviewees altogether in ages between 13-18 during the spring of 2020. Interviews were conducted in the winter of 2021, almost a year after the quarantine. The interviewees were given choises to take the interviews individually, in pairs or groups. They had also an opportunity to choose the interview face to face or with distant connection. About half of the interviews were made via distant connection and all but one individually. The analysis was made using content analysis. Results. The overall impression of the distant learning in quarantine time of 2020 was mainly negative. The results show that experiences of presence and interaction had diminished during distant learning. The interviewees experienced participation and asking during lessons mentally harder than in normal lesson. The learning environments on-line were found to feel unsafe and that was one of the main reason participation was diminished. Many had problems because of the lack of peers in class, and they missed normal school environments and habits, like recess. Positive results were that distant learning tended to be calmer, and it contained less hustle. There is a possibility to create more interaction and participation in distant education classes by thorough and versatile planning and making possibilities to do group work.There should be more ways to cultivate the feeling of safety in distant learning.
  • Bardy, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aim: The purpose of the study was to create an image of the teachers' future vision for the school's activities and to outline an organizational culture that supports this activity. The research questions of the study were: 1. "How do teachers shape a future vision for the school?" and 2. "What kind of organizational culture do teachers experience as supporting for the school's future activities?" The research problem is formed by a time characterized by constant change, which places high demands on schools. The research provides a tool for and is part of a larger development process the school undergoes. Methods: The research was conducted as a case study of a specific school. The school had 15 teachers, nine of which participated in the research. The used data were essays written by teachers using a one-question method and the analysis-method was analysis of narrative. The research approach was of abductive form and the focus of the study was hermeneutical. Results and conclusions: Based on the analyzed data, a future vision for the school's activities has been created and an organizational culture that supports the future activities has been described. The most significant elements in the results are the teachers' common vision of a school as a safe environment where both students and staff feel good, appreciated and taken into account. Concrete actionplans for implementation are also formed. The study presents a collaboratively created vision and action plan for the development of the organizational culture in the school and is used as a tool in the ongoing development process of the school.
  • Vähänen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The objective of this research was to determine what sorts of risks pre-adolescent children are able to recognize on social media and how they act once they have acknowledged these dangers. Additionally, the goal was to study the effects of school and media education on the preadolescents’ social media behavior. In this research social media has mostly been de-fined according to previous studies, as applications favored by children and adolescents. One class of fifth graders from the Helsinki metropolitan area participated in the research. The material was collected through themed small-group interviews. There were a total of 21 participants and seven interview groups. The data was categorized and analyzed by using the content analysis method. Four different content types were identified from the material, and were categorized as social media risks recognized by the pre-adolescents. These labelled risks were bullying, personal information, hoaxes and unpleasant content. Bullying on social media was brought up the most often. The adolescents had been taught media education at school, but they still would have preferred to receive further education especially on the subject of social media har-assment. Some of them felt they were already familiar with the content of the media educa-tion curriculum beforehand, and had not learned any new useful information. The pre-adolescents’ behavior on social media aligned with the risks they had identified and the media education they had received. They valued their own privacy on social media, but were not able to react to bullying otherwise than by blocking the harassers. The pre-adolescents con-sidered bullying to be a substantial part of social media, without any possible solutions.
  • Lindblad, Christel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. Effect of the method “Grej of the Day” (GOTD) and sustainability pedagogics about Agenda 2030 is analyzed. The purpose is to support teaching of facts about Agenda 2030, raise the pupils’ motivation for environmental education and improve their attitudes. This study aims to see if pupils get more knowledge and better environmental attitudes after GOTD- microlessons about goals in Agenda 2030. The pupils’ feelings after the GOTD were analyzed. A swedish study shows that teachers think that their pupils get more knowledge and better motivation when teaching SO-subjects (society subjects) with GOTD. Methods. 22 pupils in grades 5–6 participated in this study. This was an action research and the pupils had 4 microlessons about 4 goals (12–15) from Agenda 2030. After the two first lessons a school project was analyzed using content analysis to see if something should be improved. Knowledge and attitudes related to Agenda 2030 were studied with a survey before and after the intervention. The survey also had two open questions about feelings before and after a GOTD-microlesson. Questions about the knowledge were based on Grön Flagg- surveys and results are presented by percentages of right and wrong. The survey about attitudes included statements to take a stand on on a Likert-scale. Results were analyzed using SPSS and presented statistically. The open questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Knowledge before the intervention was very good and all the pupils gave the right answer to 7 of the 24 questions both before and after the intervention. In some questions about Goal 12 Sustainable consumtion and production the pupils lacked some knowledge and the intervention improved their knowledge a little. Attitudes about the environmental goals in Agenda 2030 were good and only a little improvement could be detected after the intervention. The improvement was not statistically significant. Content analysis of the answers to the open questions show that GOTD creates inner motivation for learning. The method “Grej of the Day” appears to be useful as a complement while teaching environmental issues in elementary schools.
  • Tuominen, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to examine how the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) directors describe the pedagogy of children under the age of three and what significances the ECEC directors can give to the pedagogy of said children. The study focuses on analyzing how the pedagogy of under the age of three is discursively constructed by the ECEC direc-tors. Previous studies have shown that the shortcomings in the pedagogy are emphasized especially on the children under the age of three, although it is known that the early childhood phase is very intensive in the development of children. Thus, the pedagogy and discourse of the ECEC directors is very important, as it guides the whole pedagogic work culture. The methodology of this research was based on social constructionism and discourse analy-sis. The data for this master’s thesis was gathered by interviewing five municipal ECEC di-rectors from two municipalities of the southern Finland area. The interviews were conducted in 2020. A qualitative research method which utilized half-structured thematic interviews was used. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and the data was analyzed by discourse analysis. Four different discourses were formulated from the data of the first research problem, how ECEC directors describe the pedagogy of children under the age of three. The following dis-courses occurred in the research material: the whole day pedagogy, research-based, profes-sionalism and pedagogical leadership. Four different discourses were formulated from the da-ta of the second research problem occurred following four discourses: the basis of life, rights of children, sensitive interaction in the middle of the pedagogy and participation of the child. The ECEC directors described pedagogy of the children under the age of three as a unity of education and care. Furthermore, the importance of pedagogy, research basis, professional skills and pedagogic leadership was emphasized in the discussion. The sensitive interaction and participation of the children was the baseline of a good quality pedagogics. The pedagog-ics of the early childhood education was described as an important foundation of life and a privilege of the child.
  • Vaara, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The early childhood education and care (ECEC) and Basic education introduced a new national Core Curriculum by the Finnish National Agency for education in 2016. Both national norm curricula can be found confluence, and since ECEC transformed under to Finnish National Agency for education in 2015, ECEC, preschool education and basic education becomes an integral part of the lifelong path of growth and learning and of the continuum of curricula. The purpose of this study is to clarify ECE leaders’ and basic education leaders’ views on curricula and curriculum leadership. The research questions are following: (1) How does Curriculum appear in ECE leaders and basic education leaders discussion? (2) What discourses can be identified in both discussions? (3) How does Curriculum Implementation appear in both discussions? This study was conducted using qualitative methods and the used data consists of theme interview collected in the Eduleaders project training. The training involved 10 interviewees working in the context of educational leadership. The material was analyzed by a using discourse analysis with the aim of defining curricula discourses in leaders’ discussions. Four significant discourses were mentioned and can be identified as the following: 1. The discussion about curriculum as a framework 2. The discussion about curriculum as a vanguard. 3. The discussion about curriculum as a challenge. 4. The discussion about curriculum as an enabler. The research results show that both early childhood education leaders and basic education discuss about curricula within the same framework and with the same concepts. The results reveal the curriculum to be in reformation phase in which the old and the new curriculum are confronted. Furthermore, the national curriculum gained a central role as a fundament of work. The distributed leadership and pedagogical discussions occurred in the discussions of both leaders as ways to implement the curriculum. In the discussions about curriculum as challenge the leaders pointed out it being difficult to implement the curriculum in classrooms or child groups, where teachers prefer rather traditional teaching than the alternative methods of the new curriculum. Eventually the slowness and extent of development as well as short-sightness in the field were identified as challenges. However, the discussion illustrates the curriculum positively in terms of child orientation, opportunities to try new things and co-creation.
  • Särösalmi, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this research is to produce knowledge of languaging. The research strives to describe how students talk about their thoughts and actions while playing games designed to teach mathematics. This research is based on Jorma Joutsenlahti’s theories of languaging. The speech of the players is rated by four languages: natural, symbolic, figure and ac tion. These languages and their specific traits are presented in the theory chapter. There were six participants from different parts of southern Finland. The players were from grades 2nd to 5th . The games were from DragonBox - School. The material was col lected by recorded videostreams, because current Covid19-situation made it impossible to meet face to face. This is a case study research. The analysis was made by content analysis using both quality and quantity methods. In the light of this research, the amount of the talk has effect on mathematical speach. The more student talked during the game, the more there were use of mathematical lan guage. Also, the familiarity of mathematical terms increased the use of language. All the four languages were noted in the players talk. The natural language was in the largest role, strongly connected to action through gaming. Also, the symbolic language was used during the games. The games itself contained lot of figurative language; the players recognized some of the figures. There were no tasks in the game to produce figures. The result of this study gives information about languaging.
  • Sonninen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In my research, I describe, analyze, and interpret the realization of children’s rights in a Nepalese mountain village called Randepu, where I volunteered as a teacher for a short period during the fall of 2019. I focus mainly on examining children’s rights in education at the village’s school. My research questions were: 1) What rights of the child are realized in the education of Shree Naba Jyoti Silvano Basic School and what kind of rights are not realized? and 2) In what way did I, as a volunteer, experience the realization of children's rights in the research village at a general level? I also interpreted issues outside of the school in children’s rights. In the literature-based part of my research, I become familiar with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Nepalese legislation. I also addressed the general situation in Nepal in the light of theory as well as through Western eyes, my own interpretations and my own experiences. The questioning and the topic of my research were formed out of my own personal interest. The topic of my research was unique, so there was little previous research on the topic. However, there were studies about Nepal, children’s rights in Nepal and the education system of Nepal. I approached my research topic through an ethnographic research method despite visiting the village for only a short time. The participants in the study were students at the school whose rights I was studying. Adult members of the village as well as volunteers also participated in the study. In accordance with the principles of ethnographic research, my research material consisted of very diverse material: my own observations, the diary entries I made, the photographs I took during my visit, and my own experiences during the field period associated with the research. Unforeseen discussions with teachers, students and other members of the village served as additional material. The rights of the child were largely not realized in the village. According to the results of the study, there were problems with children's rights: the right to education, girls’ rights, the right to sanitation, health care and clean drinking water, child marriages and child labor. The right to education contained many obstacles and disadvantages. Long hikes to school contributed to the obstruction of the child's right to education and the quality of education and material deficiencies were poor. The children were thus also denied the opportunity for postgraduate studies. I felt the results were inconsistent due to exceptional circumstances. Children’s rights were not realized at a general level in the village, but given the circumstances, this was common. The results were influential, and the awareness of the results could be used to improve the school’s and village’s functioning.
  • Siitonen, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. According to Warr's (1999) and Hakanen's (2011) models, the different states of well-being at work can be perceived through four key concepts. These include job satisfaction, burnout, stress and work engagement. Although teachers are mostly satisfied with their work, well-being at work has developed in an alarming direction in recent years and the stress experienced by teachers has increased. There has also been much public debate about the pandemics effects on well-being. Based on previous research, teachers have experienced more stress than normal during the exceptional circumstances caused by the coronavirus. The aim of this master's thesis was to find out how classroom teachers have experienced their well-being at work during the COVID-19 pandemic and to increase understanding of what factors contributed to well-being. In addition, the study sought to find out how classroom teachers well-being at work was promoted at that time. Methods. The study was conducted as semi-structured thematic interviews. The data consists of interviews with eight classroom teachers and one special classroom teacher. The data was analyzed using theory-guided and data-driven qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. The COVID-19 pandemic affected teachers well-being at work in many ways. Teachers found the distance learning period particularly stressful. Stressors included an increase in workload, uncertainty and the combination of work and free time. On the other hand, for some teachers the distance learning period increased work engagement and job satisfaction. Some felt that towards the autumn 2020 the situation had recovered close to the time before pandemic, while some felt that exceptional circumstances were still having a strong impact on well-being. The most important support for promoting well-being at work came from the work community, which provided empathy, shared gatherings, and assistance in planning and teaching. Teachers also felt the empathy received from their principal important. Teachers themselves tried to separate work and free time, to exercise and to stick to their basic task. Teachers expressed dissatisfaction with the activities of municipalities and political decision-makers.
  • Averin, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to explore dimensions of worker-citizenship in apprenticeship training. Also, the aim was to study which kind of positions there are for young apprenticeship students within apprenticeship training through the perspectives of apprenticeship experts. Basis for this study is post-structuralist research and I approach apprenticeship training as a discursive practice. Previous research has shown that there is a strong worker-citizenship ethos which connects to neoliberalism in vocational education. Worker-citizenship in apprenticeship training has not been studied before in Finland. Overall, there has been little research about apprenticeship training in Finland and especially critical studies are missing. The data was collected via six individual interviews that were conducted in spring 2020. The interviewees were six apprenticeship experts, and the data was analyzed using discursive reading method. The results of my study give some insight to apprenticeship training practices and the youths` position in apprenticeship. Based on my analysis worker-citizenship discourse is upheld within apprenticeship training. Apprenticeship experts argued the benefits and disadvantages of apprenticeship through dimensions linked to worker-citizenship. In addition, the positions of young apprenticeship students were defined from worker-citizenship. This appears in a sense that young students are guided to a position of self-responsible and active yet self-aware of their deficits. Along with the ideal subject an opposite was defined which was seen for example as a “reader type”.
  • Koistinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate how two special needs teachers who had completed an equine-assisted social pedagogy instructor® training experienced the implementation of equine-assisted social pedagogy activities as a school intervention. Social pedagogy combined with animal and equine assisted activities served as the theoretical frame guiding this study. The research questions were: (1) What are equine-assisted social pedagogy activities from a special needs teacher's perspective, (2) What impacts have the equine activities by a special needs teacher had on individual pupils or pupil groups, and (3) Which factors emerge at the core of the implementation of the equine activities? Methods. This study was implemented using a qualitative approach applying a semi-structured interview. The data comprised the experiences of two special needs teachers. The collected data were processed using dialogical thematization. Four main themes emerged from the analysed data and were used as the basis for presenting the findings. Results and conclusions. The equine-assisted social pedagogy activities were well-suited as a school intervention and as part of special needs education, as the curriculum supports the implementation of the activities in all levels of the three-tier support model. The equine-assisted activities were perceived as a comprehensive form of social rehabilitation that promotes issues such as building a pedagogical relationship between the pupil and the teacher, and the emergence of interpersonal relationships between pupils. The teachers felt that the success of the activities was supported by the experiential features of the stable environment, opportunities for collaboration provided by the stable community, and peer support. The stable environment was perceived as a learning environment different from the traditional school environment that improves pupils’ motivation, concentration and obedience. Highlighting the interactive relationship between the pupil and horse also emerged as a significant feature of the equine-assisted social pedagogy activities. The horse was perceived as a mirror of the pupil’s emotional expression and behaviour. The pupils were observed to learn to understand their own emotions and behaviour through the horse and adapt their new behaviours from the stable to the school environment. The study revealed what sorts of experiences special needs teachers had of implementing equine-assisted activities as a school intervention. In turn, this raises awareness of the potential of using equine-assisted social pedagogy activities as part of school activities and special needs education.
  • Tuominen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective of the study Work stress affects teachers mental and physical well-being, increases costs and sick leave, and affects work productivity. Prolonged, intense stress is associated with lower job satisfaction. The decline of teachers´ well-being also has a negative effect on students' learning. Recovery from work is important for health, ability to work and the teacher's own well-being. In today's working life, the time left for recovery has decreased and the individual must take more and more care of his or her own well-being and recovery. Successful recovery effectively prevents work demands from developing into stressors. The aim of this study was to find out which elements of work polytechnic teachers find stressful in their work, what effects they perceive as work stress, what means of recovery they have at their disposal and what things may prevent success of recovery. Methods The 22 interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, in which they report on their own well-being, stress experiences and recovery from work as part of a broader thematic interview. The interview material has been collected since the end of 2019. Results and conclusions Polytechnic teachers perceive excessive workload, uneven workload and hurry as the most stressful elements in their own work. An examination of the effects of stress experiences showed that teachers perceive that work stress affects them above all mentally. Of the physical effects, sleep-related problems in particular were reflected in teachers' coping. An examination of the means of recovery showed that polytechnic teachers consider hobbies and social relationships to be the most important means of recovery. Most polytechnic teachers experience challenges in recovering from work. The majority of teachers feel that recovery is not enough or is only seasonal. Haste and too much work proved to be the biggest obstacles to recovery not always succeeding.
  • Granholm, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Young carers have a responsibility to a close relative who, due to physical or mental reasons, has a reduced functional capacity. The responsibility is often kept within the family and affects the well-being of the young people in both a negative and positive sense. Difficulties with building friendships, lack of opportunity to participate in hobbies and reduced social capital are some of the challenges young carers face. Increased responsibility can also develop resilience and self efficacy. Young people spend a significant share of their time in schools. This makes schools a key player in the work of identifying young carers and supporting them in their everyday school life, as they have an increased risk of becoming marginalized. The objective of this study is to highlight these young people and make their voices heard. Furthermore, the aim is to find out how the care responsibility affects young carers’ and former young carers’ everyday school life and what kind of support they would need from the school. A qualitative, phenomenographic method was used for the study, which was conducted with semi-structured interviews. The informants were seven young carers and former young carers. The interviews were analyzed through a thematic analysis. The results show that the young carers experienced challenges in balancing the care responsibility and their own lives. Friends were considered important, but for the majority, social relationships were at times challenging. The young people appreciated the security and routine that school provided in their everyday life. They wanted more regular opportunities to discuss their burdens with student care and to be noticed by the school staff, especially by their own teacher. Tools for teachers are required to help them better engage with this group in a respectful way. Young carers must feel secure in sharing their stories with school staff. This requires the stigma, especially around mental health problems to be reduced. The young carers’ future study ambitions were limited by the care responsibility, which indicates that these young people also need attention in secondary education.
  • Palomäki, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Global education deals with wide-ranging and complex global phenomena. In this dissertation, the theory of global education is examined primarily from a postcolonial perspective. Although global education is a cross-cutting theme in Finnish primary education, its implementation varies in schools as well as in teacher education. The dissertation examines the views of teacher educators, especially about the aims of critical global education and the challenges and opportunities of its implementation in teacher education. The research material acquired on the principles of action research consisted of group discussions of a workshop on critical global education for teacher educators, text material related to the workshop, and registration and feedback forms. The workshop was based in part on a discussion method which utilizes critical literacy issues. The workshop was organized in co-operation with global education organisation Taksvärkki ry and was attended by five (5) teacher educators from three Finnish universities. Most of the participating teacher educators had previous knowledge about the themes of global education. The material was analysed by inductive content analysis. In the speech of teacher educators, global education appeared as a starting point for education and teacher training. However, the discussions highlighted various tensions, for example in relation to the value base of global education, the nature of change and action. In teacher education, opportunities to address broad and complex themes were presented through, for example, dialogue, criticality and changing of perspectives, experiential learning, student encounters, and extensive collaboration. Challenges to the implementation of global education included a solid division of subjects, the ambiguity of global education, efficiency and lack of time, broad learning objectives, and formal learning environments. On the other hand, the introduction of critical thinking through subject didactics, a holistic approach to all teaching and the strengthening of the role of the educator in teacher education were also mentioned as examples. It is important to discuss global education and its goals both inside and outside teacher education and to co-operate in the wide-ranging implementation of global education.
  • Suomalainen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The symptoms of ADHD can cause many challenges for children and adolescents in school. Today, traditional learning environments are challenged by more open, flexible learning environments. However, there is only little earlier research on classroom experiences in flexible learning environments and classroom experiences comparing traditional and flexible learning environments have not been studied from the perspective of students with ADHD symptoms. In addition, previous research has shown that students with symptoms of ADHD often experience lower self-esteem than their peers. It is also known that girls are more likely to report lower self-esteem than boys. The purpose of this study is to examine how students at risk for ADHD experience their self-esteem, engagement, autonomy, relatedness and competence in traditional and flexible learning environments. In addition, this study examines whether there is a gender difference in the above-mentioned experiences. The theoretical basis of the research is the self-determination theory, to which autonomy, competence, relatedness and engagement are essentially connected. The data was collected from students in grades 7 and 8 who had participated in the Learning, grouping, evaluation and well-being in large learning areas project of the city of Vantaa and the University of Helsinki Education Assessment Center in 2019–2020. Of all 7–8th graders (N 1446), students at risk of ADHD (n 113) were selected for the study. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine the connections between attention, self-esteem, and the components of self-determination theory. Next, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine whether there is a difference between traditional and flexible learning environments in self-esteem, autonomy, competence, relatedness and student engagement in students at risk for ADHD. The same method of analysis was used again to examine whether there is a gender difference in self-esteem, autonomy, competence, relatedness and student engagement in students in the risk group of ADHD. The data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics 26. The results showed that the experiences of self-esteem and the components of self-determination theory (student engagement, autonomy, relatedness and competence) did not differ depending on the learning environment in students at risk of ADHD between traditional and open plan (flexible) learning environments. However, experiences of self-esteem, autonomy and engagement among at-risk students in ADHD differed between the sexes, with girls having lower self-esteem and experiencing less autonomy and engagement than boys.
  • Raessalo, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In 2020, the government of Juha Sipilä implemented a reform in higher education. The meaning of the reform was to bring forward the starting of university studies as well as remove the need to participate in preparatory courses. The ideals of the competitive society were influencing in the backround of the reform. Instead of disappearing, the preparatory course markets will presumably transform into courses offered for even younger students at earlier stage, thus causing extra pressure to younger students. The aim of this thesis was to study high school seniors who applied to universities under the new reform. The aim was to examine how the competitive ethos affected their transition as well as how they reasoned the need to participate in preparatory courses as a part of the transition. This topic has not been researched before in this research frame, however similar studies have been conducted of students participating in preparatory courses. Former studies show that preparatory courses are perceived as a normal part of transitioning from secondary education to tertiary education. Studies also show that successful transition seems to require entrepreneurial characteristics. The research data was collected in the winter of 2020 through semi-structured interviews. Altogether five senior students, who participated in preparatory courses in Helsinki Summer University, were interviewed. The data was analysed with discourse analysis. The competitive ethos affected the transitioning strongly. The impact is evident in the notion of entrepreneurial self as well as in emphasizing the instrumental value of education. The preparatory courses give important support in the application to universities thus it’s viewed as a natural part of the transition. As a conclusion, the preparatory course market will not disappear, only transform into courses offered for even younger students. As a result of the reform, students are required to act as an entrepreneurial self in order to secure a successful transition.
  • Polso, Kukka-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. In the context of computing education, the vast majority of prior research examining achievement goal orientations has been conducted using variable-centred methods. In order to deepen understanding of the student population and achievement motivation, this Master’s Thesis employed person-oriented perspectives. The interplay of different goal orientations was explored by identifying prevalent motivational profiles and investigating profile differences in performance. Normative and appearance performance goals were handled as separate clustering variables in addition to mastery goals for the first time. Methods. The participants were 2059 introductory programming MOOC students. Data were collected by a questionnaire and from automatically assessed programming assignments and final exam. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted for the achievement goal orientation items to examine the factor structure. Using TwoStep cluster analysis, the students were classified into clusters according to their achievement goal orientations. Cross tabulations and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to investigate profile characteristics and differences in performance. Results and Conclusions. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified: Approach-Oriented (31.2%), Performance-Oriented (18.9%), Combined Mastery and Performance Goals (18.0%), Low Goals (17.6.%) and Mastery-Oriented (14.3.%). Students with Combined Mastery and Performance Goals performed significantly better than students with Low Goals regarding two metrics. Consistent with previous findings, the results highlight the positive link between multiple goal pursuit and performance. Further studies are needed to investigate motivational profiles in relation to other educational outcomes in the context of computing education. This kind of knowledge is valuable for designing interventions and new courses. The article ‘Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles and Performance in a Programming MOOC’, which is based on the present thesis, will be presented at ITiCSE 2020 (Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education) conference and published in conference proceedings.
  • Forss, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the context of education, ADHD has already been studied quite a bit. However, the way that teachers understand the ADHD diagnosis and what kind of image they create in their speech about children diagnosed with ADHD has received less attention. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what kind of meanings teachers generate for the ADHD diagnosis and what kind of image teachers create about children diagnosed with ADHD. It is important to study the way teachers speak because the way they speak can have either a positive or negative impact on the well-being and learning of children diagnosed with ADHD. I have collected the material for my thesis through an e-form, which has been answered by 70 teachers working in early childhood education and basic education. Respondents to the form were found through social media. The form consisted of open-ended questions and the data was analyzed using discourse analysis methods. I identified a total of six interpretive repertoires for the diagnosis of ADHD: diagnosis as evidence of medical background, diagnosis as a provider of understanding, diagnosis as an explanation of behaviour, diagnosis as a provider of support, diagnosis as a possible label, and diagnosis as a questionable phenomenon. The diagnosis appeared to be mainly necessary and good in these interpretive repertoires, but the possible negative effects of the diagnosis were also brought up. A total of six subject positions were produced for a child diagnosed with ADHD: patient, different child, troublemaker, child in need of support, labelled child and ordinary child / misunderstood child. Teachers described children diagnosed with ADHD mainly through problems and challenges, but the writings also conveyed an empathic attitude towards the child. I hope this thesis will inspire teachers to reflect on their ways of speaking and to think about the origins and consequences of the meanings they have given to the diagnosis.
  • Ylikopsa, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objective. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is developmental neurobiological disability. The aim of the current study was to examine what symptoms women diagnosed as adults with ADHD recognize emerged in their childhood before puberty, which symptoms were reported to manifest together and whether the reported symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria used by health care. In addition, the aim was to find out which were the most common reasons to apply for support as an adult. Untreated ADHD has been found to be associated with depression, exclusion from education, and an increased risk of substance use. Early identification and proper targeting of support measures can reduce health risks and improve quality of life. Method. The data were collected through the online survey, that the Finnish ADHD Association published on social media carried on the social network service Facebook in April 2020. The questionnaire was made based on previous research for this study, and was created with the E-lomake -program of the University of Helsinki. The participants (n = 360) were women diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood, aged 20 to 50 years, who retrospectively assessed their own ADHD symptoms in childhood. The data thus gathered was analysed using statistical methods in the IBM SPSS Statistics 25 -program. Results and conclusions. The most commonly reported symptoms of ADHD included attentional regulation, systemicity, minor motor restlessness, and emotional and verbal impulsivity. The most common symptoms were reported to be co-occurring, but the review of also showed large variability for some symptoms. Of the eleven most commonly reported symptoms, only three were directly related to the diagnostic criteria in use. The most common reasons for applying assessment of ADHD as an adult were the identification of one's own symptoms, previously diagnosed depression, and feedback from close relatives. Based on this thesis, the diagnostic criteria in use do not adequately cover the dimensions of girls ’ ADHD symptoms are expressed. Two of the common symptoms were absorption in games intense and losing sense of time, that is comparable to with hyperfocusing, and clinging to details. The results are consistent with previous research data; the diagnostic criteria are based on research data obtained from boys with ADHD.
  • Rantakari, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to describe what kind of understanding pre-service class teachers have about thinking skills and teaching thinking in primary school. In addition, I am interested to find out whether or not the students in the field of educational sciences and the students in the field of educational psychology differ in their perceptions of thinking. The study examines thinking skills from the perspective of cognitive processes and uses the Integrated Model developed by Moseley and his group (2005a) to support the definition. The study was conducted as a phenomenographic study. The data consisted of 12 individual interviews and was collected in February 2021 from pre-service class teachers. Data analysis was performed using phenomenographic analysis. The study showed that the pre-service class teachers perceive thinking skills as a complex concept for which there was not seen a clear definition. Thinking skills were described as individual and evolving skills whose interrelationships were described in different ways. Thinking skills were perceived as tools that a person uses to perform various tasks. The teaching of thinking skills was seen as an investment for the future, as it was believed to promote learning and cultivate citizenship. Teaching was seen to take place mainly through pedagogical means. According to the subjects, thinking skills should be developed through diverse ways, with an emphasis on co-operation and supporting student agency. In addition, the importance of the teacher, the school and the learning environment was emphasized. Teaching thinking was also seen challenging. The students in the field of educational psychology and in the field of educational sciences largely followed a common line in their perceptions of thinking, but differences were found at the subcategory level. The most significant difference can be considered as the lack of creative thinking in the responses of educational psychology students. In addition, the study found that the pre-service class teachers had challenges in defining thinking skills as well as justifying pedagogical choices. This could suggest that they lack the metacognitive and pedagogical knowledge of thinking skills that Zohar (2005) considers as a prerequisite for teaching thinking skills. In the future, it would be good to further study the abilities of pre-service class teachers in terms of teaching thinking skills.