Browsing by Subject "Master's Programme in Geology and Geophysics"

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  • Voutilainen, Ahti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    A new ground motion prediction equation, named ON21, is solved for the ST1 Deep Heat enhanced geothermal system in Otaniemi, city of Espoo, Finland. The raw data from seismic events, that occurred during the stimulation of 2018, is processed, instrument response is removed, and frequency domain is used to obtain peak ground displacement, velocity, and acceleration. A database with 20,768 ground motion recordings from 204 events is compiled and used to solve a ground motion prediction equation for peak ground velocity and acceleration for vertical and horizontal movement. The model has a magnitude range from 0.0 to 1.8 on the scale of local magnitude used in Finland, and hypocentral distances of 0 km to 20 km. A 1σ value of 0.60 for vertical peak ground velocity model is lower than the 1σ of the models previously in use at Otaniemi and its surrounding areas. It is observed that the azimuth between the strike of the fault causing the earthquakes and the station recording the events seems to affect the peak ground motion values at a hypocentral distance of no more than 10 km, and beyond that the magnitude and distance are the dominant factors in the peak ground motion values. The new ground motion prediction equation model ON21 should be tested with ground motion data from earthquakes that occurred during the 2020 stimulations to assess its usefulness in predicting peak ground motion values, and to further study the effect of azimuth on the peak ground motion values.
  • Koskela, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract This study investigates temperature data that Posiva Oy has from the Olkiluoto and ONKALO® sites. The aim of the study was to create a unifying data classification for the existing temperature measurements, give an estimate of the initial undisturbed bedrock temperature and temperature gradient and model the temperature profiles in 3D. The thermal related issues, which the repository will undergo once in operating are significant and have fundamental contribution to the evolution of the repository, creating a need in such a study. Posiva Oy has temperature data obtained with four main methods; Geophysical drillhole loggings, Posiva flow log (PFL) measurements, thermal properties (TERO) measurements and Antares measurements. The data classification was carried out by creating a platform of quality aspects affecting the measurements. The classification was then applied for all the available data by inspecting the measurement specifics of each configuration and by observing the temperature/depth profiles with WellCad software. According to the specifics of each individual measurement the data was classified into three groups: A= the best data, recommended for further use, and which fulfils all quality criteria, B= data that should be used with reservation and which only partly fulfils quality criteria, and C= unusable data. Only data that showed no major disturbance within the temperature/depth profile (class A or B) were used in this study. All the temperature/depth data was corrected to the true vertical depth. The initial undisturbed average temperature of Olkiluoto bedrock at the deposition depth of 412 m and the temperature gradient, according to the geophysical measurements, PFL measurements (without pumping), TERO measurements and Antares measurements were found to be 10.93 ± 0.09°C and 1.47°C/100m, 10.85 ± 0.02°C and 1.43°C/100m, 10.60 ± 0.08°C and 1.65°C/100m, and 10.75°C and 1.39°C/100m, respectively. The 3D layer models presented in this study were generated by using Leapfrog Geo software. From the model a 10.5 – 12°C temperature range was obtained for the deposition depth of 412 – 432 m. The models indicated clear temperature anomalies in the volume of the repository. These anomalies showed relationship between the location of the major brittle fault zones (BFZ) of Olkiluoto island. Not all observed anomalies could be explained by a possible cause. Uncertainties within the modelling phase should be taken into consideration in further interpretations. By combining an up-to-date geological model and hydraulic model of the area to the temperature models presented here, a better understanding of the temperature anomalies and a clearer over all understanding of the thermal conditions of the planned disposal location will be achieved. Based on this study a uniform classification improves the usability of data and leads into a better understanding of the possibilities and weaknesses within it. The initial bedrock temperature and the temperature gradient in Olkiluoto present thermally a relatively uniform formation. The estimates of the initial bedrock temperatures and the temperature gradient presented in this study, endorse previous estimates. Presenting the classified temperature data in 3D format generated good results in the light of thermal dimensioning of Olkiluoto by showing distinct relationships between previously created brittle fault zone (fracture zone) models. The views and opinions presented here are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of Posiva.
  • Hekkala, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid naturally present in the environment. Arsenic species vary in toxicity. Metal mining has contributed to the anthropogenic input of arsenic to groundwaters and surface waters. In this study, water samples were collected from 20 sample points in three mining-impacted study areas in Finland: the former Ylöjärvi Cu–W–As and Haveri Au–Cu mines, and the active Pyhäsalmi Zn–Cu mine. Six groundwater well samples, eleven surface water samples and three tailings seepage collection ditch samples were analyzed for dissolved arsenic speciation by HPLC-ICP-MS and for geochemical composition by ICP-MS, titration, and ion chromatography. Dissolved arsenic concentrations ranged from 14.2 to 6649 µg L-1 in samples collected at the Ylöjärvi study area, from 0.5 to 6.2 µg L-1 in samples collected at the Haveri study area, and from 0.2 to 9.4 µg L-1 in samples collected at the Pyhäsalmi study area. In all study areas, measured dissolved arsenic concentrations showed a general decrease from the tailings to the surroundings. Speciation analysis showed that two of the samples collected at the Ylöjärvi study area had arsenite [As(III)] as the dominant form of dissolved inorganic arsenic (iAs), three had arsenate [As(V)] as the dominant form of dissolved iAs, and four had a mixture of both. In the water samples collected at the Haveri and Pyhäsalmi study areas, all concentrations of dissolved arsenic species were below method detection limits. Also, none of the 22 water samples analyzed for arsenic speciation had dissolved MMA or DMA concentrations above method detection limits. Identification of dissolved arsenic species in the sampled waters in Haveri and Pyhäsalmi, and of MMA and DMA in all sampled waters requires more detailed study. A significant 2-tailed Pearson correlation between dissolved arsenic and dissolved molybdenum (Mo) (r=0.80**, n=20), and dissolved arsenic and dissolved potassium (K) (0.68**, n=19) suggests that in these three study areas the distributions of dissolved arsenic and Mo, as well as dissolved arsenic and K may be controlled by the same environmental variables. Anomalously high maximum concentrations of dissolved Al, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and SO4 were measured in surface water samples collected at the Ylöjärvi and Haveri study areas, and in a seepage collection ditch sample collected at the Pyhäsalmi study area.
  • Karjalainen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    NMR Services Australia (NMRSA) Pty Ltd has developed a Borehole Magnetic Resonance (BMR) tool which is based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Drillhole NMR tools have been used mostly in sedimentary environments for oil and gas exploration while applications in hard, heterogeneous, crystalline bedrock are still lacking. This study aims to test the BMR method in a hard rock environment, and for determining hydrogeological parameters in the spent nuclear fuel disposal site, the Olkiluoto island. Essentially, the objective is to design an optimal BMR data processing workflow and calibrate the estimated hydrogeological parameters, currently optimized for data from sedimentary environments, to suit the crystalline bedrock. For testing the BMR method in hard, crystalline bedrock, Posiva Oy, the Finnish expert organization responsible of spent nuclear fuel disposal, made test measurements in the drillholes of the spent nuclear fuel repository site, island of Olkiluoto. The collected data was processed with WellCAD software using additional NMR module. The BMR tool derives T2 distribution (representing pore size distribution), total porosity, bound water and moveable water volumes and permeability calculated with two different models. Some processing parameters (main/burst sequence, moving averages, temperature gradient, cutoff values) were tested and adjusted to fit into crystalline bedrock. Magnetizing material of the surface environment strongly disturbed the uppermost ~20.0 m portions of the measurement data. Some noise was encountered also deep in bedrock, which was cut away from the signal. A list of criteria was created for recognizing noise. The BMR data was compared with other drillhole data acquired by Posiva, i.e. fracture and lithology logs, seismic velocities and hydrogeological measurements. It was observed that the T2 distribution and total porosity correlate rather well to logged fractures and seismic velocities. Lithological variations did not correlate to BMR consistently, mostly because of the strong dependency on fracturing. Permeabilities were compared to earlier conducted hydrogeological measurements, with an intention to calibrate the permeability calculation models. However, this proved to be challenging due to the significant differences of the BMR method and conventional hydrogeological measurements. Preferably, the permeability models should be calibrated by laboratory calibration of the drillhole core, and possibly a new permeability model suitable for crystalline bedrock should be created.
  • Koskimaa, Kuutti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    AA Sakatti Mining Oy is researching the possibility of conducting mining operations in Sakatti ore deposit, located partially under the protected Viiankiaapa mire. In order to understand the waters in mining development site, the interactions of surface waters, shallow aquifers, and deep bedrock groundwaters must be understood. To estimate these interactions, hydrogeochemical characterization, together with four tracer methods were used: Tritium/helium, dichlorodifluoromethane and sulfur hexafluoride, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, and carbon-14. Most of the shallow groundwater samples are similar to the natural precipitation and groundwater in their chemical composition, being of Calcium bicarbonate type. B-11-17HYD013 was an exception, containing much more Cl and SO4. The samples from the deep 17MOS8193 all show a very typical composition for this type of a borehole, on the line between the saline Sodium sulphate and Sodium chloride water types. The samples from the 12MOS8102, as well as the river water samples and the Rytikuru spring sample are located between these two end members. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope values divided the samples into two distinct groups: those that show evaporation signal in the source water, and those that do not. The most likely source for the evaporated signal in the groundwaters is in the surface water pools in the Viiankiaapa mire, which have then infiltrated into the groundwater and followed the known groundwater flow gradient into the observation wells near the River Kitinen. Tritium showed no inclusion of recently recharged water in the deep 17MOS8193, and dated most of the shallow wells with screen below bedrock surface to be recharged in the 70’s and 80’s. B-10-17HYD017 had an older apparent age from 1955, and B-14-17HYD006 was curiously dated to be recharged in 2018. 14C gave apparent age of over 30 000 a for the deep 17MOS8193. The slight contents of 14C could be caused by slight contamination during sampling meaning the age is a minimum. The sample M-4-12MOS8102 got an apparent age of ~3 500 a, which could in turn be an overestimate due to ancient carbon being dissolved from the local bedrock fractures. CFC-12 showed apparent recharge dates from 1963 to 1975 in the shallow wells, and no recently recharged water in the deep 17MOS8193, and so was generally in line with the 14C and Tritium results, although some contamination had happened. SF6 concentrations exceeded possible concentrations considering other results, most likely due to underground generation, and the method was dismissed. By trace element composition, all samples from the deep 17MOS8139 are distinct from other samples and saw slight dilution in concentrations of most elements in the span of the test pumping. Other samples are more mixed and difficult to interpret, but some trends and connections are visible, such as the higher contents in wells with screens below the bedrock surface than those with screens above the bedrock surface, and the exceptionally high contents of many elements in B-13-17HYD004. Overall, the study did benefit from the large array of methods, showing no interaction between the deep bedrock groundwaters and shallow groundwaters or surface waters. The evaporated signal from the Viiankiaapa was clearly visible in the samples close to the River Kitinen.
  • Redmond Roche, Benjamin Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Significant changes in sea-ice variability have occurred in the northern North Atlantic since the last deglaciation, resulting in global scale shifts in climate. By inferring the dynamic changes of palaeo seaice to past changes in climate, it is possible to predict future changes in response to anthropogenic climate change. Diatoms allow for detailed reconstructions of palaeoceanographic and sea-ice conditions, both qualitatively, using information of species ecologies and quantitatively, via a transfer function based upon diatom species optima and tolerances of the variable to be reconstructed. Three diatom species comprising a large portion of the training set are proxies for the presence of sea ice: Fragilariopsis oceanica, Fragilariopsis reginae-jahniae and Fossula arctica, have currently been grouped into one species – F. oceanica – in the large diatom training set of the northern North Atlantic region. The clustering of the species may result in an imprecise reconstruction of sea ice that does not take into account all the available ecological information. The proportions of the three species were recounted from the original surface sediment slides alongside the additional chrysophyte cyst Archaeomonas sp. and statistically analysed using Canoco and the R software package eHOF. A core from Kangerlussuaq Trough comprising the Late Holocene (~690–1498 Common Era) was also recounted and analysed using C2. The separated diatom species and chrysophyte cyst Archaeomonas sp. exhibited different relationships to both sea-ice concentration (aSIC) and sea surface temperature (aSST). The separated F. oceanica is a ‘cold-mixed’ water species occurring at cold aSST and both low and high aSIC. High abundances occur in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where surficial meltwater is high during the spring bloom, with additional inputs from glacial meltwaters nearshore. F. reginae-jahniae is a sea-ice associated species related to cold aSST and high aSIC. High abundances occur in the low salinity Arctic Water dominated MIZ which experiences significant aSIC. F. arctica is a sea-ice associated species related to cold aSST and high aSIC. High abundances occur in the low salinity Arctic Water dominated MIZ which experiences high aSIC, particularly in polynya conditions. F. arctica can be considered a characteristic polynya species at high abundances. Archaeomonas sp. is a ‘cold-mixed’ water species related to both cold and relatively warm aSST and low and high aSIC. High abundances occur in both relatively warm ice-free Atlantic Water and also in cold high aSIC Arctic Water conditions rendering it a more complex indicator for aSST or aSIC proxy. However, the aversion to MIZ conditions indicates that Archaeomonas sp. is associated with a relatively saline unstratified water column. This is the first time that the distribution and ecology of Archaeomonas sp. has been presented. As such, the ecology described here can be used in future studies. The separation of the three diatom species is crucial for the ecological interpretation of downcore assemblage changes. It is also crucial for the application of transfer functions in order to have greater precision in reconstructing aSIC and assessing the influence of Arctic Water or Atlantic Water, even at low abundances.
  • Orozco Ramírez, Lilia Estefanía (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The European Water Framework Directive aims at restoring all water bodies in good ecological conditions by the year 2023. For this aim, understanding the responses of these ecosystems to current and future pressures is a requisite. Lakes Hältingträsk and Storträsk are located in Östersundom, a latent developing suburban area in eastern Helsinki. Alterations to the catchment in Hältingträsk as a consequence of urbanization will likely change the conditions of the lake. Storträsk, part of Sipoonkorpi nature reserve is primarily influenced by recreational activities. Ecological status of both lakes is likely to alter under the ongoing urban development. For this reason, the reference conditions of Hältingträsk and the resilience of both lakes to human stressors must be assessed. A long term record from Hältingträsk, with special focus on the most recent section, as well as a short core from Storträsk targeting the most recent events, are analyzed for different palaeobiological and geochemical proxies. The sequence from Hältingträsk is evaluated with diatom assemblages, trace metal analyses, lithological description of sediments through loss-on-ignition and inferred chlorophyll a. For Storträsk, a high-resolution study of diatom communities and photosynthetic pigments is performed. Both sequences are framed with an age-depth model based on radiogenic dating techniques. In addition, the results are analyzed with statistical tools and fossil diatom data is used to reconstruct lake water pH. The results describe the evolution of Hältingträsk through the mid-Holocene until recent times; the diatom assemblages indicates the area was part of Ancylus Lake and, later of Litorina Sea, and that it was isolated from the Baltic Basin at 6500 cal BP. This is supported by the high concentrations of Fe and Mn, showing the presence of metallic nodules common in marine environments. The change in sediments and the predominance of fragilarioid diatoms, display the succession of the lake (from gloe to flada). Afterwards, the ontogeny of the lake and the development of surrounding peat bog can be tracked with changes in the diatom community and decrease in heavy metals concentrations. The reconstructed pH reveals that Hältingträsk is a naturally acidic lake. Furthermore, signals of agricultural activities and industrialization are recorded in the area, as well as their development, is recorded through shifts in the diatom community and the oscillation of trace metals of both local (Cu, Ni and V) and long (Pb, Zn and Cd) transport. Finally, climatic anomalies such as the Little Ice Age and current climate warming are imprinted in the diatom assemblages and the photosynthetic pigments. The high resolution of subsampling from Storträsk displayed little variation. The faint changes could be attributed to CaCO3 treatment, fish introduction or recent climate warming. However, discern the influence of each of these stressors was not possible.
  • Uusikorpi, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The geochemical regolith data gathered from Dzhumba, a gold prospect in eastern Kazakhstan, was analyzed using factor analysis and then integrated into ArcGIS as spatial data. Principal axis factoring method was used for factor extraction combined with varimax orthogonal rotation and Kaiser normalization. Five clear factors were extracted from the data set of 47 elements in 3942 regolith samples. Kriging interpolation was used to generate spatial data surfaces from factor scores. The generated factors are composed of the geochemical associations in the raw data, and represent the underlying geological processes and formations of the area. The fourth factor generated represents gold mineralization with As, Sb, Au, Zr, Sc, Mn, Mo, Cu, K and Ni being the elements that are positively loaded onto factor 4. Therefore, single element maps of these elements have been produced alongside the factor maps in order to examine factor 4 more intensely. Also maps about structural geology and alteration in the Dzhumba project area have been produced in order to give better understanding of the factor maps. The data suggests that the deposit type is an orogenic gold deposit. Other factors created interesting results as well, and they gave information about the different geological units of the area. Factor 1 represents granitic rocks by their feldspar and trace element content, factor 2 represents black shales with possible mafic rock constituents, factor 3 represents a sulfide rich mafic mineral group or graphitic rocks that are most likely black shales and factor 5 possibly represents calcite alteration. Factor 4 is the main interest of this study. The most intense loadings for factor 4 are in Brigadnoe, Svistun and Dzhumba with a small peak in Belyi. Single element map for gold mostly corresponds to factor 4 for Svistun and Dzhumba, but Brigadnoe is represented with a small peak. However, gold has a major presence in Fedor-Ivanovskoe, which is absent from factor 4. Further exploration in Fedor-Ivanovskoe could be performed in order to clarify if this is due to an unrelated gold-only deposit or some other event. Possible future exploration in the area could benefit from factor 4 results, using As and Sb, or a combination of As, Sb, Zr, Sc, Mn, Mo, Cu, K and Ni as pathfinders for possible gold occurrences.
  • Ylä-Mella, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides can be used to date glacial events. The nuclides are formed when cosmic rays interact with atoms in rocks. When the surface is exposed to the rays, the number of produced nuclides increases. Shielding, like glaciation, can prevent production. Nuclide concentration decreases with depth because the bedrock attenuates the rays. The northern hemisphere has experienced several glaciations, but typically only the latest one can be directly observed. The aim of the study was to determine if these nuclides, produced by cosmic rays, can be used to detect glaciations before the previous one by using a forward and an inverse model. The forward model predicted the nuclide concentration with depth based on a glacial history. The longer the exposure duration was, the higher was the number of nuclides in the rock. In the model, it was possible to use three isotopes. Be-10, C-14 and Al-26. The forward model was used to produce synthetic samples, which were then used in the inverse model. The purpose of the inverse model was to test which kind of glacial histories produce similar nuclide concentrations than what the sample had. The inverse model produced a concentration curve which was compared with the concentration of the samples. The misfit of the inverse solution was defined with an “acceptance box”. The box was formed from the thickness of the sample and the corresponding concentrations. If the curve intersected with the box, the solution was accepted. Small misfit values were gained if the curve was close to the sample. The idea was to find concentration curves which have as similar values as the samples. The inverse model was used in several situations, where the number of limitations was varied. If the timing of the last deglaciation and amount of erosion were known, the second last deglaciation was found relatively well. With looser constraints, it was nearly impossible to detect the past glaciations unless a depth profile was used in the sampling. The depth profile provided a tool to estimate the amount of erosion and the total exposure duration using only one isotope.
  • Jokela, Eetu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Sukseton area is located in the northern part of Kittilä municipality, Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, approximately 15 km N from Suurikuusikko gold mine and 5 km NW from Iso-Kuotko orogenic gold deposit, between several large crustal scale thrust and shear zones. This area is a mix of different volcanic formations of Kittilä suite, felsic intrusion of Vuotso Complex and Paleoproterozoic intrusive rocks in the north. In addition to this, several porphyry dykes cut the Kittilä suite volcanic rocks around the area. Exploration work in this area started in the 1980’s when Outokumpu Oy found two minor gold and gold-copper mineralizations. In 2017, Agnico Eagle Finland Oy continued exploration in this area, intending to define the regional geology and the extent of the mineralizations. As a result of this exploration work, this study investigates more closely the regional geology, geochemistry, metamorphism and structural geology of the Sukseton area, as well as the geochronology of associated porphyry dykes. To understand and define the geology of the area, the following methods were used: geological bedrock and exploration trench mapping, interpretation of drill core loggings and several geophysical surveys, optical studies of polished thin sections and U–Pb dating a porphyry dyke sample. The metamorphic conditions of the area were studied through thorough petrological studies. In addition, an extensive geochemical and geotectonic classification of the rocks in the area was conducted. The Sukseton area composes mainly of different tholeiitic basalts and pyroclastic rocks with minor sulphide rich graphitic volcanic sediment and chert sections. Based on this study, these volcanic rocks originate from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges. With the help of geophysical surveys and field measurements, a couple of large fold structures were identified from the eastern part of the study area as well as a large shear zone in the middle of the area striking NE–SW. Porphyry dykes cut the volcanic rocks all around the area giving the minimum age of 1940±18 Ma for the volcanic rocks. Composition of porphyry dykes vary from rhyolites to basalt and they have similar geochemical characteristics with Nyssäkoski type felsic veins. The peak metamorphic conditions in the area represent high-P amphibolite facies metamorphism. Also, hydrothermal alteration is common in Sukseton and it can be metamorphic and magmatic in origin.
  • Georgi, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study consists of a comprehensive characterization of the geology, geochemistry, alteration, and mineralization at the Ronaldo prospect as well as an evaluation of its ore potential. Previous mapping campaigns of the prospect, which lies in the Central Andes in Peru at an elevation of 4300 metres, have identified intrusions overlain by a volcanic package. The intrusions are crosscut by silicified ridges that host epithermal mineralization. Satellite imagery reveals that the topographically elevated areas exhibit strongly altered rocks identified as an advanced argillic-altered lithocap. The methods used to define and better understand the geology and the evolution of the hydrothermal system included reconnaissance field mapping, whole-rock geochemistry, short-wave infrared spectroscopy, petrography, and geochronology. Previous studies have shown that only high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization can be spatially and temporally linked to porphyry Cu mineralization, and therefore this study investigates – among other aspects – what type of epithermal mineralization is present at Ronaldo in order to evaluate the potential for concealed at-depth porphyry Cu mineralization. Two separate lower Miocene intrusive units were identified, a porphyritic diorite and a porphyritic granodiorite, whose average age difference is 1.79 Ma. The intrusive units display intermediate argillic alteration. The overlying extrusive units are Sacsaquero Formation basaltic andesites and ignimbrites that are either unaltered or display propylitic alteration. The basaltic andesite roof pendants observed at Ronaldo indicate that the tops of the intrusions are preserved. At high elevations, advanced argillic alteration composed of pyrophyllite, kaolinite, and dumortierite was observed. This area is the remnant, deeper zone of a larger lithocap. The steeply dipping silicified ridges that display sericitic alteration were inferred to be the root zone of this lithocap. Elevated values of trace elements such as Te, Bi, As, and Sb suggest that the Ronaldo prospect is mostly situated in a sericitic alteration zone related to a porphyry-like magmatic-hydrothermal source located at greater depth. Isolated magnetite aggregates were observed in magmatic-hydrothermal breccia, which indicates that the sericitic alteration may have overprinted potassic alteration. A few intermediate-sulfidation epithermal veins and porphyry-related veins, including a banded molybdenite quartz vein, were observed in the creek near the major fault. At Ronaldo, high silica content and sericitic alteration correlate well with elevated concentrations of Ag, Au, and Mo, whereas Cu concentration does not correlate well with any alteration type or with silica content. Quartz veinlets in the silicified ridges that host abundant Ag and Au mineralization were interpreted to have formed at a slightly later stage and to be unrelated to the magmatic-hydrothermal system. This mineralization was interpreted to be low-sulfidation epithermal in origin due to features such as abundant adularia, lattice-textured bladed calcite replaced by quartz, crustiform banding, banded quartz-chalcedony veins, druse-lined cavities, and high Ag/Au ratios. In conclusion, the Ronaldo prospect comprises a hydrothermal system in which the deep, root zone of an advanced argillic lithocap is exposed. The exploration potential for low-sulfidation epithermal mineralization in the silicified ridges is rather significant, whereas the potential for porphyry Cu mineralization is minor due to the lack of appreciable Cu and Mo mineralization, typically shallow-depth porphyry-related hydrothermal alteration, and the lack of high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization.
  • Turtiainen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    A promising Cu-Ni-PGE containing sulphide ore deposit was discovered in 2009 by Anglo American and since the company has continued studies aiming towards utilisation of the deposit. The discovered deposit lies underneath a Natura 2000 protected mire complex, Viiankiaapa, in Sodankylä municipality in Finnish Lapland. The research and exploration activities in the area are performed with mitigation and preventing actions in order to minimize the deterioration impact to the delicate ecosystem. The more detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemistry of the mire environment in its current state can assist: in monitoring, mitigating and preventing of potential environmental effects due to future mining operations as well as planning the monitoring program. Hydrogeochemical studies, consisting of water and peat sampling at eight sampling points, were carried out along a 1.6 km long study line. Water samples were collected from the surface of the mire as well as within the peat layer and the bottom of the peat layer. Water samples were collected using a mini-piezometer. The analyses for the water samples involved: major components, trace elements and δ18O & δ2H. Groundwater influence in the different sampling points as well as different sections of the peat was investigated using the mentioned chemical and isotopic properties. Peat sampling focused on finding samples which would have different hydraulic properties in order to find the influence of peat in the hydrology in the mire. Hydraulic conductivity of peat samples was determined using rigid wall permeameter test setup. The chemical and physical methods were supplemented by a ground penetrating radar survey completed with 30 and 100 MHz antennas. Studies of peat showed that the hydraulic conductivity varies substantially even inside the rather small study area. Widely recognized correlation between hydraulic conductivity and depth was not observed statistically, but the sampling sites individually show a clear connection with depth and hydraulic conductivity. The influence of the hydraulic properties of peat on to the flow of water in the mire was observed to be significant. In cases where the hydraulic conductivity of peat was very low, water flow may be prevented altogether. This was confirmed with the use of chemical analyses. With higher hydraulic conductivity, groundwater influence was seen more or less throughout the peat profile.
  • Laurila, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Artificial groundwater is produced in Jäniksenlinna water treatment facility in Tuusula by infiltrating surface water from the lake Päijänne to the Jäniksenlinna aquifer. The geochemical properties of the artificial groundwater vary and challenge the water purification process in the Jäniksenlinna facility. The objective of the study was to solve the geochemical quality of the water in different locations inside the aquifer area and in the different steps of the water purification process and to solve the changes in the geochemistry of the water caused by the seasonal changes. The study was put into effect by collecting 20 water samples, 16 of which were from different locations inside the aquifer area and 4 of which were from the different steps of the water purification process in the water plant. The samples were collected during the spring 2018 and repeated during the summer 2018. Each water sample was analyzed for major ions by ion chromatography, trace elements by ICP-MS method and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen with the help of Picarro device. Additionally, each sample was analyzed in the field for electric conductivity, pH and temperature and in laboratory for alkalinity, pH and electric conductivity. The results from the spring and from the summer were handled separately since they differed with statistically significant levels from each other. The results were treated with statistical methods and visualized with tables, graphs, photos from the sampling points and maps. The results show that season changed the proportion of the natural and the artificial groundwater in the sampling points. However the season had no effect on the existence of the artificial groundwater in the sampling points. The proportion of the artificial groundwater was highest while the groundwater level was low, that is during the summer. The sampling points were selected with different distances to the infiltration area. However, the amount of infiltrated water did not decrease with the growing distance to the infiltration area, since the geological structures of the aquifer define the water flow inside the aquifer. The amount of artificial groundwater was lower in one sampling point closer to the infiltration area than in two sampling points further away the infiltration area. The water purification process removes the excess iron and manganese from the artificial groundwater and produces water which fulfills the standards set for the drinking water. The amount of iron and manganese in the drinking water might get even lower by conducting the water from the well 12 to the iron and manganese removal. The study covered the spring and the summer seasons, but in order to study the whole annual picture, the sampling should cover the autumn and the winter seasons as well. Flow modelling could give better picture of the formation of the artificial groundwater in Jäniksenlinna.
  • Clergeaud, Joona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pro gradu -tutkielma on osa Vantaanjoen ja Helsingin seudun vesiensuojeluyhdistys ry:n hanketta, jossa tutkitaan maanläjitystoiminnan tyypillisiä pinta- ja pohjavesivaikutuksia sekä havainnoidaan lohikalojen lisääntymisalueille tapahtuvia haittoja Vantaanjoen valuma-alueella. Maanläjitystoiminnan moninaisen luonteen vuoksi, toiminnan laajuudesta ja sen vaikutuksista ei ole olemassa luotettavaa tutkimuksiin perustuvaa tietoa. Tutkielmassa selvitettiin millaisia vaikutuksia pilaantumattomien ylijäämämaiden välivarastoinnilla ja läjityksellä on lähiympäristön pohja- ja pintaveden laatuun. Pilaantumattomien ylijäämämaiden osalta tutkimuksia tehtiin kolmessa eri kohteessa Vantaanjoen valuma-alueella. Tutkielma keskittyi valuma-alueella sijaitsevien ympäristöluvanvaraisten- ja muilla luvilla toimivien maanläjitysalueiden velvoitetarkkailutulosten kokoamiseen, tarkasteluun ja paikkatietoanalyysin kehittämiseen. Näiden kriteerien avulla voidaan arvioida läjitysalueiden vesille aiheuttamia riskejä. Tutkimukseen kuului lisäksi pohjaveden purkautumispaikkojen ja luonnonpurojen kartoitusta, vedenlaadun kenttämittauksia ja vesinäytteenottoa. Esiselvitysten perusteella odotettiin maanläjitysalueiden läheisyydessä olevissa pinta- ja pohjavesissä olevan tausta-arvoista kohonneita raskasmetalleja, talousveden laatuvaatimuksista poikkeavia pH-arvoja sekä sähkönjohtavuuden muutoksia. Tulosten perusteella pilaantumattomilla ylijäämämailla on lieviä haitallisia vaikutuksia niin pinta- ja kuin pohjaveden laadullisiin tekijöihin. Pinta- ja pohjavesissä todettiin alueittain kohonneita pitoisuuksia ja arvoja muun muassa sulfaatilla, sähkönjohtavuudella, liukoisessa muodossa raudalla, mangaanilla, uraanilla, rikillä sekä sinkillä. Tutkielman tulokset auttavat arvioimaan läjitysalueiden haitta-ainekuormituksia vesiympäristöön ja suunnittelemaan riskienhallintatoimenpiteitä kuormituksen rajoittamiseksi. Suppeita analyysipaketteja tulisi laajentaa raskasmetallien osalta, sillä vähäinen analyysivalikoima ei edusta kaikkia kohteita. Tavoitteena on ohjata maanläjitystoiminta sellaisille alueille, joilla vesiin kohdistuvat haitat voidaan hallita.
  • Rantanen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Paleoproterozoic (1.87 Ga, ɛNd -3.7) Suvasvesi granitoid intrusion in southeastern Finland is considered to be a part of the Heinävesi intrusive suite. Inner parts of the lithologically zoned Suvasvesi intrusion are variably alkali feldspar porphyritic biotite granitoid rock and the margins are composed of a more biotite-rich equigranular granitoid rock variety. The Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Viinijärvi suite adjacent to the Suvasvesi intrusion are intruded by leucocratic pegmatite dikes. Potential sources and possible contamination of the granitoid melt are considered with the help of structural and textural observations, petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, and petrophysical data. The data were acquired from 34 rock samples collected during a bedrock mapping campaign and combined with the pre-existing mapping, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Suvasvesi and surrounding areas. The Suvasvesi granitoid intrusion is compared to other members of the Heinävesi suite to verify the hypothesis of their petrogenetic connection. The compositions of both Suvasvesi intrusion and Heinävesi suite are also compared to the potential proximal sources, the adjacent Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and Archean units in the area. In addition, the compositions of the Suvasvesi intrusion and Heinävesi suite rocks are compared to other granitoids from Eastern and Northern Finland with suggested Archean sources, and to regional granitoids of same age. Based on the similarity of major and trace element compositions, it is suggested that the Suvasvesi granitoid is part of the Heinävesi suite. The granites and granodiorites of the Suvasvesi granitoid and the Heinävesi suite are ferroan, calc-alkalic, and peraluminous with average ASI value of 1.08 (n = 73). Although the Heinävesi suite is postkinematic, it shows very few similarities to other rocks of same age. The εNd values of the Heinävesi suite and the paragneiss enclaves within the Suvasvesi intrusion indicate metasedimentary source component or assimilation. Conversely, the I-type mineralogy and geochemistry suggest igneous/meta-igneous source component for the Heinävesi suite. Potential infracrustal sources for the granitoid magma are the Archean TTGs and amphibolites. The conclusion for the magma source is ambiguous. For further studying additional isotope analyses and thermodynamic modelling of the Suvasvesi and Heinävesi magmas are suggested.
  • Silvennoinen, Joel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    High amounts of H2 have been observed worldwide in deep bedrock aquifers. Sources and interaction processes of H2 within bedrock are poorly known so far, but recognizing those are important on order to identify risks related to various deep bedrock utilizing projects, such as repository of the nuclear waste. Aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between H2 or fractionation factor α (H2O–H2) and the lithology of the host rock. In addition, several proposed low temperature H2 producing processes were reviewed via literature in order to investigate if α (H2O–H2) might help to identify the source of H2. In this study, H2 isotope data collected in previous studies in Finland from Pori, Pyhäsalmi, Juuka and Outokumpu deep bore holes representing various lithologies were used. In addition to α (H2O–H2), other parameters such as relative gas volumes, isotopic composition of water, temperature data, water pH, H2/He ratio of gasses were summarized. As part of the study, in the summer of 2019 new sampling was conducted in the Pinomäki borehole, in Pori by using tube sampling method and also field measurements were applied. Samples were later analyzed with ion chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In the results, isotope geochemical analyses were applied by using H2O–H2 system as a geothermometer. Results of the water analysis from Pori borehole were consistent with previous studies thus confirming two distinct water layers. Volume of H2 (0,4 %) differed considerably when compared with the previous study (28 %). Results of the isotopic composition of the hydrogen gas revealed extremely low values from -816 to -848 ‰ relative VSMOW which are among the most depleted δ2H-H2 values ever measured in the world. According to isotope analysis, in most of the boreholes in the study, except Outokumpu, H2 is not in equilibrium with groundwater when compared to in situ temperatures. α (H2O–H2) values were partially in similar range as fractionation related to some specific hydrogen forming processes, but there wasn’t a clear connection and values from different processes were overlapping each other. H2O–H2 system re-equilibrates relatively fast in a geologic timescale, which means that the possible isotopic fingerprint of H2 origin is lost. On the other hand, since H2 was clearly in a disequilibrium state, it might indicate the presence of possible active H2 forming processes. There wasn’t any clear correlation with host rock lithology and H2 concentration nor α (H2O–H2) either, except in Juuka, where lithology, α (H2O–H2), pH, and H2/He ratio summoned with high H2 volume (12,8 %) strongly indicates serpentinization as origin of H2. There are many challenges in the sampling of deep and narrow bore holes, especially related to the intention of preserving original conditions and also preventing gas contamination. In addition to further H2 sampling, recommendations for further studies include studying H2 producing reactors to investigate the effect of different H2 forming process to the isotope fractionation of H2.
  • Wang, Yijun (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Southern Andes is an important region to study strain partitioning behavior due to the variable nature of its subduction geometry and continental mechanical properties. Along the plate margin between the Nazca plate and the South American plate, the strain partitioning behavior varies from north to south, while the plate convergence vector shows little change. The study area, the LOFZ region, lies between 38⁰S to 46⁰S in the Southern Andes at around 100 km east of the trench. It has been characterized as an area bounded by margin-parallel strike-slip faults that creates a forearc sliver, the Chiloe block. It is also located on top of an active volcanic zone, the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). This area is notably different from the Pampean flat-slab segment directly to the north of it (between latitude 28⁰ S and 33⁰ S), where volcanic activity is absent, and slip seems to be accommodated completely by oblique subduction. Seismicity in central LOFZ is spatially correlated with NE trending margin-oblique faults that are similar to the structure of SC-like kinematics described by Hippertt (1999). The margin-oblique faults and rhomb-shaped domains that accommodate strain have also been captured in analog experiments by Eisermann et al. (2018) and Eisermann relates the change in GPS velocity at the northern end of LOFZ to a decrease in crustal strength southward possibly caused by the change in dip angle. This project uses DOUAR (Braun et al. 2008), a numerical modelling software, to explore the formation of the complex fault system in the LOFZ in relation to strain partitioning in the Southern Andes. We implement the numerical versions of the analog models from Eisermann et al. (2018), called the MultiBox and NatureBox models to test the possibility to reproduce analog modelling results with numerical models. We also create simplified models of the LOFZ, the Natural System models, to compare the model displacement field with deformation pattern in the area. Our numerical model results in general replicate the findings from MultiBox experiment of Eisermann et al. (2018). We observe the formation of NW trending margin-oblique faulting in the central deformation zone, which creates rhombshaped blocks together with the margin-parallel faults. More strain is accommodated in the stronger part of the model, where the strain is more distributed across the area or prefers to settle on a few larger bounding faults, whereas in the weaker part of the model, the strain tends to localize on more smaller faults. The margin-oblique faults and rhomb-shaped domains accommodating strain is not present in the Natural System models with and without a strength difference along strike. This brings the question about the formation of the complex fault system in both the analog models and our numerical versions of them and hypothesis other than a strength gradient could be tested in the future.
  • Karpoja, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Kaapelinkulma is an orogenic gold deposit located in the Paleoproterozoic Vammala Migmatite Belt (1.91 – 1.79 Ma) in Valkeakoski municipality in Southwestern Finland, and it is considered to have been formed in microcontinent collision during Svecofennian orogeny and has been classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Kaapelinkulma comprises a set of sub-parallel lodes in a tight array hosted within a sheared quartz-diorite unit inside a tonalitic intrusion. Gold occurrence is hosted by an en echelon type sheared quartz-dioritic dyke which forms a large xenolith inside synorogenic tonalite intrusion, surrounded by mica gneiss. It is estimated that Kaapelinkulma gold deposit contains at least, 168 Kt of ore containing 3.8 g/t Au. Textural setting, mineralogical association form and assemblage of gold, sulphides and telluride grains in Kaapelinkulma were studied with field-emission scanning electron microscopy, with electron probe microanalyzer and scanning electron microscopy. Ore minerals observed in Kaapelinkulma are: arsenopyrite, löllingite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Other ore minerals identified are native bismuth, gold, scheelite, bismuth-tellurides and maldonite, which were all found in abundant amounts. Ore minerals occur as dissemination in intergranular spaces between silicate matrix, as polycrystal aggregates in quartz-veins and quartz clusters; and within shear zones. Gold in Kaapelinkulma is present as two generations: as single free native gold grains and as polycrystalline gold aggregates. Polycrystalline gold aggregates are grains formed from several mineral association and their combinations. Most common polycrystalline gold aggregates are formed from combination of: maldonite-native Au, Au-Bi alloys, Au-Ag grains and Au-hedleyite. Single free native gold grains are pure gold or gold-silver alloys. Free native gold grains can be found as intergranular, single grains in silicate matrix and adjacent or as a part of disseminated ore together with polycrystalline gold aggregates, bismuth and bismuth tellurides. Polycrystalline gold aggregates are found in disseminated ore, which are in close contact with quartz-veins and sulphide aggregates, or as inclusions in arsenopyrite-löllingite contact zones- or in other sulphides. Concentration of Au varies in native-gold grain from 76.83 to 97.87 wt% according to EPMA analyzes and from 50.03 to 100 wt% according to FE-SEM analyzes. Minor to moderate amounts of silver and copper were identified within the grains. Grain sizes of gold varies significantly from 7µm2 to 5mm2. Ore mineral paragenesis were observed to start when arsenopyrite and löllingite crystallized first, followed, partly simultaneously by pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite. This was followed by crystallization of maldonite, first occurrence of native gold and bismuth, bismuth-tellurides, hedleyite and finally tellurides and main occurrence of gold. General ore forming process in Kaapelinkulma has been open space filling.
  • Junna, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pedogenic ferromanganese nodules and concretions are prevalent redoximorphic features in tropical and sub-tropical soils. The nodules are typically highly enriched in Fe and Mn that are present as oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. The formation of nodules happens via precipitation and translocation of metals as the soil redox state undergoes cyclical changes between reductive and oxidizing settings. As the nodule elemental distribution and structure is primarily and expression of the prevailing soil redox conditions, Fe-Mn nodules have the potential to be a useful tool of paleoclimatological analysis. The Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) is a terrestrial archive for study of changes in the monsoon climate system. During Late Miocene, the intensification of the Asian Monsoon system caused an increase in warmth and humidity in inland Eastern Asia during a global trend of increased aridity and decreasing temperatures. Fe-Mn nodules from three different soil horizons, formed 8.07, 7.7 and 3.7 Ma ago in Lantian, southern CLP, were studied to compare nodules from varying sedimentary settings formed under different moisture regimes. Using electron microscopy methods, the structure and elemental distribution of nodules were described to compare their redoximorphic features. Large Fe-Mn nodules from floodplain sediments (8.07 Ma) show a well-developed structure, high metal enrichment and signs of variations in rate of formation and dominant redox states. The soil redox conditions are likely primarily controlled by the river flooding. Nodules from two eolian deposits (7.7 Ma and 3.7 Ma) were, on average smaller and showed less metal enrichment, less elemental differentiation and less variance in the dominant redox conditions. Only small, poorly developed nodules were found from older eolian sediments whereas younger soil horizon contained larger nodules with evidence of higher hydromorphism. While potential for using the nodules from eolian sediments to assess changes in precipitation exists, the lack of paleoclimatological information in smaller nodules, the small sample count, limitations of the methods and variance in depositional settings increase the uncertainty of the interpretation.
  • Hakala, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    A NW–SE trending dike swarm cuts Miocene volcanic rocks in the Ibex Hills and Precambrian to Cambrian cratonic rocks and sedimentary strata in the Saddlepeak Hills and Salt Spring Hills in southern Death Valley, California. These dikes are aligned with Jurassic and Cretaceous dike swarms of eastern California that are linked to the Mesozoic North American Cordilleran magmatism. The Ibex Hills dikes have been previously dated and yield K-Ar date of 12.7 Ma and are coeval with the early stage of the Miocene Basin and Range crustal extension in Death Valley. This Master’s thesis examines in detail the geology, petrography and geochemistry of the previously unstudied dikes of Ibex Hills, Saddlepeak Hills and Salt Spring Hills of southern Death Valley and a ~90 Ma dike of Mojave Desert to discuss (1) their petrogenetic link to each other and (2) their geologic significance. The samples and field observations were obtained in 2019. The Ibex Hills samples are relatively fresh compared to the dikes of Saddlepeak Hills and Salt Spring Hills which are pervasively altered by secondary minerals and have been subject to low-grade metamorphism. The sub-solidus processes that have modified the mineral assemblages of the metamorphic dikes are also reflected in various degrees of major element mobility and LOI. The whole-rock geochemical composition of the Ibex Hills and Mojave Desert samples is trachyandesite to trachyte, the Saddlepeak Hills and Salt Spring Hills samples are andesites. One Saddlepeak Hills sample is basaltic and, based on mineralogy, texture and composition, represents a 1.1 Ga diabase intrusion. All studied samples are enriched in LREEs and LILEs and have negative Ta-Nb anomaly, representing magmas with typical subduction zone characteristics with enriched lithospheric mantle component in source. EPMA and in situ LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis of plagioclase phenocrysts of two Miocene samples of Ibex Hills shows variation in anorthite content and 87Sr/86Sr ratios across phenocryst profiles indicating open-system magma chamber evolution with episodes of recharge, hybridization and assimilation during the crystallization. Variation in anorthite content and 87Sr/86Sr ratios between samples suggest heterogeneities in the source magmas. The studied dikes represent multiple episodes of dike emplacements in southern Death Valley. The Miocene dikes of Ibex Hills, coeval with the Basin and Range crustal extension, indicate an early period of southwest directed extension in the southern Death Valley. The metamorphosed dikes of Saddlepeak Hills and Salt Spring Hills represent one or more episodes of older dike emplacement and could be coeval with the Mesozoic magmatism of North American Cordilleran orogeny and the Cretaceous dike of Mojave Desert. However, geochronological analysis is needed to verify the exact ages of these dikes.