Browsing by Subject "Meat inspection"

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  • Lassen, Brian; Geldhof, Peter; Hälli, Outi; Vlaminck, Johnny; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Heinonen, Mari (2019)
    During their migration through the pig's body, Ascaris suum larvae cause significant damage to the lungs. Little is known about the actual impact of this tissue damage on the occurrence and severity of respiratory problems in industrial pig fattening farms. In this study, we evaluated the link between the serological response to two different A. suum antigen preparations and respiratory or meat inspection outcomes. Two different serological tests were used that measure antibodies against either the A. suum haemoglobin molecule or complete homogenate of the 3rd stage larva that migrate through the lungs. Firstly, serum samples were analysed that were collected from 19 herds in which the cause of acute clinical respiratory symptoms was either Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, A. suum, or a miscellaneous cause. This was done to test whether serological results could confirm pathological findings. Secondly, serum samples from 60 herds of finishing pigs with a history of high or low frequency of pleuritis at meat inspection (MI), but without acute respiratory symptoms at the time of sampling, were also submitted for serological evaluation using both tests. Regression models were used to search for potential associations between the proportion of pigs testing seropositive with MI results, in particular pathological changes related to the lungs. The results of both ELISAs were strongly associated (P <0.001) with pigs belonging to a herd where the respiratory problems could be attributed to A. swim by histology, indicating that both tests can be used to diagnose clinical respiratory outbreaks due to A. suum. In the herds without acute clinical respiratory symptoms, a positive association was found between the proportion of pigs testing seropositive and the percentage of livers rejected due to milk spots and with whole carcass condemnations. No association was found between Ascaris serology and lung pathology (pneumonia and pleuritis) registered at MI, however, challenging the likely involvement of Ascaris in the development of these lesions.
  • Elina, Felin; Outi, Hälli; Mari, Heinonen; Jukola, Elias; Maria, Fredriksson-Ahomaa (2019)
    Current macroscopic meat inspection cannot detect the most common pork-borne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii). Furthermore, food chain information (FCI) may not provide sufficient data for visual-only inspection, which is supposed to be the common way of inspection of pigs in the European Union. Our observational study aimed to evaluate the serological monitoring and the clinical evaluation of on-farm health status of pigs and assess the feasibility of these data as part of the FCI in meat inspection. We studied the serological status of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and T. gondii in pigs during the fattening period. Additionally, we evaluated the association between on-farm health status and meat inspection findings. On 57 indoor fattening pig farms in Finland, we collected blood samples (mean of 20 pigs/farm) and assessed the on-farm health (coughing, tail biting, lameness) at the end of the fattening period. We visited 34 of these farms also at the beginning of the fattening for sampling and on-farm health evaluation of the same pigs. Meat inspection results were obtained after slaughter for all 57 farms. Salmonella seroprevalence was low at the end of the fattening period: it was 17.6%, 10.6% or 1.9%, with the cut-off values of OD15% (recommended by the test manufacturer), OD20% (used by Danish monitoring programme) and OD40% (used by German monitoring programme), respectively. The overall seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. increased significantly (P 
  • Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (2016)
    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), antemortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p <0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p = 0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To control the main biological public health hazards related to pork, serological surveillance should be done and the information obtained from analyses should be used as part of the FCI. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Luukkanen, Jenni; Nevas, Mari; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Lundén, Janne (2018)
    In the European Union, competent authorities are obligated to arrange audits to ensure that the official control (comprising meat and food safety inspections) in slaughterhouses is performed according to legislation. Previous information on the functionality of these audits and on non-conformities observed in the official control of slaughterhouses is limited. In this study, non-conformities of the official control of slaughterhouses and their correction were analysed from the internal audit reports of the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira. To further assess the benefits and needs for improvement of the audits, we conducted interviews with the chief official veterinarians (OVs) responsible for the controls in slaughterhouses and the auditors of Evira. According to our results, non-conformities, especially in the inspection of intestines of bovines and swine, were common. Regarding food safety inspections, OVs should develop their documentation, perform the follow-up of the correction of non-compliances more systematically, and improve the enforcement, especially in smaller red meat slaughterhouses. Based on our results, internal audits appeared to be beneficial, as non-conformities in the official control were noticed, most non-conformities were corrected or corrective measures had been taken, and the audits were assessed as necessary by both the auditors and auditees. Our results can be utilized in improving the official control and audit procedures in slaughterhouses. In the future, the uniformity of meat inspection could be improved by auditing also differences in the rejections and their reasons between official auxiliaries in post-mortem inspection.
  • Turku, M.; Lepistö, O.; Lunden, J. (2018)
    Official food control inspections (official inspections) of food establishments and third party audits of food safety management systems (FSMSs) based on international standards both focus on food safety, which has raised discussions on whether FSMSs and their audits could reduce official inspections in food establishments. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the findings of official inspections and third party audits in food establishments are in alignment and to survey the inspectors' and food business operators' (FBOs) perceptions of official inspections and audits. The results can be used in planning the use of audit results as part of official food control. The results show that both inspectors and auditors recognized non-compliances/non-conformities, but significant discrepancies between the findings of official inspections and audits existed, making the utilization of audit results challenging. However, most of the FBOs and inspectors agreed that official inspections and audits overlap, and the majority also agreed that audits of a certified FSMS could under certain circumstances reduce official inspections. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Alban, Lis; Vieira-Pinto, M.; Meemken, D.; Maurer, P.; Ghidini, S.; Santos, S.; Laguna, J.G.; Laukkanen-Ninios, R.; Alvseike, O.; Langkabel, N. (2022)
    The overall objectives of meat inspection are to contribute to food safety, animal welfare, and animal health. In the European Union (EU), there is a request for a modernised meat inspection system that addresses these objectives in a more valid, feasible and cost-effective way than does the traditional system. One part of the modernisation deals with the coding system to register meat inspection findings. Although unified standards are set at the EU level for judgement criteria regarding fitness of meat for consumption, different national systems are in force. The question is the extent of the differences and whether there is a basis for harmonisation. To investigate this, information was gathered about the code systems in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Spain. Moreover, meat inspection data covering pigs slaughtered in 2019 were collected. A comparison of the number of codes available, the terminology and the frequencies of the findings registered was undertaken. Codes with a similar meaning were grouped. Hereby, two lists were compiled showing the most common codes leading to total and to partial condemnation. Substantial variations in the percentage of condemned pigs and in the terms used were identified, and possible reasons behind this are discussed. Moreover, a strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats (SWOT)-like analysis was applied to the coding systems. Finally, the reasons for unfitness of meat given in the EU Food Inspection Regulation 2019/627 were compared to the national code lists. The results show the systems in force varied substantially, and each system had its advantages and disadvantages. The diverse terminology observed made it a challenge to compare data between countries. Development of harmonised terminology for meat inspection findings is suggested, enabling comparison of data between abattoirs, regions, and countries, while respecting the national epidemiological situation, the local food safety culture, and the trade agreements in force. © 2021 The Authors
  • Halli, Outi; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari (2020)
    Background Chronic pleurisy is a common finding in slaughtered pigs in post-mortem meat inspection. The prevalence of pleurisy has been increasing during the last decade also in Finland. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to search for environmental, infectious and management-related herd-level risk factors for pleurisy in the slaughterhouse. Altogether 46 Finnish pig herds, including 25 control (low pleurisy prevalence in meat inspection) and 21 case (high pleurisy) herds, were enrolled in the study and visited during the tenth week of the rearing period of finishing pigs. Herd personnel were asked about basic herd information, management and environmental factors. Selected pigs were examined clinically, environmental parameters were measured and 15 blood samples per herd were taken during herd visits. Antibodies againstActinobacillus pleuropneumoniaserotype 2 (APP2) and ApxIV toxin and swine influenza virus were measured. After the slaughter of study pigs, meat inspection results of the batch were gathered from slaughterhouses. Multivariate logistic regression model was built to identify possible risk factors for a herd to be a case herd (i.e. having high pleurisy values). Results Finishing herd type and herd size were observed to act as risk factors. None of clinical signs of pigs, management-related factors or environmental measurements were associated with herd status. Conclusions As previously known, in endemic and subclinical infections such as APP, herd factors are important, but detailed risk factors seem to be difficult to identify.
  • Hälli, Outi; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Chronic pleurisy is a common finding in slaughtered pigs in post-mortem meat inspection. The prevalence of pleurisy has been increasing during the last decade also in Finland. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to search for environmental, infectious and management-related herd-level risk factors for pleurisy in the slaughterhouse. Altogether 46 Finnish pig herds, including 25 control (low pleurisy prevalence in meat inspection) and 21 case (high pleurisy) herds, were enrolled in the study and visited during the tenth week of the rearing period of finishing pigs. Herd personnel were asked about basic herd information, management and environmental factors. Selected pigs were examined clinically, environmental parameters were measured and 15 blood samples per herd were taken during herd visits. Antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia serotype 2 (APP2) and ApxIV toxin and swine influenza virus were measured. After the slaughter of study pigs, meat inspection results of the batch were gathered from slaughterhouses. Multivariate logistic regression model was built to identify possible risk factors for a herd to be a case herd (i.e. having high pleurisy values). Results Finishing herd type and herd size were observed to act as risk factors. None of clinical signs of pigs, management-related factors or environmental measurements were associated with herd status. Conclusions As previously known, in endemic and subclinical infections such as APP, herd factors are important, but detailed risk factors seem to be difficult to identify.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004–2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Results Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. Conclusions This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti (2017)
    Background: Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004-2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Results: Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. Conclusions: This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.
  • Heinonen, Mari; Bergman, Paula; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Valros, Anna; Oliviero, Claudio; Peltoniemi, Olli; Hälli, Outi (2018)
    Sow meat inspection (MI) and mortality data are important sources of information for use in herd health work. This observational study examined whether MI results of sows associate with sow mortality in Finnish sow herds. We also described some MI findings of sows to create basic references in order to encourage their use in herd health work. The project was widely advertised to farmers of sow herds and practicing veterinarians. Ten herds joined the project voluntarily and 36 other herds after they were contacted by the researchers. MI data (carcass weight, lean meat percentage, arthritis, abscesses, liver condemnations, milk spots, organ condemnations, pleuritis, pneumonia, shoulder ulcers, tail biting, whole carcass condemnations, partial carcass condemnations and kg of meat condemned) were made available by the three largest slaughterhouses in Finland, and sow mortality data were obtained from the National Swine Herd Register for 39 of the study herds for the year 2014. The mean herd size of participating herds was 529 females with a standard deviation of 479 and mean annual mortality 9.0% +/- 5.2%. As much as 22.8% of the 7437 slaughtered sows had at least one MI finding. Heavy carcasses were less likely to have at least one MI finding. A median (range) of 1.8% (0-7.2) and 11.8% (0-34.6) of the sows were recorded to have a whole and partial carcass condemnation, respectively. The most common MI findings were abscesses (5.7%, 0-16.3), shoulder ulcers (3.6%, 0-22.9) and arthritis (2.1%, 0-13.3). In individual carcasses, abscesses were associated with arthritis, shoulder ulcers and pneumonia, which was indicative that these animals most likely had a systemic infection. Pneumonia findings were associated with pleuritis. At the herd level, the increase of sow mortality by 1% was associated with an increased percentage of slaughtered females with at least one MI finding 0.8% (P = 0.01). If sow mortality increased by 1%, the odds ratio for the herd having more than a median percentage of pleuritis was 1.3 (95% confidence interval; 1.01 - 1.57, P = 0.04) compared to the situation of the herd having less than a median percentage of pleuritis. Also, if sow mortality increased by 1%, the percentage of partial carcass condemnations of females increased by 0.4% (P = 0.08). These results suggest that high mortality was associated with an increase of some MI findings. MI results of sows should be used in herd health follow-up of sow health.