Browsing by Subject "Memory"

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  • Vaskivuo, Laura; Hokkanen, Laura; Hänninen, Tuomo; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paajanen, Teemu; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia (2018)
    Objectives: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are among the key concerns in the elderly, but their role in detecting objective cognitive problems is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between SMCs (both prospective and retrospective memory complaints) and neuropsychological test performance in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. Methods: This investigation is part of the FINGER project, a multicenter randomized controlled trial aiming at preventing cognitive decline in high-risk individuals. The cognitive assessment of participants was conducted at baseline using a modified neuropsychological test battery (NTB). SMCs were evaluated with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) in a sub-sample of 560 participants (mean age, 69.9 years). Results: Having more prospective SMCs was associated with slower processing speed, but not with other NTB domains. Retrospective SMCs were linked to poorer function on NTB total score, processing speed, and memory. Executive function domain was not associated with any PRMQ ratings. Depressive symptoms and poor quality of life diluted the observed associations for NTB total score and memory. However, the association between PRMQ and processing speed remained even after full adjustments. Conclusions: Our results indicate that self-reported memory problems, measured with PRMQ, are associated with objectively measured cognitive performance. Such complaints in healthy elderly people also seem to reflect reduced mental tempo, rather than memory deficits. Slowing of processing speed may thus be negatively related to memory self-efficacy. It is also important to consider affective factors among those who report memory problems.
  • Uro, Risto (2017)
    In recent years, a number of New Testament and early Christian scholars have begun to use cognitive science approaches in their work. In this paper, I situate those efforts within the larger framework of the changing humanities, and the increased interest among humanistic scholars and social scientists in drawing on the growing body of knowledge on the cognitive and evolutionary roots of human thinking and behaviour. I also suggest how cognitive historiography can be helpful in shedding new light on issues discussed by New Testament scholars, by elaborating a case study: an analysis of the rite introduced by John the Baptist.
  • Lempinen, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The population is getting older worldwide and the global cost of cognitive impairment is rising. There is an urgent need to find ways to prevent and delay the onset of dementia and cognitive decline. According to previous studies food intake seems to be associated with cognition. However, while cognitive impairment usually develops during a long period of time, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on studying nutrition and cognition only at old age. The aim of the study is to examine, if there is association between food intake in youth and middle-age and cognition later in life. In addition it will be examined, whether changes in food intake are associated with cognition. The data is from the study The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (abbr. FINGER). FINGER is a multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted in six Finnish cities. Altogether 1260 individuals aged 60–77 years and at risk of cognitive decline participated in the study. The data used in this study is collected in the beginning of FINGER. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning present food intake and food intake, when they were 20 years old (youth) and 50 years old (middle age) retrospectively. This study covers the use of milk/sour milk, spread and fish. Food intakes from different age stages were used to form a diet index that roughly described the wholesomeness of participants’ diets. Cognitive status was examined by a trained psychologist. Participants performed a test battery of 14 different tests. On the grounds of these tests a total score was calculated that described participants’ cognition as a whole. Statistical analysis involved Student’s t-test, univariate and multivariate analysis and Tukey’s test. Both the food intake in youth and middle-age seemed to be associated with cognition later in life. The group of participants, who had drunken whole milk daily in youth had poorer cognitive performance than the group, who had drunk milk with less fat (p=0,014). The association between milk consumption in middle-age and cognition was similar (p<0,000). Also, the group that had spread butter on bread daily in middle-age, had poorer scores than the group that had used vegetable fat-based spreads (p<0,000). The diet index was also associated with cognition (p<0,000) It also seemed to matter, what kind of food intake changes had been made between different age stages. For example, the group, that had started using low-fat milk or stopped drinking milk daily between youth and middle-age had better scores than the group that had drunk whole milk both in youth and in middle-age (p<0,000). The food intakes in youth and in middle-age are import factors in trying to prevent and delay cognitive impairment. There is a need for more studies, especially to investigate the mechanism between early food intake and cognition later in life.
  • Estus, Roberta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis focuses on examining American culture in the early twenty-first century via its popular culture depiction of German culture in the 1940s. Film is used as a means to represent, recreate, and reaffirm cultural values; it provides evidence of deeply rooted beliefs and preferences. Representations on screen reflect present realities, rather than historical fact. By showing history in a certain light, we are actually showing ourselves in a certain light. In this thesis I use the categories of witness, accomplice, and perpetrator to examine three Hollywood films from 2008 and 2009 depicting German women during the Holocaust: The Reader, The Boy in the Striped Pajamas, and Inglourious Basterds. I identify these archetypes as they are displayed in the films and analyze the way that history is used to reflect contemporary values, focusing on the gendered aspect of war guilt. The way that female characters are depicted in these three films says something about the prevailing expectations for women in early twenty-first century American culture, namely that they lack the agency that being responsible or guilty requires. Guilt implies full agency. If a person does not have agency, they are not guilty but instead either complicit or another victim of the real guilty party. By denying women agency, we excuse them from guilt. Prevailing beliefs about the eternal masculine and feminine are maintained when we choose to ignore the nuances of history, opting instead to reiterate simplistic binaries that satisfy audience demands.
  • Isokuortti, Harri; Luoto, Teemu (2019)
    Tavallisin syy aivovammaan on kaatuminen ja suurin osa vammoista on lieviä. Alkuvaiheessa tärkeintä on sulkea pois vakavan vamman mahdollisuus. Tapahtumatiedot, löydökset ja oireet kirjataan huolellisesti. Olennaisia ovat tajunnan muutokset, muistiaukko ja kuvantamislöydökset. Akuuttivaiheessa ensisijainen kuvantamismuoto on pään tietokonetomografia. Sillä voidaan sulkea pois vakavat kallonsisäiset verenvuodot. Toipumista voidaan edistää oireenmukaisella hoidolla ja potilasohjauksella. Ennuste on hyvä, mutta toipumisen pitkittyessä erikoissairaanhoidon arvio on usein tarpeen.
  • Kangaslampi, Samuli; Garoff, Ferdinand; Peltonen, Kirsi (2015)
    Background: Millions of children worldwide suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other mental health problems due to repeated exposure to war or organized violence. Forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most commonly used treatment for PTSD and appear to be effective for children as well, but little is known about the mechanisms of change through which they achieve their effectiveness. Here we present the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) studying the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), a CBT-based, manualized, short-term intervention for PTSD symptoms resulting from repeated traumatization, in immigrant children traumatized by war. Methods/Design: We are conducting a multicentre, pragmatic RCT in a usual care setting. Up to 80 9-17-year-old immigrant children who have experienced war and suffer from PTSD symptoms will be randomized into intervention (NET) and control (treatment as usual, TAU) groups of equal sizes. The effectiveness of NET treatment will be compared to both a waiting list and the parallel TAU positive control group, on the primary outcomes of PTSD and depressive symptoms, psychological distress, resilience, and level of cognitive performance. The effects of the intervention on traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions will be studied as potential mechanisms of change mediating overall treatment effectiveness. The possible moderating effects of peritraumatic dissociation, level of cognitive performance, and gender on treatment effectiveness will also be considered. We hypothesize that NET will be more effective than a waitlist condition or TAU in reducing PTSD and other symptoms and improving resilience, and that these effects will be mediated by changes in traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions. Discussion: The results of this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of NET in treating trauma-related symptoms in immigrant children affected by war. The trial will also generate insights into the complex relationships between PTSD, memory functions, posttraumatic cognitions and cognitive performance in children, and help guide the future development and implementation of therapeutic interventions for PTSD in children.
  • Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa (2016)
    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.