Browsing by Subject "Men"

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  • Jyrkinen, Marjut; Väkiparta, Maria; Lämsä, Anna-Maija (2019)
    Purpose This paper focuses on how gendered processes of working life are (re)constructed and are also challenged discursively in paid and volunteer care and work in reception centers. The purpose of this paper is to show how caring work with asylum seekers can both enhance the traditional gender order and challenge it through enabling men to have opportunities to care. Design/methodology/approach The data were produced through qualitative interviews among paid workers and volunteers in reception centers, and analyzed through a discourse analysis approach. Findings Three discourses of care and work were identified: a discourse on solidarity and care; a discourse on control and order; and a discourse on caring men. The findings show that traditional attitudes toward gender are easily discerned in other cultures, but not as easily recognized in the everyday processes near at hand. Gender order is retained through traditional roles, which also reflects conventional attitudes in a society often seen as a model country for equality. However, change is possible, and one core issue is the need to involve men in care work and caring in general. Social implications - The findings can be applicable to the deconstruction of traditional gender order in working life; to the disclosure of gendered xenophobia in work with asylum seekers, in particular through dialogue with "Others"; and to the enabling of care by men. Originality/value Little previous research has been done on care in reception centers and care as a gendered activity with value. In the future many countries are likely to encounter increases in asylum seekers, and therefore, intersections of gender and ethnicity are of importance in societies as regards migration, work and care.
  • Tuominen, Heidi; Rautava, Jaana; Kero, Katja; Syrjänen, Stina; Collado, Maria C; Rautava, Samuli (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Aberrant microbiota composition has been linked to disease development at numerous anatomical sites. Microbiota changes in reaction to viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have been investigated almost exclusively in the female reproductive tract. However, HPV infection may also affect male health by reducing semen quality and fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether present HPV DNA is associated with detectable changes in semen bacterial microbiota composition and diversity. Methods This study relied on stored semen samples from 31 fertile healthy men who participated in the Finnish family HPV Study during the years 1998–2001. DNA was extracted from semen with PCR template preparation kit. HPV was genotyped using Luminex-based Multimetrix® assay. Microbiota was analyzed from the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA gene following sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform. All statistical analyses were performed with Calypso software version 8.84. Results HPV DNA was detected in 19.4% (6/31) of the semen samples. HPV status in the semen did not impact the α-diversity estimations, as measured by Chao1 and Shannon indices, nor ß-diversity. Nevertheless, HPV-positive semen samples exhibited differences in the taxonomic composition of the bacterial microbiota including higher abundances of Moraxellaceae (p = 0.028), Streptococcus (p = 0.0058) and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.012) compared to HPV-negative semen samples. Conclusion HPV infection is associated with altered bacterial microbiota composition in semen, and this might have in impact to male health in general. As of present, it is unclear whether these changes result from HPV infection or whether altered bacterial microbiota increases susceptibility to HPV infection. More research is needed on viral-bacterial interactions in the male reproductive system.
  • Tuominen, H; Rautava, J; Kero, K; Syrjanen, S; Collado, MC; Rautava, S (2021)
    BackgroundAberrant microbiota composition has been linked to disease development at numerous anatomical sites. Microbiota changes in reaction to viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have been investigated almost exclusively in the female reproductive tract. However, HPV infection may also affect male health by reducing semen quality and fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether present HPV DNA is associated with detectable changes in semen bacterial microbiota composition and diversity.MethodsThis study relied on stored semen samples from 31 fertile healthy men who participated in the Finnish family HPV Study during the years 1998-2001. DNA was extracted from semen with PCR template preparation kit. HPV was genotyped using Luminex-based Multimetrix (R) assay. Microbiota was analyzed from the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA gene following sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform. All statistical analyses were performed with Calypso software version 8.84.ResultsHPV DNA was detected in 19.4% (6/31) of the semen samples. HPV status in the semen did not impact the alpha -diversity estimations, as measured by Chao1 and Shannon indices, nor ss -diversity. Nevertheless, HPV-positive semen samples exhibited differences in the taxonomic composition of the bacterial microbiota including higher abundances of Moraxellaceae (p=0.028), Streptococcus (p=0.0058) and Peptostreptococcus (p=0.012) compared to HPV-negative semen samples.ConclusionHPV infection is associated with altered bacterial microbiota composition in semen, and this might have in impact to male health in general. As of present, it is unclear whether these changes result from HPV infection or whether altered bacterial microbiota increases susceptibility to HPV infection. More research is needed on viral-bacterial interactions in the male reproductive system.
  • Malde, Sachin; Nambiar, Arjun K.; Umbach, Roland; Lam, Thomas B.; Bach, Thorsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Drake, Marcus J.; Gacci, Mauro; Gratzke, Christian; Madersbacher, Stephan; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Tikkinen, Kari; Gravas, Stavros; European Assoc Urology Non-neuroge (2017)
    Context: Several noninvasive tests have been developed for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in men to avoid the burden and morbidity associated with invasive urodynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of these tests, however, remains uncertain. Objective: To systematically review available evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive tests in diagnosing BOO in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using a pressure-flow study as the reference standard. Evidence acquisition: The EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal databases were searched up to May 18, 2016. All studies reporting diagnostic accuracy for noninvasive tests for BOO or detrusor underactivity in men with LUTS compared to pressure-flow studies were included. Two reviewers independently screened all articles, searched the reference lists of retrieved articles, and performed the data extraction. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Evidence synthesis: The search yielded 2774 potentially relevant reports. After screening titles and abstracts, 53 reports were retrieved for full-text screening, of which 42 (recruiting a total of 4444 patients) were eligible. Overall, the results were predominantly based on findings from nonrandomised experimental studies and, within the limits of such study designs, the quality of evidence was typically moderate across the literature. Differences in noninvasive test threshold values and variations in the urodynamic definition of BOO between studies limited the comparability of the data. Detrusor wall thickness (median sensitivity 82%, specificity 92%), near- infrared spectroscopy (median sensitivity 85%, specificity 87%), and the penile cuff test (median sensitivity 88%, specificity 75%) were all found to have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing BOO. Uroflowmetry with a maximum flow rate of 10 mm was reported to have similar diagnostic accuracy, with median sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 75%. Conclusions: According to the literature, a number of noninvasive tests have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing BOO in men. However, although the majority of studies have a low overall risk of bias, the available evidence is limited by heterogeneity. While several tests have shown promising results regarding noninvasive assessment of BOO, invasive urodynamics remain the gold standard. Patient summary: Urodynamics is an accurate but potentially uncomfortable test for patients in diagnosing bladder problems such as obstruction. We performed a thorough and comprehensive review of the literature to determine if there were less uncomfortable but equally effective alternatives to urodynamics for diagnosing bladder problems. We found that some simple tests appear to be promising, although they are not as accurate. Further research is needed before these tests are routinely used in place of urodynamics. (C) 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.