Browsing by Subject "Mental disorders"

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  • Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Koskinen, Aki; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Virtanen, Marianna; Härkänen, Tommi; Lallukka, Tea (2018)
    Background: Previous studies have not distinguished between different alcohol-use histories, which could have contributed to the current inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between alcohol use and subsequent sickness absence. We thus examined alcohol use and subsequent diagnosis-specific sickness absence in groups with different levels of alcohol use, as well as in lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and people with clinical alcohol use disorders. Methods: The data of the population-based Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901) of 3666 Finns aged 30-55 were linked with national registers on medically certified sickness absences lasting for > 10 working days (long-term) for all causes (2000 -2010) and for mental or musculoskeletal disorders (2004-2010), as well as with registers on pensions and death (2000-2010). Alcohol use was assessed by questionnaire. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated at baseline in a clinical examination, and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Cox regression analyses were conducted with censoring for death and retirement from work. Results: During an average 10-year follow-up, 56.0% of the participants had at least one long-term sickness absence period. Compared with light drinkers, those having an alcohol use disorder had increased risk of all-cause sickness absence (HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.54) and sickness absence due to mental disorders (HR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.39 - 3.35), when somatic and mental disorders as well as demographic, lifestyle-related and occupational factors at baseline were accounted for. Lifelong abstainers did not differ from light drinkers. Also high-volume drinking (HR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.25) and former drinking (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15 - 2.15) were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders. Alcohol use was not predictive of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to distinguish between former drinking and lifelong abstinence, as only former drinking was associated with sickness absence. Alcohol use disorder and high-volume drinking were strongly predictive of sickness absence due to mental disorders. Identifying people with excessive alcohol use e.g. in occupational health care, and mapping and supporting their mental health may help in preventing sickness absences.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki (2018)
    Objective: We investigated alcohol use and smoking at time of burn and their relationships with severity of burn and presence of mental disorders. Methods: Consecutive acute burn patients (N = 107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the structured clinical interview for mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and after 6 months. Information regarding being under the influence of alcohol and having smoking-related activity at burn as well as about hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and heavy smoking before the burn was recorded. Results: Around half (52%) of the acute burn patients were under the influence of alcohol and 19% had been both drinking and smoking at the time of the burn. Patients under the influence at the time of burn had significantly higher prevalence of lifetime mental disorders compared to those patients who were not under the influence of alcohol (73.2% vs. 45.1%, p = 0.003), especially alcohol dependence (55.4% vs. 13.7%, p <0.001) and anxiety disorders (28.6% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.015). Patients who had both alcohol use and smoking at burn had even more often at least one mental disorder (95.0% vs. 51.7%, p <0.001), in specific alcohol dependence (90.0% vs. 23.0%, p <0.001), or psychotic disorder (25.0% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.016). The main characteristics of the burns themselves did not differ significantly between these groups. Conclusion: Half of the burn patients were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the burn in this study. In almost all patients where alcohol and smoking contributed to the burn a diagnosable alcohol use disorder was present. Interventions for those with alcohol use disorders and the associated risk behaviors are important for the prevention of burns. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Nissinen, Niina-Maria; Gissler, Mika; Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Koponen, Anne M. (2021)
    Introduction: The dual impact of prenatal substance exposure (i.e. alcohol/drugs) and adverse postnatal caregiving environment on offspring secondary education completion is an understudied research area. The aim was to investigate the influence of childhood adversities, out-of home care, and offspring's mental and/or behavioural disorders on secondary education completion among prenatally exposed offspring in comparison to matched unexposed offspring. Methods: This is a longitudinal register-based matched cohort study in Finland including offspring with a history of prenatal substance exposure and a matched unexposed cohort. The study sample included 283 exposed and 820 unexposed offspring aged 18-23 years. Results: The results showed a time lag in secondary education completion and lower educational attainment overall among exposed compared with unexposed (37.8% vs. 51.0%, respectively). The results from the multivariate logistic regression models showed that the differences in the secondary education completion between exposed and unexposed were diminished in the presence of covariates. A cumulative childhood adversity score and out-of-home care were not associated with secondary education completion in the multivariate models, whereas the different domains of offspring's mental and/or behavioural disorders including psychiatric disorders (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.96), neuropsychological disorders (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.23-0.54) and dual psychiatric and neuropsychological disorder (AOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18-0.48) showed an independent negative effect on secondary education completion. Conclusions: Inferior educational outcomes may not be directly linked with prenatal substance exposure but may rather reflect the extent of evolving offspring's mental and/or behavioural disorders over time influenced by childhood adversities.
  • Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Riipinen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa (2016)
    We examined whether adolescents' family structure associate with depression in a clinical sample of 508 adolescents (age 13-17 years) treated in psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006. Psychiatric disorders of adolescents were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview. Adolescents with depression were characterized by a single parent family background (58 %), but less commonly by a child welfare placement (37 %). Depression in adolescents was significantly related to female gender and a single parent family background, but less significantly related to comorbid psychotic or conducts disorders. The association between family structure and depression presents a challenge to mental health services. Early screening for depression in adolescents admitted for psychiatric treatment from "at risk" family types is important to enhance their future wellbeing and coping strategies.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuola, Jyrki (2019)
    Objective: Impulsiveness is a tendency to act quickly based on a whim without reflection or consideration of consequences. We studied its correlations with burn variables and mental disorders among burn patients. Methods: Consecutive acute burn patients (N=107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and at 6 months. All patients filled out the 30-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the most commonly administered self-report measure and a standard point of reference in research on impulsiveness. Results: The mean total score of BIS-11 was 64.5 (range 41.0-87.8, SD +/- 6.9). There was not a significant correlation between impulsiveness and a range of characteristics of burn injury (all p-values >0.05). We found a significant correlation between some pre-burn mental disorders and impulsiveness, alcohol dependence and attentional impulsiveness (OR=1.22, p=0.022), any personality disorder and non-planning impulsiveness (OR=1.21, p=0.005), and antisocial personality disorder and motor impulsiveness (OR=1.35, p=0.043). Patients with high impulsiveness (total score >65) more often than those with low impulsiveness ( Conclusion: Impulsiveness had a significant correlation with mental disorders but not with burn-related variables. Therefore the role of impulsiveness in burn injuries should not be investigated independently without first accounting for the role of mental disorders. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
  • Tuovinen, Soile; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Hamalainen, Esa; Villa, Pia M.; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Raikkonen, Katri (2021)
    Background: Maternal antenatal stress, including symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress, is associated with mental and behavioral problems in children. Whether it is associated with child mental and behavioral disorders remains uncertain. We examined if maternal antenatal symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress were associated with mental and behavioral disorders in their children, if the associations varied according to gestational week, stress type, fluctuating or consistently high symptoms, and if they were driven by maternal or paternal lifetime mood or anxiety disorders. Methods: 3365 mothers participating in the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the State Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale up to 14 times throughout pregnancy. The Care Register for Health Care provided data on mental and behavioral (including neurodevelopmental) disorders for their children from birth (11/07/2006-07/24/2010) until 12/31/2016 and for parental lifetime mood and anxiety disorders until 12/31/ 2016. Results: The hazard of any childhood mental and behavioral disorder (HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.39-2.51) was significantly higher for children whose mothers reported consistently high in comparison to consistently low levels of all types of stress throughout pregnancy. The associations remained significant when adjusted for maternal and paternal lifetime mood and anxiety disorders (and their comorbidity and timing and mood disorder type). Conclusion: Maternal antenatal stress is associated with higher risk of childhood mental and behavioral disorders. Efforts to reduce maternal antenatal stress should be given a high priority to improve child mental health.
  • Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes; Haaramo, Peija; Erkkila, Elisabet; Marola, Niko; Nousiainen, Kirsi; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    Background: Homelessness is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care use. The aim of this study was to examine the role of mental disorders in relation to the use of 1) daytime primary health care services and 2) after hours primary health care emergency room (PHER) services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. Methods: The study cohort consists of all 158 homeless persons using the four shelters operating in the study area during two selected nights. The health records were analyzed over a period of 3 years prior to the sample nights and data on morbidity and primary health care visits were gathered. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between mental disorders and daytime visits to primary health care and after hours visits to PHERs. Results: During the 3 years the 158 homeless persons in the cohort made 1410 visits to a physician in primary health care. The cohort exhibited high rates of mental disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs); i.e. 141 persons (89%) had a mental disorder. We found dual diagnosis, defined as SUD concurring with other mental disorder, to be strongly associated with daytime primary health care utilization (IRR 11.0, 95% CI 5.9-20.6) when compared with those without any mental disorder diagnosis. The association was somewhat weaker for those with only SUDs (IRR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.9) or with only other mental disorders (IRR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8). When focusing upon the after hours visits to PHERs we observed that both dual diagnosis (IRR 14.1, 95% CI 6.3-31.2) and SUDs (11.5, 95% CI 5.7-23.3) were strongly associated with utilization of PHERs compared to those without any mental disorder. In spite of a high numbers of visits, we found undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions: Dual diagnosis is particularly strongly associated with primary health care daytime visits among homeless persons staying in shelters, while after hours visits to primary health care level emergency rooms are strongly associated with both dual diagnosis and SUDs. Active treatment for SUDs could reduce the amount of emergency visits made by homeless shelter users.
  • Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes; Haaramo, Peija; Erkkilä, Elisabet; Marola, Niko; Nousiainen, Kirsi; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Homelessness is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care use. The aim of this study was to examine the role of mental disorders in relation to the use of 1) daytime primary health care services and 2) after hours primary health care emergency room (PHER) services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. Methods The study cohort consists of all 158 homeless persons using the four shelters operating in the study area during two selected nights. The health records were analyzed over a period of 3 years prior to the sample nights and data on morbidity and primary health care visits were gathered. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between mental disorders and daytime visits to primary health care and after hours visits to PHERs. Results During the 3 years the 158 homeless persons in the cohort made 1410 visits to a physician in primary health care. The cohort exhibited high rates of mental disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs); i.e. 141 persons (89%) had a mental disorder. We found dual diagnosis, defined as SUD concurring with other mental disorder, to be strongly associated with daytime primary health care utilization (IRR 11.0, 95% CI 5.9–20.6) when compared with those without any mental disorder diagnosis. The association was somewhat weaker for those with only SUDs (IRR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5–9.9) or with only other mental disorders (IRR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4–10.8). When focusing upon the after hours visits to PHERs we observed that both dual diagnosis (IRR 14.1, 95% CI 6.3–31.2) and SUDs (11.5, 95% CI 5.7–23.3) were strongly associated with utilization of PHERs compared to those without any mental disorder. In spite of a high numbers of visits, we found undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions Dual diagnosis is particularly strongly associated with primary health care daytime visits among homeless persons staying in shelters, while after hours visits to primary health care level emergency rooms are strongly associated with both dual diagnosis and SUDs. Active treatment for SUDs could reduce the amount of emergency visits made by homeless shelter users.
  • Valtonen, Jussi; Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Cimpian, Andrei (2021)
    People commonly think of the mind and the brain as distinct entities that interact, a view known as dualism. At the same time, the public widely acknowledges that science attributes all mental phenomena to the workings of a material brain, a view at odds with dualism. How do people reconcile these conflicting perspectives? We propose that people distort claims about the brain from the wider culture to fit their dualist belief that minds and brains are distinct, interacting entities: Exposure to cultural discourse about the brain as the physical basis for the mind prompts people to posit that mind–brain interactions are asymmetric, such that the brain is able to affect the mind more than vice versa. We term this hybrid intuitive theory neurodualism. Five studies involving both thought experiments and naturalistic scenarios provided evidence of neurodualism among laypeople and, to some extent, even practicing psychotherapists. For example, lay participants reported that “a change in a person's brain” is accompanied by “a change in the person's mind” more often than vice versa. Similarly, when asked to imagine that “future scientists were able to alter exactly 25% of a person's brain,” participants reported larger corresponding changes in the person's mind than in the opposite direction. Participants also showed a similarly asymmetric pattern favoring the brain over the mind in naturalistic scenarios. By uncovering people's intuitive theories of the mind–brain relation, the results provide insights into societal phenomena such as the allure of neuroscience and common misperceptions of mental health treatments.
  • Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders are major causes of long-term sickness absence in Western countries. Although sickness absence is generally more common in lower occupational classes, little is known about class differences in diagnostic-specific absence over time. Focusing on Finland during 2005-2014, we therefore set out to examine the magnitude of and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence due to major diagnostic causes. Methods: A 70-per-cent random sample of Finns aged 25-64 linked to register data on medically certified sickness absence (of over 10 working days) in 2005-2014 was retrieved from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Information on occupational class was obtained from Statistics Finland and linked to the data. The study focused on female (n = 658,148-694,142) and male (n = 604,715-642,922) upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers. The age-standardised prevalence, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated for each study year to facilitate examination of the class differences. Results: The prevalence of each diagnostic cause of sickness absence declined during the study period, the most common causes being musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders and injuries. The prevalence of other causes under scrutiny was less than 1 % annually. By far the largest absolute and relative differences were in musculoskeletal diseases among both women and men. Moreover, the absolute differences in both genders (p <0. 0001) and the relative differences in men (p <0.0001) narrowed over time as the prevalence declined most among manual workers. Both genders showed modest and stable occupational class differences in mental disorders. In the case of injuries, no major changes occurred in absolute differences but relative differences narrowed over time in men (p <0.0001) due to a strong decline in prevalence among manual workers. Class differences in the other studied diagnostic causes under scrutiny appeared negligible. Conclusions: By far the largest occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence concerned musculoskeletal diseases, followed by injuries. The results highlight potential targets for preventive measures aimed at reducing sickness absence and narrowing class differences in the future.
  • Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders are major causes of long-term sickness absence in Western countries. Although sickness absence is generally more common in lower occupational classes, little is known about class differences in diagnostic-specific absence over time. Focusing on Finland during 2005–2014, we therefore set out to examine the magnitude of and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence due to major diagnostic causes. Methods A 70-per-cent random sample of Finns aged 25–64 linked to register data on medically certified sickness absence (of over 10 working days) in 2005–2014 was retrieved from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Information on occupational class was obtained from Statistics Finland and linked to the data. The study focused on female (n = 658,148–694,142) and male (n = 604,715–642,922) upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers. The age-standardised prevalence, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated for each study year to facilitate examination of the class differences. Results The prevalence of each diagnostic cause of sickness absence declined during the study period, the most common causes being musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders and injuries. The prevalence of other causes under scrutiny was less than 1 % annually. By far the largest absolute and relative differences were in musculoskeletal diseases among both women and men. Moreover, the absolute differences in both genders (p < 0.0001) and the relative differences in men (p < 0.0001) narrowed over time as the prevalence declined most among manual workers. Both genders showed modest and stable occupational class differences in mental disorders. In the case of injuries, no major changes occurred in absolute differences but relative differences narrowed over time in men (p < 0.0001) due to a strong decline in prevalence among manual workers. Class differences in the other studied diagnostic causes under scrutiny appeared negligible. Conclusions By far the largest occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence concerned musculoskeletal diseases, followed by injuries. The results highlight potential targets for preventive measures aimed at reducing sickness absence and narrowing class differences in the future.
  • Lahti, Jouni; Harkko, Jaakko; Nordquist, Hilla; Piha, Kustaa; Pietiläinen, Olli; Mänty, Minna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea; Kouvonen, Anne (2021)
    Mental health problems are a major public health and work-life issue. We examined in a quasi-experimental design whether occupational health psychologist (OHP) appointment reduces subsequent sickness absence (SA) due to mental disorders among younger Finnish employees. The present study was conducted among 18-39-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki using register data from the City of Helsinki and the Social lnsurance Institution of Finland. We examined differences in SA days due to mental disorders (ICD-10, F-diagnosed sickness allowances) between those treated (at least one OHP appointment for work ability support) and the comparison group (no OHP appointment) during a one-year follow-up. The full sample (n = 2286, 84% women) consisted of employees with SA due to a diagnosed mental disorder during 2008-2017. To account for the systematic differences between the treatment and comparison groups, the included participants were matched according to age, sex, occupational class, education, previous SA, occupational health primary care visits and psychotropic medication. The weighted matched sample included 1351 participants. In the weighted matched sample, the mean of SA days due to mental disorders was 11.4 (95% CI, 6.4-16.5) for those treated (n = 238) and 20.2 (95% CI, 17.0-23.4) for the comparison group (p < 0.01) during the follow-up year. The corresponding figures in the full sample were (11.1, 6.7-15.4) days for those treated (n = 288) and (18.9, 16.7-21.1) days for the comparison group (p < 0.01). This quasi-experimental study suggests that seeing an OHP to support work ability reduces SA due to mental disorders.
  • Pirkola, S.; Nevalainen, J.; Laaksonen, M.; Fröjd, S.; Nurmela, K.; Näppilä, T.; Tuulio-Henriksson, A.; Autio, R.; Blomgren, J. (2020)
    Objectives Despite the stable incidence of mental disorders in Finland and Europe, mental health-related occupational disability has been increasing. We unveiled the paths to permanent psychiatric disability, recovery, or death, by analysing sequences of labour market participation. Methods The RETIRE register database includes information regarding all persons (n = 42,170) awarded an ICD-10 psychiatric disability pension between 2010 and 2015 in Finland. We identified clusters of typical paths of pre-retirement labour market history. Controlling for major mental disorders, age, and sex, we evaluated factors associated with returning to work (RTW), or death, over a 5-year follow-up period. Results Only 10.5% of the disabled subjects returned to work within the follow-up. Half of them ended up with a permanent disability pension. Seven distinguishable paths to disability were identified. Subjects in the cluster characterized by steady employment were relatively often females, lost their work ability due to affective disorders, and had the highest rate of returning to work (16.3%). Mortality was highest (9%) among the cluster characterized by long-term unemployment. Distributions of major diagnostic groups, as well as age and sex, differed between clusters. After their adjustment in the analysis of RTW or death, the identified labour market history paths prior to losing work ability remained as important independent prognostic factors for both outcomes. Conclusions The complex retirement process involves identifiable clinical and contextual associating factors. Labour market history patterns associate with varying prognoses after psychiatric retirement. Prolonged unemployment appears as a predictor of relatively poor prognoses, whereas employment indicates the opposite.
  • Jalanko, Eerika; Leppälahti, Suvi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gissler, Mika (2020)
    Purpose: Teenage motherhood is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity. However, the long-term consequences of teenage induced abortion on psychiatric morbidity remain unknown. We, therefore, examined the association between adolescent pregnancy and psychiatric morbidity according to pregnancy outcome (induced abortion vs. childbirth) and age ( Methods: We used Finnish health care registers to evaluate the risk of psychiatric morbidity following teenage induced abortion (n = 6,520) or childbirth (n = 6,806) using Poisson regression analysis. The mean follow-up time was 26.4 years. Age-matched girls without a teenage pregnancy (n = 39,429) served as the reference group. Results: The risk of psychiatric morbidity was higher in the teenage abortion group compared with those without a teenage pregnancy, but this risk increased only at 5 years postabortion. We found no difference in psychiatric morbidity between the teenage pregnancy groups aged Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents faced an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity in adulthood regardless of the outcome (induced abortion or childbirth) of the pregnancy. Among girls aged
  • Lallukka, Tea; Kronholm, Erkki; Pekkala, Johanna; Jäppinen, Sauli; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2019)
    Background: Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. Methods: Young (25-38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39-52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. Results: Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. Conclusion: Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Kronholm, Erkki; Pekkala, Johanna; Jäppinen, Sauli; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. Methods Young (25–38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39–52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. Results Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. Conclusion Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.