Browsing by Subject "Mercury"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Mangano, V.; Dósa, Melinda; Fränz, Markus; Milillo, Anna; Oliveira, Joana S.; Lee, Yeon Joo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Grassi, Davide; Heyner, Daniel; Kozyrev, Alexander S.; Peron, Roberto; Helbert, Jörn; Besse, Sebastien; de la Fuente, Sara; Montagnon, Elsa; Zender, Joe; Volwerk, Martin; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Slavin, James; Krüger, Harald; Maturilli, Alessandro; Cornet, Thomas; Iwai, Kazumasa; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Lucente, Marco; Massetti, Stefano; Schmidt, Carl A.; Dong, Chuanfei; Quarati, Francesco; Hirai, Takayuki; Varsani, Ali; Belyaev, Denis; Zhong, Jun; Kilpua, Emilia; Jackson, Bernard V.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Vainio, Rami; Jarvinen, Riku; Lambrov Ivanovski, Stavro; Madár, Ákos; Erdős, Géza; Plainaki, Christina; Alberti, Tommaso; Aizawa, Sae; Benkhoff, Johannes; Murakami, Go; Quemerais, Eric; Hiesinger, Harald; Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Iess, Luciano; Santoli, Francesco; Orsini, Stefano; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Laky, Gunther; Barabash, Stas; Moissl, Richard; Huovelin, J.; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Saito, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Baumjohann, Wolfgang (2021)
    The dual spacecraft mission BepiColombo is the first joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to explore the planet Mercury. BepiColombo was launched from Kourou (French Guiana) on October 20th, 2018, in its packed configuration including two spacecraft, a transfer module, and a sunshield. BepiColombo cruise trajectory is a long journey into the inner heliosphere, and it includes one flyby of the Earth (in April 2020), two of Venus (in October 2020 and August 2021), and six of Mercury (starting from 2021), before orbit insertion in December 2025. A big part of the mission instruments will be fully operational during the mission cruise phase, allowing unprecedented investigation of the different environments that will encounter during the 7-years long cruise. The present paper reviews all the planetary flybys and some interesting cruise configurations. Additional scientific research that will emerge in the coming years is also discussed, including the instruments that can contribute.
  • Lodenius, M. (Elsevier Science B.V., 1998)
    The dry and wet deposition near a Finnish chlor-alkali plant was estimated by using the moss-bag technique. The estimated net deposition was 130 ng g-1 per month or 480 mg m-2 per year. Two-thirds of the deposition was dry and one-third wet. The results emphasize the importance of the direct uptake of atmospheric mercury by vegetation.
  • Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E.; Soltanpour-Gargari, A. (Elsevier, 2003)
    Adsorption and desorption of mercury was studied under laboratory conditions using moss (Sphagnum girgensohnii) and Rye grass (Lolium perenne) at different temperatures.Desorption was also studied in a transplantation experiment. The adsorption was rapid and strong for both plant species at different temperatures (q10 to q60 8C) and exposure times (1 h, 1 month) while the evaporation was negligible.Also the leaching of adsorbed mercury was of minor importance.The results emphasise the importance of vegetation in removal of mercury from the atmosphere. They also confirm the suitability of moss and grass for biomonitoring purposes.The high retention of mercury in moss even at q60 8C indicates the possibility of using higher temperatures in pretreatment of samples for mercury analyses. (c) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Isomursu, Marja; Koivusaari, Juhani; Stjernberg, Torsten; Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta (2018)
    The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a severe population decline due to environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area ca. 50years ago but has since been recovering. The main threats for the white-tailed eagle in Finland are now often related to human activities. We examined the human impact on the white-tailed eagle by determining mortality factors of 123 carcasses collected during 2000-2014. Routine necropsy with chemical analyses for lead and mercury were done on all carcasses. We found human-related factors accounting for 60% of the causes of death. The most important of these was lead poisoning (31% of all cases) followed by human-related accidents (e.g. electric power lines and traffic) (24%). The temporal and regional patterns of occurrence of lead poisonings suggested spent lead ammunition as the source. Lead shot was found in the gizzards of some lead-poisoned birds. Scavenging behaviour exposes the white-tailed eagle to lead from spent ammunition.
  • Mukherjee, A.; Zevenhoven, R.; Brodersen, J.; Hylander, L.D.; Bhattacharya, P. (Elsevier B.V., 2004)
    Over the recent decades, there has been widespread concern regarding the toxic impact of mercury (Hg) in the ecosystem due to its mobility, volatility and potential for bioaccumulation. Hg in fish and the aquatic environment is also a great problem in the Nordic region of the EU1 (European Union). Hg is classified as a dangerous chemical in the countries of the EU. Hg in the regulation of waste is regarded as a dangerous substance which, when contained in waste, is one of the properties, leading to a classification of waste as hazardous. Estimation of the quantity of Hg in waste within the EU countries is an important task although still incomplete. In this present study, Hg in waste in the EU has been estimated at around 990 metric tonnes (t) (including coal combustion products, landfills, chlor-alkali waste and incinerator slag) for the year 1995, and it is suggested that if complete information was available for the 15 member states, the amount would be 2–4 times larger. During the 1990s there were 45 Hg cell chlorine facilities in the EU and the amount of Hg in chlorine (Cl2) was calculated at 95.2 t based on 14–17 gHg t−1 of Cl2 capacity. The waste from coal-fired power plants in the EU member states contained about 16.5 t of Hg, which was transferred to products for road construction, and other industrial uses or stored in landfills. This Hg can then be exchanged between the atmospheric, aquatic and terrestrial compartments. Hg is occasionally recovered from waste, but this is often discouraged for economic reasons. Recovery units are found, for example, in Germany, France, Austria, and Sweden. The total amount of secondary Hg recovered from waste is not known. Metallic Hg and Hg-bearing waste are exported and imported from the EU member states, except for export from Sweden, which is banned by national legislation. The use of Hg in lamps and batteries is declining, and the Nordic countries, Germany and Austria have stringent regulations on the use of amalgam and Hg thermometers. It is found that 18% of municipal solid waste generated in the EU is burnt in incinerators, in order to decrease the volume. 88 t of Hg enter into the landfills of the EU through waste and residues from waste incineration. Prevention of the generation of hazardous waste containing Hg is one of the most challenging tasks for the EU, with regard to sustainable waste management.
  • Rothery, David A.; Massironi, Matteo; Alemanno, Giulia; Barraud, Oceane; Besse, Sebastien; Bott, Nicolas; Brunetto, Rosario; Bunce, Emma; Byrne, Paul; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carli, Cristian; Charlier, Bernard; Cornet, Thomas; Cremonese, Gabriele; D'Amore, Mario; De Sanctis, M. Cristina; Doressoundiram, Alain; Ferranti, Luigi; Filacchione, Gianrico; Galluzzi, Valentina; Giacomini, Lorenza; Grande, Manuel; Guzzetta, Laura G.; Helbert, Joern; Heyner, Daniel; Hiesinger, Harald; Hussmann, Hauke; Hyodo, Ryuku; Kohout, Tomas; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Lucchetti, Alice; Malakhov, Alexey; Malliband, Christopher; Mancinelli, Paolo; Martikainen, Julia; Martindale, Adrian; Maturilli, Alessandro; Milillo, Anna; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Morlok, Andreas; Muinonen, Karri; Namur, Olivier; Owens, Alan; Nittler, Larry R.; Oliveira, Joana S.; Palumbo, Pasquale; Pajola, Maurizio; Pegg, David L.; Penttilä, Antti; Politi, Romolo; Quarati, Francesco; Re, Cristina; Sanin, Anton; Schulz, Rita; Stangarone, Claudia; Stojic, Aleksandra; Tretiyakov, Vladislav; Vaisanen, Timo; Varatharajan, Indhu; Weber, Iris; Wright, Jack; Wurz, Peter; Zambon, Francesca (2020)
    BepiColombo has a larger and in many ways more capable suite of instruments relevant for determination of the topographic, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of Mercury's surface than the suite carried by NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft. Moreover, BepiColombo's data rate is substantially higher. This equips it to confirm, elaborate upon, and go beyond many of MESSENGER's remarkable achievements. Furthermore, the geometry of BepiColombo's orbital science campaign, beginning in 2026, will enable it to make uniformly resolved observations of both northern and southern hemispheres. This will offer more detailed and complete imaging and topographic mapping, element mapping with better sensitivity and improved spatial resolution, and totally new mineralogical mapping. We discuss MESSENGER data in the context of preparing for BepiColombo, and describe the contributions that we expect BepiColombo to make towards increased knowledge and understanding of Mercury's surface and its composition. Much current work, including analysis of analogue materials, is directed towards better preparing ourselves to understand what BepiColombo might reveal. Some of MESSENGER's more remarkable observations were obtained under unique or extreme conditions. BepiColombo should be able to confirm the validity of these observations and reveal the extent to which they are representative of the planet as a whole. It will also make new observations to clarify geological processes governing and reflecting crustal origin and evolution. We anticipate that the insights gained into Mercury's geological history and its current space weathering environment will enable us to better understand the relationships of surface chemistry, morphologies and structures with the composition of crustal types, including the nature and mobility of volatile species. This will enable estimation of the composition of the mantle from which the crust was derived, and lead to tighter constraints on models for Mercury's origin including the nature and original heliocentric distance of the material from which it formed.
  • Cremonese, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Doressoundiram, A.; Palumbo, P.; Vincendon, M.; Massironi, M.; Debei, S.; Zusi, M.; Altieri, F.; Amoroso, M.; Aroldi, G.; Baroni, M.; Barucci, A.; Bellucci, G.; Benkhoff, J.; Besse, S.; Bettanini, C.; Blecka, M.; Borrelli, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Carli, C.; Carlier, Elodie; Cerroni, P.; Cicchetti, A.; Colangeli, L.; Dami, M.; Da Deppo, V.; Della Corte; De Sanctis, M. C.; Erard, S.; Esposito, F.; Fantinel, D.; Ferranti, L.; Ferri, F.; Veltroni, I. Ficai; Filacchione, G.; Flamini, E.; Forlani, G.; Fornasier, S.; Forni, O.; Fulchignoni, M.; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Gwinner, K.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Langevin, Y.; Lara, L.; Leblanc, F.; Leyrat, C.; Li, Y.; Marchi, S.; Marinangeli, L.; Marzari, F.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Mendillom, M.; Mennella, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Muinonen, K.; Naletto, G.; Noschese, R.; Palomba, E.; Paolinetti, R.; Perna, D.; Piccioni, G.; Politi, R.; Poulet, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Re, C.; Rossi, M.; Rotundi, A.; Salemi, G.; Sgavetti, M.; Simioni, E.; Thomas, N.; Tommasi, L.; Turella, A.; Van Hoolst, T.; Wilson, L.; Zambon, F.; Aboudan, A.; Barraud, O.; Bott, N.; Borin, P.; Colombatti, G.; El Yazidi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Flahaut, J.; Giacomini, L.; Guzzetta, L.; Lucchetti, A.; Martellato, E.; Pajola, M.; Slemer, A.; Tognon, G.; Turrini, D. (2020)
    The SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometer and Imaging for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument suite part of the scientific payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter for the BepiColombo mission, the last of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Horizon + science program. The SIMBIO-SYS instrument will provide all the science imaging capability of the BepiColombo MPO spacecraft. It consists of three channels: the STereo imaging Channel (STC), with a broad spectral band in the 400-950 nm range and medium spatial resolution (at best 58 m/px), that will provide Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface of the planet with an accuracy better than 80 m; the High Resolution Imaging Channel (HRIC), with broad spectral bands in the 400-900 nm range and high spatial resolution (at best 6 m/px), that will provide high-resolution images of about 20% of the surface, and the Visible and near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging channel (VIHI), with high spectral resolution (6 nm at finest) in the 400-2000 nm range and spatial resolution reaching 120 m/px, it will provide global coverage at 480 m/px with the spectral information, assuming the first orbit around Mercury with periherm at 480 km from the surface. SIMBIO-SYS will provide high-resolution images, the Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface, and the surface composition using a wide spectral range, as for instance detecting sulphides or material derived by sulphur and carbon oxidation, at resolutions and coverage higher than the MESSENGER mission with a full co-alignment of the three channels. All the data that will be acquired will allow to cover a wide range of scientific objectives, from the surface processes and cartography up to the internal structure, contributing to the libration experiment, and the surface-exosphere interaction. The global 3D and spectral mapping will allow to study the morphology and the composition of any surface feature. In this work, we describe the on-ground calibrations and the results obtained, providing an important overview of the instrument performances. The calibrations have been performed at channel and at system levels, utilizing specific setup in most of the cases realized for SIMBIO-SYS. In the case of the stereo camera (STC), it has been necessary to have a validation of the new stereo concept adopted, based on the push-frame. This work describes also the results of the Near-Earth Commissioning Phase performed few weeks after the Launch (20 October 2018). According to the calibration results and the first commissioning the three channels are working very well.
  • Johansson, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Despite the current increasing population trend, white-tailed eagles are still prone to many anthropogenic stressors. Mercury (Hg) is a very persistent naturally occurring element and apex predators as well as birds feeding on aquatic ecosystems are usually exposed to higher levels of Hg. Since global Hg emissions are still increasing, Hg remains as a topical health issue. The effects of mercury on wildlife have been studied extensively. Blood clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) can potentially be useful as biomarker endpoints for contaminant exposure. However, the effects of Hg on blood chemistry and metabolism are still poorly described. Mercury concentrations and stable isotope composition can be measured from the feathers of nestlings and the nestlings represents well the geographical area of interest. Stable isotope analyses can be used to investigate the potential dietary sources of mercury. In the experimental part we investigated the regional differences in stable isotope values, Hg concentration and BCCPs, as well as the interactions between stable isotope values and Hg exposure. We also investigated possible effects of Hg exposure on the health of WTE nestlings in three populations in Finland perceived by BCCPs. Blood and feather samples were collected from WTE nestlings in Finland during the years 2015 and 2016 in three different locations. Blood plasma was analysed for 16 different BCCPs. Feathers were analysed for total Hg concentration as well as for stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) composition. A significant difference in δ13C and δ15N values in Varsinais-Suomi and Ostrobothnia compared to Lappi was apparent and is likely to indicate variable local dietary habits. Nonetheless, the concurrent variation in δ15N and δ13C values is indicative of changes in prey composition rather than regional changes in baseline isotope signatures. We noted significantly higher Hg concentrations in Lapland population compared to the other regions. Since there was a high correlation between Hg and stable isotope values, dietary habits seem to have a strong effect on Hg exposure in WTE nestlings in Finland. In addition Hg was positively associated with alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin. The statistical relationship between Hg and total bilirubin could indicate negative impact on liver function.