Browsing by Subject "Meteoroid"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Kohout, Tomas; Kallonen, Aki Petteri; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Rochette, Pierre; Hutzler, A.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Badjukov, Dmitry D.; Skala, Roman; Bohmova, Vlasta; Čuda, Jan (2014)
    X-ray microtomography (XMT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis measurements were used to determine micrometeorite internal structure, mineralogy, crystallography, and physical properties at ~μm resolution. The study samples include unmelted, partially melted (scoriaceous) and completely melted (cosmic spherules) micrometeorites. This variety not only allows comparison of the mineralogy and porosity of these three micrometeorite types, but also reveals changes in meteoroid properties during atmospheric entry at various velocities. At low entry velocities, meteoroids do not melt, and their physical properties do not change. The porosity of unmelted micrometeorites varies considerably (0-12%) with one friable example having porosity around 50%. At higher velocities, the range of meteoroid porosity narrows, but average porosity increases (to 16-27%) due to volatile evaporation and partial melting (scoriaceous phase). Metal distribution seems to be mostly unaffected at this stage. At even higher entry velocities, complete melting follows the scoriaceous phase. Complete melting is accompanied by metal oxidation and redistribution, loss of porosity (1 ± 1%), and narrowing of the bulk (3.2 ± 0.5 g/cm3) and grain (3.3 ± 0.5 g/cm3) density range. Melted cosmic spherules with a barred olivine structure show an oriented crystallographic structure, whereas other subtypes do not.
  • Silber, Elizabeth A.; Boslough, Mark; Hocking, Wayne K.; Gritsevich, Maria; Whitaker, Rodney W. (2018)
    Shock waves and the associated phenomena generated by strongly ablating meteoroids with sizes greater than a few millimeters in the lower transitional flow regime of the Earth's atmosphere are the least explored aspect of meteor science. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of literature covering meteor generated shock wave phenomena, from the aspect of both meteor science and hypersonic gas dynamics. The primary emphasis of this review is placed on the mechanisms and dynamics of the meteor shock waves. We discuss key aspects of both shock generation and propagation, including the great importance of the hydrodynamic shielding that develops around the meteoroid. In addition to this in-depth review, the discussion is extended to an overview of meteoroid fragmentation, followed by airburst type events associated with large, deep penetrating meteoroids. This class of objects has a significant potential to cause extensive material damage and even human casualties on the ground, and as such is of great interest to the planetary defense community. To date, no comprehensive model exists that accurately describes the flow field and shock wave formation of a strongly ablating meteoroid in the non-continuum flow regime. Thus, we briefly present the current state of numerical models that describe the comparatively slower flow of air over non-ablating bodies in the rarefied regime. In respect to the elusive nature of meteor generated shock wave detection, we also discuss relevant aspects and applications of meteor radar and infrasound studies as tools that can be utilized to study meteor shock waves and related phenomena. In particular, infrasound data can provide energy release estimates of meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere. We conclude with a summary of unresolved questions in the domain of meteor generated shock waves; topics which should be a focus of future investigations in the field. (C) 2018 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.