Browsing by Subject "Michel Foucault"

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  • Dang-Kivilompolo, Hannah (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    I denna magisteravhandling undersöks hur tidigare servicebrukare med erfarenheter inom psykisk ohälsa, missbruk, somatiska sjukdomar och kriser utbildat sig till erfarenhetsexperter. En erfarenhetsexpert nyttjar sina egna erfarenheter som har bearbetas och rekonstruerats för att kunna stödja människor som befinner sig i sociala svårigheter. Syftet med avhandlingen är att fokusera på expertrollens process och konstruktion, dvs. hur erfarenhetsexperter upplever sitt blivande och varande som expertis och hur de upplever att de blir behandlade i verksamhetssammanhang. Forskningsfrågorna i avhandlingen är följande: hur beskriver erfarenhetsexperterna sin utveckling till expert och sin expertroll? Hur upplever erfarenhetsexperter att deras erfarenhetsbaserade kunskaper legitimeras och erkänns av andra aktörer? I avhandlingen har en kvalitativ metod använts. Studien består av semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserats med innehållsanalys, närmare bestämt den konventionella (induktiva) ansatsen. Avhandlingens teoretiska referensram utgår från ett maktperspektiv. Sammanfattningsvis, är erfarenhetsexperterna eniga om att man som erfarenhetexpert bör ha ett förflutet i någon social svårighet som man bearbetat genom erfarenhetsexpertsutbildning. Erfarenhetsexperten bör dessutom ha en genuin vilja att hjälpa andra människor. För erfarenhetsexperterna innebär stödjandet av andra människor även; en personlig utveckling, stärkandet av erfarenhetsexpertisrollen, gynnandet av den egna rehabiliteringsprocessen samt att den egna egenmakten förstärks. En av byggstenarna till att erfarenhetsexperternas erfarenhetsbaserade kunskaper legitimeras är att de genomgått en erfarenhetsexpertsutbildning. Den mest signifikanta legitimeringen kommer från klienterna och patienterna som upplever att erfarenhetsexperterna gör en betydande insats för att hjälpa dem.
  • Lindström, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkielmassa käsitellään tekijyyden problematiikkaa vuosien 1967–1974 välisenä aikana julkaistujen rocklevyjen kansikuvien kontekstissa. Tutkielma lähestyy kuva-analyysin sekä kriittisen kontekstualisoinnin avulla kuutta LP-levyn kansikuvaa: The Beatlesin vuonna 1969 julkaistun Abbey Road -levyn, The Rolling Stonesin vuonna 1974 julkaistun It's Only Rock 'n Roll -levyn, Bob Dylanin vuonna 1970 julkaistun Self Portrait -levyn, vuonna 1967 julkaistun Velvet Underground & Nico -levyn, Pink Floydin vuonna 1973 julkaistun Dark Side of the Moon -levyn sekä Led Zeppelinin vuonna 1971 julkaistun neljännen levyn kansikuvaa. Tutkimuksen kohteiksi valikoituneita kansikuvia yhdistää nimettömyys, jolla tutkielman kontekstissa tarkoitetaan kansikuvia, joissa ei lue levyillä esiintyvien musiikintekijöiden tai kyseisten levytysten nimiä. Tutkielmassa tekijyyttä sekä nimettömyyden teemaa lähestytään erityisesti toisen maailmansodan jälkeisiä sosiologisia teorioita soveltaen. Tutkielmaa ohjaava teoreettinen näkökulma muodostuu ranskalaissosiologi Pierre Bourdieun (1930–2002) kenttä-ajattelun, amerikkalaissosiologi Howard S. Beckerin (1928–) taiteen kollektiivisuutta korostavan taidemaailma-idean sekä ranskalaisfilosofi Michel Foucault'n (1926–1984) tekijäfunktio-käsitteen kohtaamispisteessä. Erityisesti Bourdieun ajatus jatkuvan kamppailun avulla itseään uusivista sosiaalisen elämän kentistä on läsnä läpi tutkielman. Tekijyys äänilevyjen kansikuvien kohdalla näyttäytyy tutkielmassa kaikkiaan huomattavan monitulkintaisena asiana. Levyjen kansikuvat syntyvät toisaalta yhteistyön tuloksena, mutta samalla niiden tulkitaan heijastelevan levyillä esiintyvien musiikintekijöiden henkilökohtaisia taiteellista näkemyksiä ja arvomaailmaa. Tutkielmassa tekijyyttä lähestytään sekä musiikintekijöiden itsensä projisoimien mielikuvien että tekijyyttä kohtaan ulkoapäin suunnattujen mielikuvien kautta. Tekijyyden ja nimettömyyden synnyttämien kysymysten ohella keskeinen osa tutkielmaa ovat pohdinnat siitä, kuinka kyseiset populaarimusiikin piirissä tapahtuneet ilmiöt suhteutuvat 1900-luvun taidemaailman tapahtumiin. Tutkielma osoittaa, kuinka taidemaailmassa vaikuttaneiden tekijöiden sekä populaarimusiikin tekijöiden välillä on nähtävissä sekä toisiaan tukevia toistuvia ilmiöitä, että myös vastakkain asettuvia tekijyyttä koskevia ilmiöitä. Tutkielmassa 1960- ja 1970-luvuilla toimineet musiikintekijät rinnastuvat tekijöihin kuten Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), John Cage (1912–1992) ja Andy Warhol (1928–1987). Tutkielman pääasiallinen tarkoitus on kuitenkin tutkia itse kansikuvia ja pohtia, mitä niiden nimettömyys merkitsee tekijyyden näkökulmasta sekä millaista tekijyyttä kyseiset kansikuvat edustavat ja pyrkivät edistämään.
  • Tilli, Jouni (2019)
    Michel Foucault acknowledged that the Reformation was a pastoral battle and a reorganization of pastoral power. He did not, however, analyze Protestantism much further. This article broadens the scope of critical research on Protestantism, focusing on Lutheranism. Preaching is a fruitful way to overcome overemphasis on confession. In this endeavor I apply Foucault's concept of "master's discourse." I argue that while, in Lutheranism, conversion through comprehensive soul-searching is an individual matter, at the same time it relies on technologies aimed at a collective audience, such as preaching. Since preaching is divine speech, the Lutheran priest wields enormous spiritual power: the preacher is the truth-teller and the subject is required to listen to and internalize the proclaimed truth, instead of confessing their sins.
  • Suuronen, Ville (2018)
    Hannah Arendt's support for the right to have rights arises as a critical response to the modern biopolitical human condition. While Arendt's reflections on human rights have received broad recognition, the question concerning the economic preconditions of citizenship in her work remains an unduly neglected subject. This article takes up this issue and argues that, for Arendt, the fulfillment of basic social rights is the sine qua non without which the fulfillment of political rights is impossible. Thinking with and against Arendt, I show that her famous distinction between the private, the social, and the political can be fruitfully reinterpreted as an argument for basic income. When Arendt's reflections on human rights are read in the light of her ideas concerning technology and automation, she no longer appears as a theorist who ignores social justice, but as a thinker who seeks to counter the modern biopolitical human condition and open up new realms for democratic political action. Instead of ignoring social questions, Arendt argues that with the help of technology, we can strive to politicize fundamental social questions in a way that they would achieve a self-evident stature as human rights, and as fundamental human rights, rise above political debate, even though we would remain conscious of their political origins. Arendt does not simply exclude the social questions from politics but argues that this is what all technologically developed societies can strive to do. In Arendt's futuristic vision, the private life of citizens will be politicized through technological intervention: ancient slaves will be replaced by machines. By comparing Arendt with Foucault and Agamben, I maintain that a critical reading of her work can provide us with a pathway toward understanding the right to life's basic necessities, to zoe, as a future human right.
  • Pylvänäinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis studies the discourses of power and anti-violence activism related to feminicides in Mexico. Feminicides are defined as killings of women because of their gender. Although feminicides have existed throughout the history of Mexico, the issue became a focus of attention among the masses nearly 30 years ago because of the wave of violence in Ciudad Juárez. Today, according to the official data of the State, three women are victims of feminicides in Mexico daily. However, the number is most likely substantially higher given the underreporting of feminicides and that some states still do not distinguish them as separate crimes from homicides. It is estimated that approximately ten women are killed as victims of feminicides in Mexico every day. The theoretical framework for this study is rooted in the Foucauldian scholarship of power. More precisely, Michel Foucault’s theory of power as relational or productive and the idea of power being everywhere but nowhere, in particular, imposes the principal understanding of how violence is implicated in multiple structures of power relations. The study was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews, with data being gathered by interviewing six feminist activists who are working against feminicides in Mexico. After this, the interviews were analysed with methods of discourse analysis. The study finds the total of five main discourses with their sub-discourses: 1. Structures (Patriarchal culture and Deficient understanding), 2. The State (Politics and Impunity), 3. Truth (Bending truth and Clash of genders) 4. Pervasive violence, and 5. Women’s networks. The results of the analysis suggest that the power related to violence against women comes indeed from everywhere: power comes from structures of the society, from education, from the State and the law (and impunity), from the truth (or what we accept as truth), from non-State agents such as criminal organisations and women themselves. They are all connected so that even criminal organisations and politicians are interweaved in the same network of power, and in the case of Mexico, not even very far from each other. Women themselves exercise power through relations, networks and cooperation and this is the dimension of power that women consider their most important asset. To keep themselves secure in a potentially hostile environment, activist women maintain a set of safety rules and regulations that they follow in their everyday lives. In conclusion, power influencing violence against women is located deep in the patriarchal structures and practices in Mexico. This is why it is challenging to tackle the problem of continuing gendered violence in Mexico: it does not have any centre. This means that also globalised networks of organised crime, as well as the overall patriarchal culture, influence on discourses that power and gender-based violence are given. Also, it is noteworthy that power should not be considered only oppressive or dominating as that interpretation would give women only the role of passive victims. Women also possess power that they exercise through social relations and collective activist networks. In sum, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of feminicides and violence against women in Mexico. Furthermore, through the unique interview data, the results collect valuable information on all the main challenges that are hampering the activists’ work against violence.