Browsing by Subject "Microbiota"

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  • Roslund, Marja; Parajuli, Anirudra; Hui, Nan; Puhakka, Riikka; Grönroos, Mira; Soininen, Laura; Nurminen, Noora; Oikarinen, Sami; Cinek, Ondrej; Kramna, Lenka; Schroderus, Anna-Mari; Laitinen, Olli; Kinnunen, Tuure; Hyöty, Heikki; Sinkkonen, Aki (2022)
    Background: According to the biodiversity hypothesis of immune-mediated diseases, lack of microbiological di-versity in the everyday living environment is a core reason for dysregulation of immune tolerance and - even-tually - the epidemic of immune-mediated diseases in western urban populations. Despite years of intense research, the hypothesis was never tested in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled intervention trial.Objective: We aimed to perform the first placebo-controlled double-blinded test that investigates the effect of biodiversity on immune tolerance. Methods: In the intervention group, children aged 3-5 years were exposed to playground sand enriched with microbially diverse soil, or in the placebo group, visually similar, but microbially poor sand colored with peat (13 participants per treatment group). Children played twice a day for 20 min in the sandbox for 14 days. Sand, skin and gut bacterial, and blood samples were taken at baseline and after 14 days. Bacterial changes were followed for 28 days. Sand, skin and gut metagenome was determined by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16 S rRNA gene. Cytokines were measured from plasma and the frequency of blood regulatory T cells was defined as a percentage of total CD3 +CD4 + T cells. Results: Bacterial richness (P < 0.001) and diversity (P < 0.05) were higher in the intervention than placebo sand. Skin bacterial community, including Gammaproteobacteria, shifted only in the intervention treatment to resemble the bacterial community in the enriched sand (P < 0.01). Mean change in plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentration and IL-10 to IL-17A ratio supported immunoregulation in the intervention treatment compared to the placebo treatment (P = 0.02). IL-10 levels (P = 0.001) and IL-10 to IL-17A ratio (P = 0.02) were associated with Gammaproteobacterial community on the skin. The change in Treg frequencies was associated with the relative abundance of skin Thermoactinomycetaceae 1 (P = 0.002) and unclassified Alphaproteobacteria (P < 0.001). After 28 days, skin bacterial community still differed in the intervention treatment compared to baseline (P < 0.02). Conclusions: This is the first double-blinded placebo-controlled study to show that daily exposure to microbial biodiversity is associated with immune modulation in humans. The findings support the biodiversity hypothesis of immune-mediated diseases. We conclude that environmental microbiota may contribute to child health, and that adding microbiological diversity to everyday living environment may support immunoregulation.
  • Eshriqui, Ilana; Viljakainen, Heli T; Ferreira, Sandra R G; Raju, Sajan C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Figueiredo, Rejane A O (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Breastfeeding contributes to gastrointestinal microbiota colonization in early life, but its long-term impact is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate whether the type of feeding during the first six months of life was associated with oral microbiota in adolescence. Methods This is a cross-sectional sub-study using baseline information of 423 adolescents from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort. Type of feeding was recalled by parents and dichotomized as (i) No infant formula; (ii) Infant formula (breastmilk + formula or only formula). Saliva microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA (V3–V4) sequencing. Alpha diversity and beta diversity were compared between feeding type groups using ANCOVA and PERMANOVA, respectively. Differential bacteria abundance was tested using appropriate general linear models. Results Mean age and body mass index were 11.7 years and 18.0 kg/m2, respectively. The No formula group contained 41% of the participants. Firmicutes (51.0%), Bacteroidetes (19.1%), and Proteobacteria (16.3%) were the most abundant phyla among all participants. Alpha and beta diversity indices did not differ between the two feeding groups. Three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to Eubacteria and Veillonella genera (phylum Firmicutes) were more abundant in the No formula than in the Infant formula group (log2fold changes/ p - values − 0.920/ < 0.001, − 0.328/ 0.001, − 0.577/ 0.004). Conclusion Differences exist in abundances of some OTUs in adolescence according to feeding type during the first six months of life, but our findings do not support diversity and overall oral microbiota composition in adolescents being affected by early feeding type.
  • Eshriqui, Ilana; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Ferreira, Sandra; Raju, Sajan C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Figueiredo, Rejane A. O. (2020)
    Background Breastfeeding contributes to gastrointestinal microbiota colonization in early life, but its long-term impact is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate whether the type of feeding during the first six months of life was associated with oral microbiota in adolescence. Methods This is a cross-sectional sub-study using baseline information of 423 adolescents from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort. Type of feeding was recalled by parents and dichotomized as (i) No infant formula; (ii) Infant formula (breastmilk + formula or only formula). Saliva microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA (V3-V4) sequencing. Alpha diversity and beta diversity were compared between feeding type groups using ANCOVA and PERMANOVA, respectively. Differential bacteria abundance was tested using appropriate general linear models. Results Mean age and body mass index were 11.7 years and 18.0 kg/m(2), respectively. The No formula group contained 41% of the participants. Firmicutes (51.0%), Bacteroidetes (19.1%), and Proteobacteria (16.3%) were the most abundant phyla among all participants. Alpha and beta diversity indices did not differ between the two feeding groups. Three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to Eubacteria and Veillonella genera (phylum Firmicutes) were more abundant in the No formula than in the Infant formula group (log2fold changes/ p - values - 0.920/ <0.001, - 0.328/ 0.001, - 0.577/ 0.004). Conclusion Differences exist in abundances of some OTUs in adolescence according to feeding type during the first six months of life, but our findings do not support diversity and overall oral microbiota composition in adolescents being affected by early feeding type.
  • Forsgard, Richard A.; Marrachelli, Vannina G.; Korpela, Katri; Frias, Rafael; Carmen Collado, Maria; Korpela, Riitta; Monleon, Daniel; Spillmann, Thomas; Osterlund, Pia (2017)
    Purpose Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity (CIGT) is a complex process that involves multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. We have previously shown that commonly used chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan damage the intestinal mucosa and increase intestinal permeability to iohexol. We hypothesized that CIGT is associated with alterations in fecal microbiota and metabolome. Our aim was to characterize these changes and examine how they relate to the severity of CIGT. Methods A total of 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally either with 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (15 mg/kg), or irinotecan (200 mg/kg). Body weight change was measured daily after drug administration and the animals were euthanized after 72 h. Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment. The changes in the composition of fecal microbiota were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Metabolic changes in serum and urine metabolome were measured with 1 mm proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Results Irinotecan increased the relative abundance of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria, while 5-FU and oxaliplatin caused only minor changes in the composition of fecal microbiota. All chemotherapeutics increased the levels of serum fatty acids and N(CH3)(3) moieties and decreased the levels of Krebs cycle metabolites and free amino acids. Conclusions Chemotherapeutic drugs, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, induce several microbial and metabolic changes which may play a role in the pathophysiology of CIGT. The observed changes in intestinal permeability, fecal microbiota, and metabolome suggest the activation of inflammatory processes.
  • Jalanka, Jonna; Lam, Ching; Bennett, Andrew; Hartikainen, Anna; Crispie, Fiona; Finnegan, Laura A.; Cotter, Paul D.; Spiller, Robin (2021)
    Background/Aims Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) has been previously associated with evidence of immune activation and altered microbiota. Our aim is to assess the effect of the anti-inflammatory agent, mesalazine, on inflammatory gene expression and microbiota composition in IBS-D. Methods We studied a subset of patients (n = 43) from a previously published 12-week radomized placebo-controlled trial of mesalazine. Mucosal biopsies were assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for a range of markers of inflammation, altered permeability, and sensory receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) at randomization after treatment. All biopsy data were compared to 21 healthy controls. Patient's stool microbiota composition was analysed through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Results We found no evidence of increased immune activation compared to healthy controls. However, we did find increased expression of receptors in both sensory pathways and innate immune response including TLR4. Higher TLR4 expression was associated with greater urgency. TLR4 expression correlated strongly with the expression of the receptors bradykinin receptor B2, chemerin chemokine-like receptor 1, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 as well as TLR4's downstream adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88. Mesalazine had minimal effect on either gene expression or microbiota composition. Conclusions Biopsies from a well-characterized IBS-D cohort showed no substantial inflammation. Mesalazine has little effect on gene expression and its previous reported effect on fecal microbiota associated with much greater inflammation found in inflammatory bowel diseases is likely secondary to reduced inflammation. Increased expression of TLR4 and correlated receptors in IBS may mediate a general increase in sensitivity to external stimuli, particularly those that signal via the TLR system.
  • Swann, J. R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Salonen, A.; Sakwinska, O.; Gill, C.; Meynier, A.; Fanca-Berthon, P.; Schelkle, B.; Segata, N.; Shortt, C.; Tuohy, K.; Hasselwander, O. (2020)
    With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.
  • Cheng, Jing; Kalliomaki, Marko; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Palva, Airi; Lahteenoja, Hannu; de Vos, Willem M.; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Satokari, Reetta (2013)
  • Bekker, Vincent; Zwittink, Romy D.; Knetsch, Cornelis W.; Sanders, Ingrid M. J. G.; Berghuis, Dagmar; Heidt, Peter J.; Vossen, Jaak M. J. J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara; Bredius, Robbert G. M.; van't Hof, Peter J.; Lankester, Arjan C.; Kuijper, Ed J. (2019)
    Bloodstream infections and graft-versus-host disease are common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures, associated with the gut microbiota that acts as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens. Selective gut decontamination (SGD) and total gut decontamination (TGD) during HSCT have been associated with a decreased risk of developing these complications after transplantation. However, because studies have shown conflicting results, the use of these treatments remains subject of debate. In addition, their impact on the gut microbiota is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the dynamics of the microbiota during and after TGD and to compare these with the dynamics of SGD. In this prospective, observational, single center study fecal samples were longitudinally collected from 19 children eligible for allogenic HSCT (TGD, n=12; SGD, n=7), weekly during hospital admission and monthly after discharge. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 3 family stem cell donors. Fecal microbiota structure of patients and donors was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity markedly decreased during SGD and TGD and gradually increased after cessation of decontamination treatment. During SGD, gut microbiota composition was relatively stable and dominated by Bacteroides, whereas it showed high inter- and intraindividual variation and low Bacteroides abundance during TGD. In some children TGD allowed the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus to thrive during treatment. A gut microbiota dominated by Bacteroides was associated with increased predicted activity of several metabolic processes. Comparing the microbiota of recipients and their donors indicated that receiving an SCT did not alter the patient's microbiota to become more similar to that of its donor. Overall, our findings indicate that SGD and TGD affect gut microbiota structure in a treatment-specific manner. Whether these treatments affect clinical outcomes via interference with the gut microbiota needs to be further elucidated. (C) 2019 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
  • Chen, Honglei; Wang, Keran; Scheperjans, Filip; Killinger, Bryan (2022)
    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) may take decades to develop, during which many risk or protective factors may come into play to initiate the pathogenesis or modify its progression to clinical PD. The lack of understanding of this prodromal phase of PD and the factors involved has been a major hurdle in the study of PD etiology and preventive strategies. Although still controversial, the Braak and dual-hit hypotheses that PD may start peripherally in the olfactory structures and/or the gut provides a theoretical platform to identify the triggers and modifiers of PD prodromal development and progression. This is particularly true for the search of environmental causes of PD as the olfactory structures and gut are the major human mucosal interfaces with the environment. In this review, we lay out our personal views about how the Braak and dual-hit hypotheses may help us search for the environmental triggers and modifiers for PD, summarize available experimental and epidemiological evidence, and discuss research gaps and strategies.
  • Lahtinen, Perttu; Mattila, Eero; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tillonen, Jyrki; Teittinen, Matti; Nevalainen, Pasi; Salminen, Seppo; Satokari, Reetta; Arkkila, Perttu (2017)
    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of FMT treatment in immune deficient patients is scarce. FMT has been suggested as a potential method for an increasing number of new indications besides rCDI. Among our FMT-treated rCDI patients, we reviewed those with major comorbidities: two human immunodeficiency virus patients, six haemodialysis patients, two kidney transplant patients, two liver transplant patients and a patient with chronic lymphatic leukaemia. We also reviewed those treated with FMT for indications other than rCDI: Salmonella carriage (two patients), trimethylaminuria (two patients), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO; one patient), and lymphocytic colitis (one patient), as well as a common variable immunodeficiency patient with chronic norovirus infection and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) carriage. Of the thirteen rCDI patients treated with FMT, eleven cleared the CDI. The observed adverse events were not directly attributable to FMT. Concerning the special indications, both Salmonellas and ESBL-producing E. coli were eradicated. One trimethylaminuria patient and one SIBO-patient reported a reduction of symptoms. Three patients did not experience a benefit from FMT: chronic norovirus, lymphocytic colitis and the other fish malodour syndrome. There were no reported side effects in this group. FMT appeared to be safe and effective for immunocompromised patients with rCDI. FMT showed promise for the eradication of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but further research is warranted.
  • Rossen, Noortje G.; MacDonald, John K.; de Vries, Elisabeth M.; D'Haens, Geert R.; de Vos, Willem M.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y. (2015)
    AIM: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We systematically reviewed FMT used as clinical therapy. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Conference proceedings from inception to July, 2013. Treatment effect of FMT was calculated as the percentage of patients who achieved clinical improvement per patient category, on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: We included 45 studies; 34 on Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI), 7 on inflammatory bowel disease, 1 on metabolic syndrome, 1 on constipation, 1 on pouchitis and 1 on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In CDI 90% resolution of diarrhea in 33 case series (n = 867) was reported, and 94% resolution of diarrhea after repeated FMT in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n = 16). In ulcerative colitis (UC) remission rates of 0% to 68% were found (n = 106). In Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 6), no benefit was observed. In IBS, 70% improvement of symptoms was found (n = 13). 100% Reversal of symptoms was observed in constipation (n = 3). In pouchitis, none of the patients (n = 8) achieved remission. One RCT showed significant improvement of insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome (n = 10). Serious adverse events were rare. CONCLUSION: FMT is highly effective in CDI, and holds promise in UC. As for CD, chronic constipation, pouchitis and IBS data are too limited to draw conclusions. FMT increases insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome.
  • Tuominen, Heidi; Rautava, Jaana; Kero, Katja; Syrjänen, Stina; Collado, Maria C.; Rautava, Samuli (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Aberrant microbiota composition has been linked to disease development at numerous anatomical sites. Microbiota changes in reaction to viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have been investigated almost exclusively in the female reproductive tract. However, HPV infection may also affect male health by reducing semen quality and fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether present HPV DNA is associated with detectable changes in semen bacterial microbiota composition and diversity. Methods This study relied on stored semen samples from 31 fertile healthy men who participated in the Finnish family HPV Study during the years 1998–2001. DNA was extracted from semen with PCR template preparation kit. HPV was genotyped using Luminex-based Multimetrix® assay. Microbiota was analyzed from the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA gene following sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform. All statistical analyses were performed with Calypso software version 8.84. Results HPV DNA was detected in 19.4% (6/31) of the semen samples. HPV status in the semen did not impact the α-diversity estimations, as measured by Chao1 and Shannon indices, nor ß-diversity. Nevertheless, HPV-positive semen samples exhibited differences in the taxonomic composition of the bacterial microbiota including higher abundances of Moraxellaceae (p = 0.028), Streptococcus (p = 0.0058) and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.012) compared to HPV-negative semen samples. Conclusion HPV infection is associated with altered bacterial microbiota composition in semen, and this might have in impact to male health in general. As of present, it is unclear whether these changes result from HPV infection or whether altered bacterial microbiota increases susceptibility to HPV infection. More research is needed on viral-bacterial interactions in the male reproductive system.
  • Tuominen, H; Rautava, J; Kero, K; Syrjanen, S; Collado, MC; Rautava, S (2021)
    BackgroundAberrant microbiota composition has been linked to disease development at numerous anatomical sites. Microbiota changes in reaction to viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have been investigated almost exclusively in the female reproductive tract. However, HPV infection may also affect male health by reducing semen quality and fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether present HPV DNA is associated with detectable changes in semen bacterial microbiota composition and diversity.MethodsThis study relied on stored semen samples from 31 fertile healthy men who participated in the Finnish family HPV Study during the years 1998-2001. DNA was extracted from semen with PCR template preparation kit. HPV was genotyped using Luminex-based Multimetrix (R) assay. Microbiota was analyzed from the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA gene following sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform. All statistical analyses were performed with Calypso software version 8.84.ResultsHPV DNA was detected in 19.4% (6/31) of the semen samples. HPV status in the semen did not impact the alpha -diversity estimations, as measured by Chao1 and Shannon indices, nor ss -diversity. Nevertheless, HPV-positive semen samples exhibited differences in the taxonomic composition of the bacterial microbiota including higher abundances of Moraxellaceae (p=0.028), Streptococcus (p=0.0058) and Peptostreptococcus (p=0.012) compared to HPV-negative semen samples.ConclusionHPV infection is associated with altered bacterial microbiota composition in semen, and this might have in impact to male health in general. As of present, it is unclear whether these changes result from HPV infection or whether altered bacterial microbiota increases susceptibility to HPV infection. More research is needed on viral-bacterial interactions in the male reproductive system.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Van Tran Van; Tran, Florence Helene; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven; Koch, Lisa Katharina; Khanh Ly Huynh Kim; Trang Huynh Thi Thuy; Huu Tran Ngoc; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick; Moro, Claire Valiente (2017)
    Background: The Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus subgroup includes 11 cryptic species of which Ae. albopictus is the most widely distributed. Its global expansion associated with a documented vector competence for several emerging arboviruses raise obvious concerns in the recently colonized regions. While several studies have provided important insights regarding medical importance of Ae. albopicus, the investigations of the other sibling species are scarce. In Asia, indigenous populations within the Ae. albopictus subgroup can be found in sympatry. In the present study, we aimed to describe and compare molecular, morphological and bacterial symbionts composition among sympatric individuals from the Ae. albopictus subgroup inhabiting a Vietnamese protected area. Results: Based on morphological structure of the cibarial armarture, we identified a cryptic species in the forest park at Bu Gia Map in the south-eastern region of Vietnam. Analysis of nuclear (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and mitochondrial (cox1, nad5) markers confirmed the divergence between the cryptic species and Ae. albopictus. Analysis of midgut bacterial microbiota revealed a strong similarity among the two species with a notable difference; contrary to Ae. albopictus, the cryptic species did not harbour any Wolbachia infection. Conclusions: These results could reflect either a recent invasion of Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus or alternatively a loss of this symbiont in the cryptic species. We argue that neglected species of the Ae. albopictus subgroup are of main importance in order to estimate variation of host-symbionts interactions across evolution.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Tran Van, Van; Tran, Florence H; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven; Koch, Lisa K; Ly Huynh Kim, Khanh; Huynh Thi Thuy, Trang; Tran Ngoc, Huu; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick; Valiente Moro, Claire (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus subgroup includes 11 cryptic species of which Ae. albopictus is the most widely distributed. Its global expansion associated with a documented vector competence for several emerging arboviruses raise obvious concerns in the recently colonized regions. While several studies have provided important insights regarding medical importance of Ae. albopicus, the investigations of the other sibling species are scarce. In Asia, indigenous populations within the Ae. albopictus subgroup can be found in sympatry. In the present study, we aimed to describe and compare molecular, morphological and bacterial symbionts composition among sympatric individuals from the Ae. albopictus subgroup inhabiting a Vietnamese protected area. Results Based on morphological structure of the cibarial armarture, we identified a cryptic species in the forest park at Bù Gia Mập in the south-eastern region of Vietnam. Analysis of nuclear (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and mitochondrial (cox1, nad5) markers confirmed the divergence between the cryptic species and Ae. albopictus. Analysis of midgut bacterial microbiota revealed a strong similarity among the two species with a notable difference; contrary to Ae. albopictus, the cryptic species did not harbour any Wolbachia infection. Conclusions These results could reflect either a recent invasion of Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus or alternatively a loss of this symbiont in the cryptic species. We argue that neglected species of the Ae. albopictus subgroup are of main importance in order to estimate variation of host-symbionts interactions across evolution.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas; Lehtimäki, Jenni (2021)
    Luonnon monimuotoisuus tarkoittaa kaikkea elävän luonnon vaihtelua niin elinympäristöjen, lajien kuin yksilöidenkin välillä. Viime vuosien tutkimus on osoittanut, että luonnon monimuotoisuus voi suojata ihmistä sekä tarttuvilta että tarttumattomilta sairauksilta. Ympäristössämme se suojaa uusien tartuntatautien kehittymiseltä ja toisaalta altistaa mikrobeille, jotka tukevat immuunijärjestelmän toimintaa. Luonnon monimuotoisuuden nopea köyhtyminen uhkaakin suoraan ihmisen hyvinvointia. Pohdimme, miten kaupungistuvassa yhteiskunnassa voidaan turvata altistuminen hyville mikrobeille ja samalla suojautua haitallisilta taudinaiheuttajilta. Nykytiedon valossa luonnon monimuotoisuuden ylläpitämisellä voidaan tukea sairauksia ehkäisevää lääketiedettä ja kansanterveystyötä.
  • Haahtela, Tari; Hanski, Ilkka; Von Hertzen, Leena; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Mäkelä, Mika J.; Puska, Pekka; Reijula, Kari; Saarinen, Kimmo; Vartiainen, Erkki; Vasankari, Tuula; Virtanen, Suvi (2017)
  • Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Husso, Aleksi; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Koistinen, Ville; Hanhineva, Kati; Iivanainen, Antti; Niku, Mikael (2022)
    Background The maternal microbiota affects the development of the offspring by microbial metabolites translocating to the fetus. To reveal the spectrum of these molecular mediators of the earliest host-microbe interactions, we compared placenta, fetal intestine and brain from germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen free (SPF) mouse dams by non-targeted metabolic profiling. Results One hundred one annotated metabolites and altogether 3680 molecular features were present in significantly different amounts in the placenta and/or fetal organs of GF and SPF mice. More than half of these were more abundant in the SPF organs, suggesting their microbial origin or a metabolic response of the host to the presence of microbes. The clearest separation was observed in the placenta, but most of the molecular features showed significantly different levels also in the fetal intestine and/or brain. Metabolites that were detected in lower amounts in the GF fetal organs included 5-aminovaleric acid betaine, trimethylamine N-oxide, catechol-O-sulphate, hippuric and pipecolic acid. Derivatives of the amino acid tryptophan, such as kynurenine, 3-indolepropionic acid and hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were also less abundant in the absence of microbiota. Ninety-nine molecular features were detected only in the SPF mice. We also observed several molecular features which were more abundant in the GF mice, possibly representing precursors of microbial metabolites or indicators of a metabolic response to the absence of microbiota. Conclusions The maternal microbiota has a profound impact on the fetal metabolome. Our observations suggest the existence of a multitude of yet unidentified microbially modified metabolites which pass through the placenta into the fetus and potentially influence fetal development.
  • Viitasalo, Liisa; Kurppa, Kalle; Ashorn, Merja; Saavalainen, Päivi; Huhtala, Heini; Ashorn, Sara; Mäki, Markku; Ilus, Tuire; Kaukinen, Katri; Iltanen, Sari (2018)
    Background and AimsIn nonresponsive celiac disease (NRCD), the symptoms and duodenal damage persist despite a gluten-free diet. Celiac disease patients with persistent symptoms are found to have a dysbiotic microbiota. We thus hypothesized that increased seroreactivity to the serum gluten-sensitive microbial antibodies Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA), Pseudomonas fluorescens-associated sequence (I2), and Bacteroides caccae TonB-linked outer membrane protein (OmpW) is associated with NRCD.MethodsASCA, I2 and OmpW were measured in 20 seronegative CD patients with persistent villous damage despite strict dietary treatment (NRCD group). Fifty-eight responsive patients served as CD controls (55 on gluten-free treatment) and 80 blood donors as non-CD controls.ResultsAt least one microbial marker was positive in 80% of NRCD patients, in 97% of untreated CD and 87% of treated CD patients, and in 44% of controls. NRCD patients had the highest frequency of ASCA positivity (65% vs 52, 20, and 0%, respectively) and also significantly higher ASCA IgA (median 14.5 U/ml) and IgG (32.5 U/ml) titers than treated CD patients (7.0 U/ml, 13.0 U/ml) and non-CD controls (4.5 U/ml, 5.8 U/ml). The frequencies of I2 and OmpW were lower in NRCD than in untreated CD (65% and 45% vs 86% and 59%, respectively), and I2 titers were higher in NRCD (median absorbance 0.76) and untreated (1.0) and treated (0.83) CD than controls (0.32). OmpW was elevated in untreated (1.1) and treated (0.94) CD patients compared with controls (0.79).ConclusionsSeropositivity and high titers of ASCA are associated with NRCD and might serve as an additional follow-up tool in CD.