Browsing by Subject "Microneedles"

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  • D'Amico, Carmine; Fontana, Flavia; Cheng, Ruoyu; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    The current situation, heavily influenced by the ongoing pandemic, puts vaccines back into the spotlight. However, the conventional and traditional vaccines present disadvantages, particularly related to immunogenicity, stability, and storage of the final product. Often, such products require the maintenance of a “cold chain,” impacting the costs, the availability, and the distribution of vaccines. Here, after a recall of the mode of action of vaccines and the types of vaccines currently available, we analyze the past, present, and future of vaccine formulation. The past focuses on conventional formulations, the present discusses the use of nanoparticles for vaccine delivery and as adjuvants, while the future presents microneedle patches as alternative formulation and administration route. Finally, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of injectable solutions, nanovaccines, and microneedles in terms of efficacy, stability, and patient-friendly design.
  • Amani, Hamed; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; D'Amico, Carmine; Fontana, Flavia; Abbaszadeh, Samin; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    Immunotherapy has recently garnered plenty of attention to improve the clinical outcomes in the treatment of various diseases. However, owing to the dynamic nature of the immune system, this approach has often been challenged by concerns regarding the lack of adequate long-term responses in patients. The development of microneedles (MNs) has resulted in the improvement and expansion of immuno-reprogramming strategies due to the housing of high accumulation of dendritic cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and mast cells in the dermis layer of the skin. In addition, MNs possess many outstanding properties, such as the ability for the painless traverse of the stratum corneum, minimal invasiveness, facile fabrication, excellent biocompatibility, convenient administration, and bypassing the first pass metabolism that allows direct translocation of therapeutics into the systematic circulation. These advantages make MNs excellent candidates for the delivery of immunological biomolecules to the dermal antigen-presenting cells in the skin with the aim of vaccinating or treating different diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders, with minimal invasiveness and side effects. This review discusses the recent advances in engineered MNs and tackles limitations relevant to traditional immunotherapy of various hard-to-treat diseases.