Browsing by Subject "Microstructure"

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  • Sairanen, Viljami; Ocampo-Pineda, Mario; Granziera, Cristina; Schiavi, Simona; Daducci, Alessandro (2022)
    A B S T R A C T The white matter structures of the human brain can be represented using diffusion-weighted MRI tractography. Unfortunately, tractography is prone to find false-positive streamlines causing a severe decline in its specificity and limiting its feasibility in accurate structural brain connectivity analyses. Filtering algorithms have been pro-posed to reduce the number of invalid streamlines but the currently available filtering algorithms are not suitable to process data that contains motion artefacts which are typical in clinical research. We augmented the Con-vex Optimization Modelling for Microstructure Informed Tractography (COMMIT) algorithm to adjust for these signals drop-out motion artefacts. We demonstrate with comprehensive Monte-Carlo whole brain simulations and in vivo infant data that our robust algorithm is capable of properly filtering tractography reconstructions despite these artefacts. We evaluated the results using parametric and non-parametric statistics and our results demonstrate that if not accounted for, motion artefacts can have severe adverse effects in human brain structural connectivity analyses as well as in microstructural property mappings. In conclusion, the usage of robust filtering methods to mitigate motion related errors in tractogram filtering is highly beneficial, especially in clinical stud-ies with uncooperative patient groups such as infants. With our presented robust augmentation and open-source implementation, robust tractogram filtering is readily available.
  • Leppänen, Leena (2019)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 158
    Information on snow water equivalent (SWE) of seasonal snow is used for various purposes, including longterm climate monitoring and river discharge forecasting. Global monitoring of SWE is made feasible through remote sensing. Currently, passive microwave observations are utilized for SWE retrievals. The main challenges in the interpretation of microwave observations include the spatial variability of snow characteristics and the inaccurate characterization of snow microstructure in retrieval algorithms. Even a minor variability in snow microstructure has a notable impact to microwave emission from the snowpack. This thesis work aims to improve snow microstructure modelling and measurement methods, and understanding the influence of snow microstructure to passive microwave observations, in order to enable a more accurate SWE estimation from remote sensing observations. The thesis work applies two types of models: physical snow models and radiative transfer models that simulate microwave emission. The physical snow models use meteorological driving data to simulate physical snow characteristics, such as SWE and snow microstructure. Models are used for different purposes such as hydrological simulations and avalanche forecasting. On the other hand, microwave emission models use physical snow characteristics for predicting microwave emission from a snowpack. Microwave emission models are applied for the interpretation of spaceborne passive microwave remote sensing observations, for example. In this study, physical snow model simulations and microwave emission model simulations are compared with field observations to investigate problems in characterizing snow for microwave emission models. An extensive set of manual field measurements of snow characteristics is used for the comparisons. The measurements are collected from taiga snow in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The representativeness of the measurements is defined by investigating the spatial and temporal variability of snow characteristics. The work includes studies on microwave emission modelling from natural snowpacks and from excavated snow slabs. Radiometric observations of microwave emission from natural snowpacks are compared with simulations from three microwave emission models coupled with three physical snow models. Additionally, homogenous snow samples are excavated from the natural snowpack during the Arctic Snow Microstructure Experiment, and the incident snow characteristics and microwave emission characteristics are measured with an experimental set-up developed for this study. Predictions of two microwave emission models are compared with the radiometric observations of collected snow samples. The results indicate that none of the model configurations can accurately simulate the microwave emission from natural snowpack or snow samples. The results also suggest that the characterization of microstructure in the applied microwave emission models is not adequate.
  • Friedmann, Andrea; Goehre , Felix; Ludtka, Christopher; Mendel, Thomas; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Heilmann, Andreas; Schwan, Stefan (2017)
    Degeneration of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue is characterized by several structural changes that result in variations in disc physiology and loss of biomechanical function. The complex process of degeneration exhibits highly intercorrelated biomechanical, biochemical, and cellular interactions. There is currently some understanding of the cellular changes in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue, but microstructural changes and deterioration of the tissue matrix has previously been rarely explored. In this work, sequestered IVD tissue was successfully characterized using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantitatively evaluate parameters of interest for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) such as delamination of the collagenous matrix, cell density, cell size, and extra cellular matrix (ECM) thickness. Additional qualitative parameters investigated included matrix fibration and irregularity, neovascularization of the IVD, granular inclusions in the matrix, and cell cluster formation. The results of this study corroborated several previously published findings, including those positively correlating female gender and IVD cell density, age and cell size, and female gender and ECM thickness. Additionally, an array of quantitative and qualitative investigations of IVD degeneration could be successfully evaluated using the given methodology, resin-embedded SEM in particular. SEM is especially practical for studying micromorphological changes in tissue, as other microscopy methods can cause artificial tissue damage due to the preparation method. Investigation of the microstructural changes occurring in degenerated tissue provides a greater understanding of the complex process of disc degeneration as a whole. Developing a more complete picture of the degenerative changes taking place in the intervertebral disc is crucial for the advancement and application of regenerative therapies based on the pathology of intervertebral disc degeneration. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.