Browsing by Subject "Migration"

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  • Ismail, Abdirashid A. (2018)
    This article has two main goals. First, it describes the processes and practices of Somali marriages in Finland, in order to help fill the gap in the literature on Somali marriage practices. Particular attention is paid to three major aspects of the marriage process: finding a spouse, organising the marriage arrangements and the celebrations. The second goal is to contribute to the current debate on migration and arranged marriages. In doing so, particular attention is paid to the role of the family in these three aspects of marriage. This article draws from 35 individual interviews, participant observations in five marriage ceremonies, as well as five focus group discussions. I argue that, despite the deep involvement of family members in the marriage process, unlike in forced and (common) arranged marriages, Somali couples take a leading role and make major decisions, although they are expected to seek their parents' consent.
  • Salo, Tuula; Sutinen, Meeri; Apu, Ehsanul Hoque; Sundquist, Elias; Cervigne, Nilva K.; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Akram, Saad Ullah; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Suomi, Fumi; Eklund, Lauri; Juusela, Pirjo; Astrom, Pirjo; Bitu, Carolina Cavalcante; Santala, Markku; Savolainen, Kalle; Korvala, Johanna; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Coletta, Ricardo D. (2015)
    Background: The composition of the matrix molecules is important in in vitro cell culture experiments of e.g. human cancer invasion and vessel formation. Currently, the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) sarcoma -derived products, such as Matrigel (R), are the most commonly used tumor microenvironment (TME) mimicking matrices for experimental studies. However, since Matrigel (R) is non-human in origin, its molecular composition does not accurately simulate human TME. We have previously described a solid 3D organotypic myoma disc invasion assay, which is derived from human uterus benign leiomyoma tumor. Here, we describe the preparation and analyses of a processed, gelatinous leiomyoma matrix, named Myogel. Methods: A total protein extract, Myogel, was formulated from myoma. The protein contents of Myogel were characterized and its composition and properties compared with a commercial mouse Matrigel (R). Myogel was tested and compared to Matrigel (R) in human cell adhesion, migration, invasion, colony formation, spheroid culture and vessel formation experiments, as well as in a 3D hanging drop video image analysis. Results: We demonstrated that only 34 % of Myogel's molecular content was similar to Matrigel (R). All test results showed that Myogel was comparable with Matrigel (R), and when mixed with low-melting agarose (Myogel-LMA) it was superior to Matrigel (R) in in vitro Transwell (R) invasion and capillary formation assays. Conclusions: In conclusion, we have developed a novel Myogel TME matrix, which is recommended for in vitro human cell culture experiments since it closely mimics the human tumor microenvironment of solid cancers.
  • Romano, Roberta; Rivellini, Cristina; De Luca, Maria; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Beli, Raffaella; Manganelli, Fiore; Nolano, Maria; Santoro, Lucio; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Previtali, Stefano C.; Bucci, Cecilia (2021)
    The small GTPase RAB7A regulates late stages of the endocytic pathway and plays specific roles in neurons, controlling neurotrophins trafficking and signaling, neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Mutations in the RAB7A gene cause the autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) disease, an axonal peripheral neuropathy. As several neurodegenerative diseases are caused by alterations of endocytosis, we investigated whether CMT2B-causing mutations correlate with changes in this process. To this purpose, we studied the endocytic pathway in skin fibroblasts from healthy and CMT2B individuals. We found higher expression of late endocytic proteins in CMT2B cells compared to control cells, as well as higher activity of cathepsins and higher receptor degradation activity. Consistently, we observed an increased number of lysosomes, accompanied by higher lysosomal degradative activity in CMT2B cells. Furthermore, we found increased migration and increased RAC1 and MMP-2 activation in CMT2B compared to control cells. To validate these data, we obtained sensory neurons from patient and control iPS cells, to confirm increased lysosomal protein expression and lysosomal activity in CMT2B-derived neurons. Altogether, these results demonstrate that in CMT2B patient-derived cells, the endocytic degradative pathway is altered, suggesting that higher lysosomal activity contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in CMT2B.
  • Joyee, Nabila Jahan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This master’s thesis aims to provide a broader and deeper knowledge within the areas of migration and integration. The study tasks are how the diaspora community is involved in the overall migration and integration process in a host state and what role social networks play in different phases of migration. There are four essential conceptual features of the migration phenomenon are identified in the study: migration, integration, diaspora community, and social networks. These concepts are analysed focusing on the factors of migration, integration process, how diaspora community and social networks work. The analysis is done using a comprehensive case study on the Bangladeshi diaspora community in Finland. The study material is collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 Bangladeshi student migrants living in Finland. As a potential migrant group as well as an underexamined study group, student migrants are chosen the study participants. A thematic analysis of the data is carried out to unveil the underlying meanings of how student migrants narrate their experiences as an immigrant. The themes identified are used to critically reflect on and explore the aspects and dynamics of the nexus between diasporas and social networks in migration and integration. This study outcomes identify education as the major pull factor for the student migrants considering Finnish high quality of research facilities, education environment, and the fee-free study system. It also marks that both personal and social networks have a strong role in migrant’s decision of choosing Finland as their destination. The role of technology becomes prominent in the current age in terms of gathering information, admission procedure, and visa processing. This is even more realised due to the absence of the Embassy operation and other official communication channels. The study finds the diaspora community’s role is increasingly becoming significant in the present context, they provide migrants with access to information, job conditions as well as settling them with finding accommodation, education places, emotional support, and comfort of belonging in a host country. Within this journey of a migrant, social media platform has appeared as a crucial part of social networks and diasporas in terms of communication. Facebook groups have become a major communication channel. Additionally, the Corona situation has made online engagement among people more visible. Nonetheless, this diaspora-social network-migration-integration nexus can play both a supportive as well as a critical role for migrants as the experience varies.
  • Miras, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how people displaced by climate change can be accommodated within the European Union's existing migration governance system while taking into consideration the recent failures and injustices of this system during the so-called refugee crisis. The intention for framing the discussion about climate-induced migration in the context of the refugee crisis is not to compare or equate the two phenomena but to highlight the many injustices and protection gaps that exist under the current migration regimes, and to analyze how climate change will impact these regimes and the legal protections provided for migrants, asylum seekers, and displaced peoples. To begin this analysis, this thesis first looks at the relationship between climate change and migration, where it is determined that climate-induced migration is a complex and multi-causal phenomenon that can impact human mobility in multiple ways. People displaced by climate change face multiple protection gaps in both international and EU law, and there is currently no distinct instrument or coherent policy approach from the EU that is directly applicable to ‘climate migrants’ or climate-induced migration. The second part of this analysis looks at the fractured structure of EU migration governance and how the systems and mechanisms in place failed to adequately protect asylum seekers during the refugee crisis, with a focus on the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). This analysis showed that the EU failed to implement its supranational migration policies efficiently during the refugee crisis, which had a detrimental impact on securing and ensuring the legal protections of migrants and asylum seekers. Part of this failure was due to the lack of unity and trust between Member States, and also because the EU adopted an increasingly securitized approach to migration, abandoning its human rights obligations in order to create a false sense of security. The conclusion of this study found that the increasing securitization of both climate change and the EU’s migration and asylum policies will likely have negative consequences for people displaced by climate change and seeking protection in the EU. The continual and persistent portrayal of climate-induced migration as a potential security threat has hindered the development of any effective policies to address the issue, and the EU has shown little political will to radically rethink its current migration laws, mechanisms, or governance systems. The impacts of climate change will only further contribute to the protection gaps and marginalization that migrants and asylum seekers already face, and the way forward is to continue funding scientific research that captures the complex and multi-causal nature of climate-induced migration, which will help move migration and asylum policies beyond their current securitized outlook and provide evidence-based policies that will better protect those displaced by climate change.
  • Eraliev, Sherzod; Heusala, Anna-Liisa (Routledge, 2021)
    This chapter employs the concept of transnational social space to examine Central Asian female migrants’ relationship with the law in Russia. Through exploring life stories of four migrant women, we examine the formation of transnational social spaces for labour migrants in Russia from the perspective of gender. The results demonstrate the significance of the tradition and practices of the sending countries in the formation of Central Asian female migrants’ transnational social spaces and subsequent legal choices in Russia. We raise the question regarding agency-focused transnationalism as an overarching perspective in the study of labour migrants in Russia. The revolving door migration between Central Asia and Russia, a lack of social capital and financial resources, their dependent position within migrant communities and strict family traditions limit the real agency of many female migrants, which the concept of transnational social space assumes. We argue that vulnerable migrant groups such as women often do not fit into transnationalism, informality or legal culture narratives without taking into account the specificities of the female experience.
  • Green, Sarah Francesca (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2018)
    Routledge Studies in Anthropology
    Analysis of changes in the status of the concept 'migrant' in Athens from the 1990s to the current day. As Greece had no legislation on migration until the 1980s, people from abroad were classified as 'foreigners', which had a very different meaning from today's meaning. The chapter also considers the effects of Greece joining the Schengen zone in terms of its migration policies. Formal abstract: One aspect of the financial and then fiscal crisis in Athens was the simultaneous change in, and increase of, migration to the city. Their sheer numbers seemed to add to a pervasive sense of disproportion affecting the city. Of course, it is not the first time there has been a sudden arrival of large numbers of people from elsewhere in Athens: the 1920s was another notable moment, following the compulsory exchange of populations after the final breakup of the Ottoman Empire. There was also the 1990s, after the end of the Cold War. Both the city’s past and present transnational relations leave their traces in the form that migration takes, and the way it is experienced here. The paper takes a brief look at some of those traces in order to explore how the city has been affected by changes in border regimes, changes in the way different parts of the world are entangled with one another.
  • Apu, Ehsanul Hoque; Akram, Saad Ullah; Rissanen, Jouni; Wan, Hong; Salo, Tuula (2018)
    Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) is an adhesion receptor in desmosomes, but its role in carcinoma cell migration and invasion is mostly unknown. Our aim was to quantitatively analyse the motion of Dsg3-modified carcinoma cells in 2D settings and in 3D within tumour microenvironment mimicking (TMEM) matrices. We tested mutant constructs of C-terminally truncated Dsg3 (Delta 238 and Delta 560), overexpressed full-length (FL) Dsg3, and empty vector control (Ct) of buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC/Y1) cells. We captured live cell images and analysed migration velocities and accumulated and Euclidean distances. We compared rodent collagen and Matrigel. with human Myogel TMEM matrices for these parameters in 3D sandwich, in which we also tested the effects of monoclonal antibody AK23, which targets the EC1 domain of Dsg3. In monolayer culture, FL and both truncated constructs migrated faster and had higher accumulated distances than Ct cells. However, in the 3D assays, only the mutants invaded faster relative to Ct cells. Of the mutants, the shorter form (Delta 238) exhibited faster migration and invasion than Delta 560 cells. In the Transwell, all of the cells invaded faster through Myogel than Matrigel coated wells. In 3D sandwich, AK23 antibody inhibited only the invasion of FL cells. We conclude that different experimental 2D and 3D settings can markedly influence the movement of oral carcinoma cells with various Dsg3 modifications.
  • Samaletdin, Yasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Migration is becoming broader and more complex by the day. After the refugee crisis in 2015, the state policies revolving integration were revised in order to better meet the needs of the situation at hand. The revision lead to a strong focus on labour market integration, and consequently a narrower understanding of integration. Previous research shows that employment is the gateway to society, but at the same time it is widely acknowledged that sensing belonging is crucial for well-being, hence also a building block for integration. However, sensing belonging is constantly challenged due to migration. People move to Finland due to very different reasons, and also have different needs, therefore integration needs to be inspected from a broad perspective, taking into account various factors. Questions revolving what the objectives are with integration, and what it means for the individual as well as for the society are predominant when doing research on integration. The aim of this thesis is to place the immigrant in the centre of the discussion, to gain a deeper understanding of what is perceived as meaningful for integration and furthermore to investigate what value employment has within integration for the persons involved. The data was gathered during the spring of 2018, thematic in depth interviews were made with five informants, all of whom are first generation immigrants and have experience of working life in Finland. The results demonstrated that integration is a manifold process, that it was subjective and had a temporal connotation. A unanimous result showed that interactions with society, sensing belonging and employment are central for what is perceived as meaningful for integration. In regards to what the value of employment is within integration, a more shattered result was seen, central experiences were that employment gives financial security, purpose and daily routines. Furthermore, the result showed that perceptions of the value of employment were often loaded with faulty expectations that were not met in real life. The main result showed that employment was not a precondition for integration, neither was employment equal to integration, furthermore a differentiation between being employed and unemployed was far too easy to make, since today a lot of the benefits that a paid job gives can be found in other settings, for example through volunteer work. Despite this, financial security which only derives from a paid job was a precondition for all informants to be able to stay in Finland, and therefore employment was of great value for integration.
  • Tervonen, Miika; Pellander, Saara; Yuval-Davis, Nira (2018)
  • Flink, Henrik; Nordahl, Oscar; Hall, Marcus; Rarysson, Anton; Bergstrom, Kristofer; Larsson, Per; Petersson, Erik; Merila, Juha; Tibblin, Petter (2021)
    The practice within recreational fisheries to release captured fish back to the wild, known as catch-and-release (C&R), is an increasingly important strategy to protect fish stocks from overexploitation. However, C&R is a stressor and since animal reproduction is particularly sensitive to stress there is reason to suspect that such a practice induces sublethal fitness consequences. Here, we investigated whether and how C&R fishing influenced the reproductive potential in an anadromous population of Northern pike (Esox lucius). First, female pike were exposed to authentic C&R using rod-and-reel fishing in a coastal foraging habitat prior to the spawning period. Next, we observed the migration to the freshwater spawning habitat and compared both the timing of arrival and maturity stage between C&R-treated and control individuals. Finally, to evaluate effects on the quality and viability of eggs we stripped captured control and recaptured C&R-treated females, measured egg dry mass to assess nutrient content, conducted artificial fertilisations and incubated eggs in a controlled laboratory experiment. We found no evidence of C&R causing alterations in either arrival time, maturity stage, or the quality and viability of fertilised eggs. In combination, our results suggest that long-term effects of C&R-induced stress on key reproductive traits of pike, if any, are minor.
  • Edwin, David A.; Glover, Evam Kofi (2016)
    One of the major concerns in Ghana, like in most developing countries today, is how to manage the influx of youth migration from rural north to cities in urban south; in search of opportunities and a better life. The present study was undertaken generally for the purpose of investigating the causes of rural-urban migration of youth from northern Ghana to southern Ghana, with a view of providing insights into the growth, direction, and continuation of internal migration flows in Ghana. More specifically, the aim of the study was to investigate the pull factors influencing in-migration; to investigate the push factors influencing out-migration and to recommend policy and programme interventions for strengthening support programme activities for migrants. The study, therefore, attempts to answer the following questions: What are the push factors affecting out-migration? What are the pull factors affecting in-migration? What policy and programme interventions can help strengthen support programme activities for migrants? The study involved a cross-sectional survey conducted with a total of 89 respondents randomly selected from the list of beneficiaries of a NGO programme in Tamale in Ghana, through questionnaire-based interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation. Results show that major factors triggering migration in the northern sector comprise a complex mix of pull and push factors which include learning vocation, social amenities, freedom, general poverty, inability of parents to play their roles, poor job availability in the rural areas. The study suggests that the Government should find more innovative strategies to empower rural communities in other forms of income generating activities such as providing access to skill training and micro-credit facilities that could give better livelihoods to parents and support for families in especially rural areas in Ghana.
  • Eskelä, Elina (2018)
    Although relatively understudied, the role of affordable and acceptable housing in the accelerating global competition for talent is of utmost importance, especially if highly skilled migrants are to be absorbed into the permanent labour force. This paper concerns the housing of skilled Indian migrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland, and contributes to the literature on international migration and the housing of ethnic minorities. It presents a case study on how to analyse migrants' housing pathways, examining the meaning of housing in the transnational lives of this relatively affluent migrant group. The results show that homeownership is a not a simple indicator of commitment to the host society, and that those responsible for national housing policy need to ensure the supply, quality and reasonable price of accommodation in order to fulfil the housing needs of skilled migrants.
  • Pajari-Xiang, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The one-child policy of the People’s Republic of China created an entire generation of Chinese only-children, who have migrated abroad more often than any previous generation. However, despite the increased emigration, alongside the aging population, the Chinese elderly care system relies on the inputs of children. Therefore, there is a fundamental conflict between the filial intergenerational caregiving responsibilities and international migration processes, although some caregiving forms may be exchanged from a distance. This master’s thesis investigates how the Chinese first-generation only-child migrants who live in Finland experience caring for their parents in China. The research questions are: How do Chinese one-child transnational families practice transnational caregiving? What are the expectations and possibilities concerning caregiving? What are the elderly care arrangements like for the parents? The theoretical framework of this study consists of three dimensions of transnational caregiving: care circulation approach, transnational caregiving types, and the capacity, obligation, and negotiated commitment as factors that explain the practices of transnational caregiving. The research data consists of nine semi-structured interviews of Chinese migrants of the only-child generation. The analysis method is qualitative theory-guided content analysis. The results suggest that Chinese migrants and their parents practice transnational caregiving by exchanging emotional support. The migrants experience that their possibilities to provide care to their parents are limited. However, providing care is a cultural obligation. The future elderly care arrangements of the parents are unclear, which makes the situation stressful for the migrants. The situation is also frustrating as ideal options for arranging elderly care are lacking. If the migrants return to China to provide elderly care to their parents, they are forced to make sacrifices with their work and family. However, if they do not return to China, the alternative options of relying on institutional elderly care or hiring a maid or a nurse are not ideal either. Although the migrants value filial traditions, they desperately demand societal and policy changes that would allow them to plan the future elderly care of their parents. Based on the results, there is a demand for establishing more quality institutional elderly care services in China. There is also a need for the Finnish migration policy to allow family-based old-age migration, as some other countries do. Overall, in the current situation, the national policymaking in Finland and in China does not recognize the needs of transnational families and transnational caregivers.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2017)
    Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series
  • Nordberg, Camilla Christina (2015)
    In a time of welfare state restructuring, migrant background ‘stay-at-home’ mothers have become a politicised social category, constructed as unproductive and socially disengaged. The article examines the ways newly arrived women, who take care of children at home, enact and negotiate their own and their families’ early citizenisation process, with a particular focus on institutional encounters. Drawing on two case stories from the capital region of Finland, I discuss the dynamics of mothers’ claims-making for a transitionary citizenship, from the sphere of the home via social rights based public daycare to language training and education. I conclude that the constrained agency migrant mothers are subjected to, risks shaping a new gendered and racialised order of parenthood and ultimately of citizenship in the transforming welfare states.
  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Kiviniemi, Aida; Lehtinen, Laura; Munthe, Sune; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Posti, Jussi P.; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Vuorinen, Ville; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2020)
    BackgroundThe prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, related to its diffuse spread within the brain. There is an ongoing search for molecular regulators of this particularly invasive behavior. One approach is to look for actin regulating proteins that might be targeted by future anti-cancer therapy. The formin family of proteins orchestrates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in multiple cellular processes. Recently, the formin proteins mDia1 and mDia2 were shown to be expressed in glioblastoma in vitro, and their function could be modified by small molecule agonists. This finding implies that the formins could be future therapeutic targets in glioblastoma.MethodsIn cell studies, we investigated the changes in expression of the 15 human formins in primary glioblastoma cells and commercially available glioblastoma cell lines during differentiation from spheroids to migrating cells using transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR. siRNA mediated knockdown of selected formins was performed to investigate whether their expression affects glioblastoma migration.Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of two formins, FHOD1 and INF2, in tissue samples from 93 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Associated clinicopathological parameters and follow-up data were utilized to test whether formin expression correlates with survival or has prognostic value.ResultsWe found that multiple formins were upregulated during migration. Knockdown of individual formins mDia1, mDia2, FHOD1 and INF2 significantly reduced migration in most studied cell lines. Among the studied formins, knockdown of INF2 generated the greatest reduction in motility in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2 in glioblastoma tissues. Importantly, we found that moderate/high expression of INF2 was associated with significantly impaired prognosis.ConclusionsFormins FHOD1 and INF2 participate in glioblastoma cell migration. Moderate/high expression of INF2 in glioblastoma tissue is associated with worse outcome. Taken together, our in vitro and tissue studies suggest a pivotal role for INF2 in glioblastoma. When specific inhibiting compounds become available, INF2 could be a target in the search for novel glioblastoma therapies.
  • Keskinen, Suvi Päivikki; Skaptadottir, Unnur Dis; Toivanen, Mari (Routledge, 2019)
    Studies in Migration and Diaspora
  • Montoro-Garcia, Silvia; Alburquerque-Gonzalez, Begona; Bernabe-Garcia, Angel; Bernabe-Garcia, Manuel; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; den-Haan, Helena; Luque, Irene; Jose Nicolas, Francisco; Perez-Sanchez, Horacio; Luisa Cayuela, Maria; Salo, Tuula; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo (2020)
    Tumor invasion and metastasis involve processes in which actin cytoskeleton rearrangement induced by Fascin1 plays a crucial role. Indeed, Fascin1 has been found overexpressed in tumors with worse prognosis. Migrastatin and its analogues target Fascin1 and inhibit its activity. However, there is need for novel and smaller Fascin1 inhibitors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of compound G2 in colorectal cancer cell lines and compare it to migrastatin in in vitro and in vivo assays. Molecular modeling, actin-bundling, cell viability, inmunofluorescence, migration, and invasion assays were carried out in order to test anti-migratory and anti-invasive properties of compound G2. In addition, the in vivo effect of compound G2 was evaluated in a zebrafish model of invasion. HCT-116 cells exhibited the highest Fascin1 expression from eight tested colorectal cancer cell lines. Compound G2 showed important inhibitory effects on actin bundling, filopodia formation, migration, and invasion in different cell lines. Moreover, compound G2 treatment resulted in significant reduction of invasion of DLD-1 overexpressing Fascin1 and HCT-116 in zebrafish larvae xenografts; this effect being less evident in Fascin1 known-down HCT-116 cells. This study proves, for the first time, the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral activity of compound G2 on colorectal cancer cells and guides to design improved compound G2-based Fascin1 inhibitors. Key messages center dot Fascin is crucial for tumor invasion and metastasis and is overexpressed in bad prognostic tumors. center dot Several adverse tumors overexpress Fascin1 and lack targeted therapy. center dot Anti-fascin G2 is for the first time evaluated in colorectal carcinoma and compared with migrastatin. center dot Filopodia formation, migration activity, and invasion in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. center dot G2 blocks actin structures, migration, and invasion of colorectal cancer cells as fascin-dependent.