Browsing by Subject "Military training"

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  • Pihlajamaki, Harri K.; Parviainen, Mickael C.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2017)
    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are common causes of morbidity and loss of active, physically demanding training days in military populations. We evaluated the incidence, diagnosis, and risk factors of knee disorders and injuries in male Finnish military conscripts. Methods: The study population comprised 5 cohorts of 1000 men performing their military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989). Follow-up time for each conscript was the individual conscript's full, completed military service period. Data for each man were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire used by defense force healthcare officials and from all original medical reports of the garrison healthcare centers. Background variables for risk factor analysis included the conscripts' service data, i.e., service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), underweight, overweight, obesity, smoking habit, education, diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms. Results: Of the 4029 conscripts, 853 visited healthcare professionals for knee symptoms during their military service, and 103 of these had suffered a knee injury. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms were: older age; service class A; overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)); smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal system. The majority of visits to garrison healthcare services due to knee symptoms occurred during the first few months of military service. Knee symptoms were negatively correlated with self-reported mental and behavioral disorders. Conclusions: The present study highlights the frequency of knee disorders and injuries in young men during physically demanding military training. One-fifth of the male conscripts visited defense force healthcare professionals due to knee symptoms during their service period. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms during military service were age at military service; military service class A; overweight; smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, or gastrointestinal system. These risk factors should be considered when planning and implementing procedures to reduce knee disorders and injuries during compulsory military service.
  • Pihlajamäki, Harri K; Parviainen, Mickael C; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are common causes of morbidity and loss of active, physically demanding training days in military populations. We evaluated the incidence, diagnosis, and risk factors of knee disorders and injuries in male Finnish military conscripts. Methods The study population comprised 5 cohorts of 1000 men performing their military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989). Follow-up time for each conscript was the individual conscript’s full, completed military service period. Data for each man were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire used by defense force healthcare officials and from all original medical reports of the garrison healthcare centers. Background variables for risk factor analysis included the conscripts’ service data, i.e., service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), underweight, overweight, obesity, smoking habit, education, diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms. Results Of the 4029 conscripts, 853 visited healthcare professionals for knee symptoms during their military service, and 103 of these had suffered a knee injury. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms were: older age; service class A; overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2); smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal system. The majority of visits to garrison healthcare services due to knee symptoms occurred during the first few months of military service. Knee symptoms were negatively correlated with self-reported mental and behavioral disorders. Conclusions The present study highlights the frequency of knee disorders and injuries in young men during physically demanding military training. One-fifth of the male conscripts visited defense force healthcare professionals due to knee symptoms during their service period. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms during military service were age at military service; military service class A; overweight; smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, or gastrointestinal system. These risk factors should be considered when planning and implementing procedures to reduce knee disorders and injuries during compulsory military service.
  • Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parviainen, Mickael; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2019)
    BackgroundBone stress fractures are overuse injuries commonly encountered in sports and military medicine. Some fatigue fractures lead to morbidity and loss of active, physically-demanding training days. We evaluated the incidence, anatomical location, risk factors, and preventive measures for fatigue fractures in young Finnish male conscripts.MethodsFive cohorts of 1000 men performing military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989), were analysed. Each conscript was followed for his full military service period (180days for conscripts with rank and file duties, 270days for those with special training, 362days for officers and highly trained conscripts). Data, including physical activity level, were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire and from the garrisons' healthcare centre medical reports. Risk factor analysis included the conscripts' service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index, smoking, education, previous diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms, as well as self-reports of physical activity before entering the service using a standard military questionnaire.ResultsFatigue fractures occurred in 44 (1.1%) of 4029 men, with an incidence of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.70) per 1000 follow-up months, and mostly (33/44, 75%) occurred at the tibial shaft or metatarsals. Three patients experienced two simultaneous stress fractures in different bones. Most fatigue fractures occurred in the first 3months of military service. Conscripts with fatigue fractures lost a total of 1359 (range 10-77) active military training days due to exemptions from duty. Conscripts reporting regular (>2 times/week) physical activity before entering the military had significantly fewer (p=0.017) fatigue fractures. Regular physical activity before entering the service was the only strong explanatory, protective factor in the model [IRR=0.41 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.85)]. The other measured parameters did not contribute significantly to the incidence of stress fractures.ConclusionRegular and recurrent high-intensity physical activity before entering military service seems to be an important preventive measure against developing fatigue fractures. Fatigue fractures should be considered in conscripts seeking medical advice for complaints of musculoskeletal pain, and taken into consideration in planning military and other physical training programs.
  • Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parviainen, Mickael; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Bone stress fractures are overuse injuries commonly encountered in sports and military medicine. Some fatigue fractures lead to morbidity and loss of active, physically-demanding training days. We evaluated the incidence, anatomical location, risk factors, and preventive measures for fatigue fractures in young Finnish male conscripts. Methods Five cohorts of 1000 men performing military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989), were analysed. Each conscript was followed for his full military service period (180 days for conscripts with rank and file duties, 270 days for those with special training, 362 days for officers and highly trained conscripts). Data, including physical activity level, were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire and from the garrisons’ healthcare centre medical reports. Risk factor analysis included the conscripts’ service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index, smoking, education, previous diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms, as well as self-reports of physical activity before entering the service using a standard military questionnaire. Results Fatigue fractures occurred in 44 (1.1%) of 4029 men, with an incidence of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–1.70) per 1000 follow-up months, and mostly (33/44, 75%) occurred at the tibial shaft or metatarsals. Three patients experienced two simultaneous stress fractures in different bones. Most fatigue fractures occurred in the first 3 months of military service. Conscripts with fatigue fractures lost a total of 1359 (range 10–77) active military training days due to exemptions from duty. Conscripts reporting regular (> 2 times/week) physical activity before entering the military had significantly fewer (p = 0.017) fatigue fractures. Regular physical activity before entering the service was the only strong explanatory, protective factor in the model [IRR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.85)]. The other measured parameters did not contribute significantly to the incidence of stress fractures. Conclusion Regular and recurrent high-intensity physical activity before entering military service seems to be an important preventive measure against developing fatigue fractures. Fatigue fractures should be considered in conscripts seeking medical advice for complaints of musculoskeletal pain, and taken into consideration in planning military and other physical training programs.