Browsing by Subject "Mitochondria"

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  • Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Pirinen, Eija (2017)
    Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD(+)/NADH redox balance and NAD+ is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD(+) homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD(+) pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications.
  • Harjuhaahto, Sandra; Rasila, Tiina S.; Molchanova, Svetlana M.; Woldegebriel, Rosa; Kvist, Jouni; Konovalova, Svetlana; Sainio, Markus T.; Pennonen, Jana; Torregrosa-Munumer, Ruben; Ibrahim, Hazem; Otonkoski, Timo; Taira, Tomi; Ylikallio, Emil; Tyynismaa, Henna (2020)
    Mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 have roles in motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy and axonal neuropathy and in Parkinson's disease. They form a complex of unknown function. Here we address the importance of these two proteins in human motor neurons. We show that gene edited human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) lacking either CHCHD2 or CHCHD10 are viable and can be differentiated into functional motor neurons that fire spontaneous and evoked action potentials. Mitochondria in knockout iPSC and motor neurons sustain ultrastructure but show increased proton leakage and respiration, and reciprocal compensatory increases in CHCHD2 or CHCHD10. Knockout motor neurons have largely overlapping transcriptome profiles compared to isogenic control line, in particular for synaptic gene expression. Our results show that the absence of either CHCHD2 or CHCHD10 alters mitochondrial respiration in human motor neurons, inducing similar compensatory responses. Thus, pathogenic mechanisms may involve loss of synaptic function resulting from defective energy metabolism.
  • Gospodaryov, Dmytro; Strilbytska, Olha M.; Semaniuk, Uliana; Perkhulyn, Natalia; Rovenko, Bohdana M.; Yurkevych, Ihor S.; Barata, Ana G.; Dick, Tobias P.; Lushchak, Oleh; Jacobs, Howard T. (2020)
    Mitochondrial alternative NADH dehydrogenase (aNDH) was found to extend lifespan when expressed in the fruit fly. We have found that fruit flies expressing aNDH from Ciona intestinalis (NDX) had 17-71% lifespan prolongation on media with different protein-tocarbohydrate ratios except NDX-expressing males that had 19% shorter lifespan than controls on a high protein diet. NDX-expressing flies were more resistant to organic xenobiotics, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and alloxan, and inorganic toxicant potassium iodate, and partially to sodium molybdate treatments. On the other hand, NDX-expressing flies were more sensitive to catechol and sodium chromate. Enzymatic analysis showed that NDX-expressing males had higher glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, whilst both sexes showed increased glutathione S-transferase activity.
  • Saari, Sini; Kemppainen, Esa; Tuomela, Tero; Oliveira, M.T.; Dufour, E.; Jacobs, H.T. (2019)
    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase, AOX, present in most eukaryotes apart from vertebrates and insects, catalyzes the direct oxidation of ubiquinol by oxygen, by-passing the terminal proton-motive steps of the respiratory chain. Its physiological role is not fully understood, but it is proposed to buffer stresses in the respiratory chain similar to those encountered in mitochondrial diseases in humans. Previously, we found that the ubiquitous expression of AOX from Ciona intestinalis in Drosophila perturbs the development of flies cultured under low-nutrient conditions (media containing only glucose and yeast). Here we tested the effects of a wide range of nutritional supplements on Drosophila development, to gain insight into the physiological mechanism underlying this developmental failure. On low-nutrient medium, larvae contained decreased amounts of triglycerides, lactate, and pyruvate, irrespective of AOX expression. Complex food supplements, including treacle (molasses), restored normal development to AOX-expressing flies, but many individual additives did not. Inhibition of AOX by treacle extract was excluded as a mechanism, since the supplement did not alter the enzymatic activity of AOX in vitro. Furthermore, antibiotics did not influence the organismal phenotype, indicating that commensal microbes were not involved. Fractionation of treacle identified a water-soluble fraction with low solubility in ethanol, rich in lactate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, which contained the critical activity. We propose that the partial activation of AOX during metamorphosis impairs the efficient use of stored metabolites, resulting in developmental failure. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Konovalova, Svetlana (2019)
    Mitochondrial respiration is performed by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes within mitochondria. Internal and environmental factors can perturb the assembly and stability of OXPHOS complexes. This protocol describes the analysis of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) in application to cultured human cells. First, mitochondria are extracted from the cells using digitonin, then using lauryl maltoside, the intact OXPHOS complexes are isolated from the mitochondrial membranes. The OXPHOS complexes are then resolved by gradient gel electrophoresis in the presence of the negatively charged dye, Coomassie blue, which prevents protein aggregation and ensures electrophoretic mobility of protein complexes towards the cathode. Finally, the OXPHOS complexes are detected by standard immunoblotting. Thus, BN-PAGE is a convenient and inexpensive technique that can be used to evaluate the assembly of entire OXPHOS complexes, in contrast to the basic SDS-PAGE allowing the study of only individual OXPHOS complex subunits.
  • Szibor, Marten; Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Dufour, Eric; Holmstrom, Kira M.; Zhuang, Yuan; Salwig, Isabelle; Wittig, Ilka; Heidler, Juliana; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Gainutdinov, Timur; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Wietelmann, Astrid; Rustin, Pierre; Gellerich, Frank N.; Jacobs, Howard T.; Braun, Thomas; German Mouse Clinic Consortium (2017)
    Plants and many lower organisms, but not mammals, express alternative oxidases (AOXs) that branch the mitochondrial respiratory chain, transferring electrons directly from ubiquinol to oxygen without proton pumping. Thus, they maintain electron flow under conditions when the classical respiratory chain is impaired, limiting excess production of oxygen radicals and supporting redox and metabolic homeostasis. AOX from Ciona intestinalis has been used to study and mitigate mitochondrial impairments in mammalian cell lines, Drosophila disease models and, most recently, in the mouse, where multiple lentivector-AOX transgenes conferred substantial expression in specific tissues. Here, we describe a genetically tractable mouse model in which Ciona AOX has been targeted to the Rosa26 locus for ubiquitous expression. The AOX(Rosa26) mouse exhibited only subtle phenotypic effects on respiratory complex formation, oxygen consumption or the global metabolome, and showed an essentially normal physiology. AOX conferred robust resistance to inhibitors of the respiratory chain in organello; moreover, animals exposed to a systemically applied LD50 dose of cyanide did not succumb. The AOX(Rosa26) mouse is a useful tool to investigate respiratory control mechanisms and to decipher mitochondrial disease aetiology in vivo.
  • Haapanen, Outi; Reidelbach, Marco; Sharma, Vivek (2020)
    Respiratory complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in generating the proton electrochemical gradient in mitochondrial and bacterial membranes, which is needed to generate ATP. Several high-resolution structures of complex I have been determined, revealing its intricate architecture and complementing the biochemical and biophysical studies. However, the molecular mechanism of long-range coupling between ubiquinone (Q) reduction and proton pumping is not known. Computer simulations have been applied to decipher the dynamics of Q molecule in the similar to 30 angstrom long Q tunnel. In this short report, we discuss the binding and dynamics of Q at computationally predicted Q binding sites, many of which are supported by structural data on complex I. We suggest that the binding of Q at these sites is coupled to proton pumping by means of conformational rearrangements in the conserved loops of core subunits.
  • Lindholm, Dan; Mäkelä, Johanna; Di Liberto, Valentina; Mudo, Giuseppa; Belluardo, Natale; Eriksson-Rosenberg, Ove; Saarma, Mart (2016)
    Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by the degeneration and death of midbrain dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the brain leading to motor dysfunctions and other symptoms, which seriously influence the quality of life of PD patients. The drug L-dopa can alleviate the motor symptoms in PD, but so far there are no rational therapies targeting the underlying neurodegenerative processes. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms causing neuronal loss are not fully understood which has hampered the development of new drugs and disease-modifying therapies. Neurotrophic factors are by virtue of their survival promoting activities attract candidates to counteract and possibly halt cell degeneration in PD. In particular, studies employing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its family member neurturin (NRTN), as well as the recently described cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) and the mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) have shown positive results in protecting and repairing dopaminergic neurons in various models of PD. Other substances with trophic actions in dopaminergic neurons include neuropeptides and small compounds that target different pathways impaired in PD, such as increased cell stress, protein handling defects, dysfunctional mitochondria and neuroinflammation. In this review, we will highlight the recent developments in this field with a focus on trophic factors and substances having the potential to beneficially influence the viability and functions of dopaminergic neurons as shown in preclinical or in animal models of PD.
  • Pihlajamäki, Lilli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Folate has been shown to be important in muscle metabolism and in controlling nucleotide pools. As nucleotide pools are expected to decrease during differentiation while mtDNA increases, we studied whether folate availability controls increasing mtDNA amount. The aim of this study was to determine, how folate deficiency affects the differentiation of human myoblasts into myotubes and mitochondrial DNA copy number development. We cultured human and mouse myotubes in differentiation media with and without folate. Proper differentiation of the cells was determined by imaging and by studying key transcription factors. MtDNA copy number and gene expression of folate metabolism genes were measured using quantitative PCR. We concluded that the differentiation protocol was successful and that mtDNA copy number developed similarly in differentiating human and mouse myotubes. Further, clear differences were observed in folate metabolism gene expression patterns between the two cell types but not between cells cultured with and without folate.
  • Mälkönen, Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Mitophagy eliminates damaged or defective mitochondria and maintains a healthy mitochondrial network, which is critical for cell and tissue function. In 2016, McWilliams et al. discovered a distinctive pattern of spatially restricted cellular clusters in the developing mouse heart, characterised by high levels of mitophagy. Since this discovery, these highly mitophagic zones have been extensively examined using conventional approaches, yet the identity of these cells and the physiological regulation and significance of developmental cardiomitophagy at this stage remain unclear. My project aimed to make a meaningful advance in defining cell subtypes in the developing heart, with the future goal of using this information to delineate the identity and properties of mitophagic cells in vivo. Methods: To address this longstanding challenge in the field, I established a new protocol to rigorously discriminate all cell subtypes in the heart without preselected markers, using a state-of-the-art contemporary method. Results: Following optimization, the protocol was successful with high reproducibility for both adult and embryonic heart tissue, and I was able to perform a definitive in vivo experiment in collaboration with a world class centre. My work defines the genetic identity of distinct cellular subtypes in the heart. Conclusions: My thesis work provides a solid launchpad for the future delineation of developing cardiac cells undergoing mitophagy in vivo. A rigorous and targeted investigation of developmental cardiomitophagy in the mammalian heart is now possible and underway as a consequence of this work.
  • Saari, Sina; Andjelković, Ana; Garcia, Geovana S; Jacobs, Howard T; Oliveira, Marcos T (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Mitochondrial alternative respiratory-chain enzymes are phylogenetically widespread, and buffer stresses affecting oxidative phosphorylation in species that possess them. However, they have been lost in the evolutionary lineages leading to vertebrates and arthropods, raising the question as to what survival or reproductive disadvantages they confer. Recent interest in using them in therapy lends a biomedical dimension to this question. Methods Here, we examined the impact of the expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase, AOX, on the reproductive success of Drosophila melanogaster males. Sperm-competition assays were performed between flies carrying three copies of a ubiquitously expressed AOX construct, driven by the α-tubulin promoter, and wild-type males of the same genetic background. Results In sperm-competition assays, AOX conferred a substantial disadvantage, associated with decreased production of mature sperm. Sperm differentiation appeared to proceed until the last stages, but was spatially deranged, with spermatozoids retained in the testis instead of being released to the seminal vesicle. High AOX expression was detected in the outermost cell-layer of the testis sheath, which we hypothesize may disrupt a signal required for sperm maturation. Conclusions AOX expression in Drosophila thus has effects that are deleterious to male reproductive function. Our results imply that AOX therapy must be developed with caution.
  • Saari, Sina; Andjelkovic, Ana; Garcia, Geovana S.; Jacobs, Howard T.; Oliveira, Marcos T. (2017)
    Background: Mitochondrial alternative respiratory-chain enzymes are phylogenetically widespread, and buffer stresses affecting oxidative phosphorylation in species that possess them. However, they have been lost in the evolutionary lineages leading to vertebrates and arthropods, raising the question as to what survival or reproductive disadvantages they confer. Recent interest in using them in therapy lends a biomedical dimension to this question. Methods: Here, we examined the impact of the expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase, AOX, on the reproductive success of Drosophila melanogaster males. Sperm-competition assays were performed between flies carrying three copies of a ubiquitously expressed AOX construct, driven by the a-tubulin promoter, and wild-type males of the same genetic background. Results: In sperm-competition assays, AOX conferred a substantial disadvantage, associated with decreased production of mature sperm. Sperm differentiation appeared to proceed until the last stages, but was spatially deranged, with spermatozoids retained in the testis instead of being released to the seminal vesicle. High AOX expression was detected in the outermost cell-layer of the testis sheath, which we hypothesize may disrupt a signal required for sperm maturation. Conclusions: AOX expression in Drosophila thus has effects that are deleterious to male reproductive function. Our results imply that AOX therapy must be developed with caution.
  • El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A.; Crowther, Damian C.; Jacobs, Howard T.; Rustin, Pierre (2016)
    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Lindström, Riitta; Lindholm, Päivi; Palgi, Mari; Saarma, Mart; Heino, Tapio I (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) and Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor (CDNF) form an evolutionarily conserved family of neurotrophic factors. Orthologues for MANF/CDNF are the only neurotrophic factors as yet identified in invertebrates with conserved amino acid sequence. Previous studies indicate that mammalian MANF and CDNF support and protect brain dopaminergic system in non-cell-autonomous manner. However, MANF has also been shown to function intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum. To date, the knowledge on the interacting partners of MANF/CDNF and signaling pathways they activate is rudimentary. Here, we have employed the Drosophila genetics to screen for potential interaction partners of Drosophila Manf (DmManf) in vivo. Results We first show that DmManf plays a role in the development of Drosophila wing. We exploited this function by using Drosophila UAS-RNAi lines and discovered novel genetic interactions of DmManf with genes known to function in the mitochondria. We also found evidence of an interaction between DmManf and the Drosophila homologue encoding Ku70, the closest structural homologue of SAP domain of mammalian MANF. Conclusions In addition to the previously known functions of MANF/CDNF protein family, DmManf also interacts with mitochondria-related genes. Our data supports the functional importance of these evolutionarily significant proteins and provides new insights for the future studies.
  • Lindstrom, Riitta; Lindholm, Paivi; Palgi, Mari; Saarma, Mart; Heino, Tapio I. (2017)
    Background: Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) and Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor (CDNF) form an evolutionarily conserved family of neurotrophic factors. Orthologues for MANF/CDNF are the only neurotrophic factors as yet identified in invertebrates with conserved amino acid sequence. Previous studies indicate that mammalian MANF and CDNF support and protect brain dopaminergic system in non-cell-autonomous manner. However, MANF has also been shown to function intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum. To date, the knowledge on the interacting partners of MANF/CDNF and signaling pathways they activate is rudimentary. Here, we have employed the Drosophila genetics to screen for potential interaction partners of Drosophila Manf (DmManf) in vivo. Results: We first show that DmManf plays a role in the development of Drosophila wing. We exploited this function by using Drosophila UAS-RNAi lines and discovered novel genetic interactions of DmManf with genes known to function in the mitochondria. We also found evidence of an interaction between DmManf and the Drosophila homologue encoding Ku70, the closest structural homologue of SAP domain of mammalian MANF. Conclusions: In addition to the previously known functions of MANF/CDNF protein family, DmManf also interacts with mitochondria-related genes. Our data supports the functional importance of these evolutionarily significant proteins and provides new insights for the future studies.
  • Cui, Fuqiang; Brosche, Mikael; Shapiguzov, Alexey; He, Xin-Qiang; Vainonen, Julia P.; Leppala, Johanna; Trotta, Andrea; Kangasjarvi, Saijaliisa; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko; Overmyer, Kirk (2019)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signalling intermediates in plant metabolism, defence, and stress adaptation. In plants, both the chloroplast and mitochondria are centres of metabolic control and ROS production, which coordinate stress responses in other cell compartments. The herbicide and experimental tool, methyl viologen (MV) induces ROS generation in the chloroplast under illumination, but is also toxic in non-photosynthetic organisms. We used MV to probe plant ROS signalling in compartments other than the chloroplast. Taking a genetic approach in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we used natural variation, QTL mapping, and mutant studies with MV in the light, but also under dark conditions, when the chloroplast electron transport is inactive. These studies revealed a light-independent MV-induced ROS-signalling pathway, suggesting mitochondrial involvement. Mitochondrial Mn SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE was required for ROS-tolerance and the effect of MV was enhanced by exogenous sugar, providing further evidence for the role of mitochondria. Mutant and hormone feeding assays revealed roles for stress hormones in organellar ROS-responses. The radical-induced cell death1 mutant, which is tolerant to MV-induced ROS and exhibits altered mitochondrial signalling, was used to probe interactions between organelles. Our studies suggest that mitochondria are involved in the response to ROS induced by MV in plants.
  • Mustonen, Merja (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Drug induced liver injury is one of the frequent reasons for the drug removal from the market. During the recent years there has been a pressure to develop more cost efficient, faster and easier ways to investigate drug-induced toxicity in order to recognize hepatotoxic drugs in the earlier phases of drug development. High Content Screening (HCS) instrument is an automated microscope equipped with image analysis software. It makes the image analysis faster and decreases the risk for an error caused by a person by analyzing the images always in the same way. Because the amount of drug and time needed in the analysis are smaller and multiple parameters can be analyzed from the same cells, the method should be more sensitive, effective and cheaper than the conventional assays in cytotoxicity testing. Liver cells are rich in mitochondria and many drugs target their toxicity to hepatocyte mitochondria. Mitochondria produce the majority of the ATP in the cell through oxidative phosphorylation. They maintain biochemical homeostasis in the cell and participate in cell death. Mitochondria is divided into two compartments by inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The oxidative phosphorylation happens in the inner mitochondrial membrane. A part of the respiratory chain, a protein called cytochrome c, activates caspase cascades when released. This leads to apoptosis. The aim of this study was to implement, optimize and compare mitochondrial toxicity HCS assays in live cells and fixed cells in two cellular models: human HepG2 hepatoma cell line and rat primary hepatocytes. Three different hepato- and mitochondriatoxic drugs (staurosporine, rotenone and tolcapone) were used. Cells were treated with the drugs, incubated with the fluorescent probes and then the images were analyzed using Cellomics ArrayScan VTI reader. Finally the results obtained after optimizing methods were compared to each other and to the results of the conventional cytotoxicity assays, ATP and LDH measurements. After optimization the live cell method and rat primary hepatocytes were selected to be used in the experiments. Staurosporine was the most toxic of the three drugs and caused most damage to the cells most quickly. Rotenone was not that toxic, but the results were more reproducible and thus it would serve as a good positive control in the screening. Tolcapone was the least toxic. So far the conventional analysis of cytotoxicity worked better than the HCS methods. More optimization needs to be done to get the HCS method more sensitive. This was not possible in this study due to time limit.
  • Kaye, Sanna; Heinonen, Sini; Pietiläinen, Kirsi (2020)
    Vertailemalla harvinaisia identtisiä mutta eripainoisia kaksosia voidaan selvittää lihavuuden vaikutusta aineenvaihduntaan DNA-sekvenssin samankaltaisuudesta riippumatta. Hankinnainen lihavuus vaikuttaa epäedullisesti veren rasvoihin, hyytymistekijöiden pitoisuuksiin ja tulehdusvälittäjäaineisiin sekä huonontaa endoteelitoimintaa ja altistaa ateroskleroosille. Tutkimusten perusteella rasvakudos on keskeisessä asemassa siinä, miten lihavuuden havaitut haitalliset aineenvaihdunnan muutokset syntyvät. Hankinnainen lihavuus liittyy rasvakudoksessa mitokondriotoiminnan heikentymiseen ja lievään tulehdukseen sekä insuliiniresistenssiin. Nämä muutokset heikentävät rasvakudoksen laajenemiskapasiteettia, jolloin ylimääräinen rasva alkaa varastoitua muihin kudoksiin, kuten maksaan, haimaan ja lihakseen, ja aiheuttaa aineenvaihdunnan laaja-alaisen häiriötilan. Erityisesti maksaan kertyvä rasva näyttää määrittävän lihavuuden haitallista metaboliaa.
  • Gao, Yaijing; Yan, Yan; Tripathi, Sushil; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Amaral, Ana; Päivinen, Pekka; Domenech-Moreno, Eva; Andersson, Simon; Wong, Iris P. L.; Clevers, Hans; Katajisto, Pekka; Mäkelä, Tomi P. (2020)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In addition to the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways, energy metabolism also regulates intestinal stem cell (ISC) function. Tumor suppressor and kinase STK11 (also called LKB1) regulates stem cells and cell metabolism. We investigated whether loss of LKB1 alters ISC homeostasis in mice. METHODS: We deleted LKB1 from ISCs in mice using Lgr5-regulated CRE-ERT2 (Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice) and the traced lineages by using a CRE-dependent TdTomato reporter. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. We purified ISCs and intestinal progenitors using flow cytometry and performed RNA-sequencing analysis. We measured organoid-forming capacity and ISC percentages using intestinal tissues from Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice. We analyzed human Ls174t cells with knockdown of LKB1 or other proteins by immunoblotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the Seahorse live-cell metabolic assay. RESULTS: Some intestinal crypts from Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice lost ISCs compared with crypts from control mice. However, most crypts from Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice contained functional ISCs that expressed increased levels of Atoh1 messenger RNA (mRNA), acquired a gene expression signature associated with secretory cells, and generated more cells in the secretory lineage compared with control mice. Knockdown of LKB1 in Ls174t cells induced expression of Atoh1 mRNA and a phenotype of increased mucin production; knockdown of ATOH1 prevented induction of this phenotype. The increased expression of Atoh1 mRNA after LKB1 loss from ISCs or Ls174t cells did not involve Notch or Wnt signaling. Knockdown of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) or inhibition with dichloroacetate reduced the up-regulation of Atoh1 mRNA after LKB1 knockdown in Ls174t cells. Cells with LKB1 knockdown had a reduced rate of oxygen consumption, which was partially restored by PDK4 inhibition with dichloroacetate. ISCs with knockout of LKB1 increased the expression of PDK4 and had an altered metabolic profile. CONCLUSIONS: LKB1 represses transcription of ATOH1, via PDK4, in ISCs, restricting their differentiation into secretory lineages. These findings provide a connection between metabolism and the fate determination of ISCs.
  • Genin, Emmanuelle C.; Bannwarth, Sylvie; Lespinasse, Francoise; Ortega-Vila, Bernardo; Fragaki, Konstantina; Itoh, Kie; Villa, Elodie; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Jokela, Manu; Auranen, Mari; Ylikallio, Emil; Mauri-Crouzet, Alessandra; Tyynismaa, Henna; Vihola, Anna; Auge, Gaelle; Cochaud, Charlotte; Sesaki, Hiromi; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Udd, Bjarne; Vives-Bauza, Cristofol; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique (2018)
    Following the involvement of CHCHD10 in FrontoTemporal-Dementia-Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FTD-ALS) clinical spectrum, a founder mutation (p.Gly66Val) in the same gene was identified in Finnish families with late onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMAJ). SMAJ is a slowly progressive form of spinal muscular atrophy with a life expectancy within normal range. In order to understand why the p.Ser59Leu mutation, responsible for severe FTD-ALS, and the p.Gly66Val mutation could lead to different levels of severity, we compared their effects in patient cells. Unlike affected individuals bearing the p.Ser59Leu mutation, patients presenting with SMAJ phenotype have neither mitochondrial myopathy nor mtDNA instability. The expression of CHCHD10(S59L) mutant allele leads to disassembly of mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) with mitochondria] dysfunction and loss of cristae in patient fibroblasts. We also show that G66V fibroblasts do not display the loss of MICOS complex integrity and mitochondrial damage found in S59L cells. However, S59L and G66V fibroblasts show comparable accumulation of phosphorylated mitochondrial TDP-43 suggesting that the severity of phenotype and mitochondrial damage do not depend on mitochondrial TDP-43 localization. The expression of the CHCHD10(G66V) allele is responsible for mitochondrial network fragmentation and decreased sensitivity towards apoptotic stimuli, but with a less severe effect than that found in cells expressing the CHCHD10(S59L) allele. Taken together, our data show that cellular phenotypes associated with p.Ser59Leu and p.Gly66Val mutations in CHCHD10 are different; loss of MICOS complex integrity and mitochondrial dysfunction, but not TDP-43 mitochondrial localization, being likely essential to develop a severe motor neuron disease.